File - 2014 Joint Western-Midwestern ITE District Annual

Report
Applications for the Environment:
Real-Time Information Synthesis (AERIS)
J.D. Schneeberger
2014 Joint Western/Midwestern ITE District Annual Meeting
Session 3C: Case Studies of Projects Aimed at Reducing Delay and Air Emissions
30 June 2014
“Cleaner Air Through Smarter Transportation”
Overview
1. Connected Vehicle Overview
2. AERIS Research Program
3. Initial Modeling Results
4. Next Steps
5. How to Get Involved (or Stay Involved) in the AERIS Program
U.S. Department of Transportation
ITS Joint Program Office
2
Transportation Challenges
Safety
• 32,367 highway deaths in 2011
• 5.3 million crashes in 2011
• Leading cause of death for ages 4, 11–27
Mobility
• 5.5 billion hours of travel delay
• $121 billion cost of urban congestion
Environment
• Transport sector accounts for 27% of GHG
emissions and 70% of petroleum
consumption
• Surface vehicles represent almost 84% of
the transport sector GHG in the US
• 2.9 billion gallons of wasted fuel
U.S. Department of Transportation
ITS Joint Program Office
3
Fully Connected Vehicles
Vehicle Data:
Infrastructure Data:
Latitude, Longitude, Speed,
Brake Status, Turn Signal
Status, Vehicle Length,
Vehicle Width, Bumper Height
Signal Phase and Timing,
Drive 35 mph,
50 Parking Spaces
Available
U.S. Department of Transportation
ITS Joint Program Office
4
Applications
Connected Vehicle Research Program
Safety
V2V
Mobility
V2I
RealTime
Data
Capture
Environment
Dynamic
Mobility
Apps
AERIS
Road
Weather
Apps
Technology
Harmonization of International Standards & Architecture
Human Factors
Systems Engineering
Certification
Test Environments
Policy
Deployment Scenarios
Financing & Investment Models
Operations & Governance
Institutional Issues
U.S. Department of Transportation
ITS Joint Program Office
5
AERIS Research Objectives
 Vision – Cleaner Air through Smarter Transportation
□
Encourage the development and deployment of technologies and applications that
support a more sustainable relationship between surface transportation and the
environment through fuel use reductions and more efficient use of transportation
services
 Objectives – Investigate whether it is possible and feasible to:
□
Identify connected vehicle applications that could provide environmental impact
reduction benefits via reduced fuel use, improved vehicle efficiency, and reduced
emissions
□
Facilitate and incentivize “green choices” by transportation service consumers (i.e.,
system users, system operators, policy decision makers, etc.)
□
Identify vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V), vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I), and vehicle-togrid (V2G) data (and other) exchanges via wireless technologies of various types
□
Model and analyze connected vehicle applications to estimate the potential
environmental impact reduction benefits
□
Develop a prototype for one of the applications to test its efficacy and usefulness
U.S. Department of Transportation
ITS Joint Program Office
6
AERIS OPERATIONAL SCENARIOS & APPLICATIONS
ECO-SIGNAL OPERATIONS
o
Eco-Approach and Departure at
Signalized Intersections (similar to SPaT )
o
Eco-Traffic Signal Timing
i
(similar to adaptive traffic signal systems)
o
Eco-Traffic Signal Priority
(similar to traffic signal priority)
o
o
Connected Eco-Driving (similar to eco-driving strategies)
Wireless Inductive/Resonance Charging
ECO-LANES
o
o
Eco-Lanes Management (similar to HOV Lanes)
Eco-Speed Harmonization
(similar to variable speed limits)
o
o
o
o
o
Eco-Cooperative Adaptive Cruise
Control (similar to adaptive cruise control)
i
Eco-Ramp Metering (similar to ramp metering)
Connected Eco-Driving (similar to eco-driving)
Wireless Inductive/Resonance Charging
Eco-Traveler Information Applications (similar to ATIS)
LOW EMISSIONS ZONES
o
ECO-TRAVELER INFORMATION
o
AFV Charging/Fueling Information (similar to navigation
systems providing information on gas station locations)
o
o
o
o
o
o
Eco-Smart Parking (similar to parking applications)
Dynamic Eco-Routing (similar to navigation systems)
Dynamic Eco-Transit Routing (similar to AVL routing)
Dynamic Eco-Freight Routing (similar to AVL routing)
Multi-Modal Traveler Information (similar to ATIS)
Connected Eco-Driving (similar to eco-driving strategies)
ECO-INTEGRATED CORRIDOR
MANAGEMENT
o
o
o
o
o
o
Eco-ICM Decision Support System (similar to ICM)
Eco-Signal Operations Applications
Eco-Lanes Applications
Low Emissions Zone s Applications
Eco-Traveler Information Applications
Incident Management Applications
Low Emissions Zone Management
(similar to Low Emissions Zones)
o
o
Connected Eco-Driving (similar to eco-driving strategies)
Eco-Traveler Information Applications (similar to ATIS)
U.S. Department of Transportation
ITS Joint Program Office
7
The AERIS Approach
Concept
Exploration
Examine the State-ofthe-Practice and
explore ideas for AERIS
Operational Scenarios
Development of
Concepts of
Operations for
Operational
Scenarios
Identify high-level user
needs and desired
capabilities for each
AERIS scenario in terms
that all project
stakeholders can
understand
Conduct
Preliminary Cost
Benefit Analysis
Prototype
Application
Perform a preliminary cost
benefit analysis to identify
high priority applications
and refine/refocus
research
Develop a prototype
for one of the
applications to test its
efficacy and
usefulness.
Modeling and
Analysis
Model, analyze, and
evaluate candidate
strategies, scenarios
and applications that
make sense for further
development,
evaluation and
research
U.S. Department of Transportation
ITS Joint Program Office
8
Eco-Signal Operations Modeling Overview
U.S. Department of Transportation
ITS Joint Program Office
9
Modeling Corridor: El Camino Real
 A real-world corridor was chosen for
analysis and modeling
 El Camino Real is a major northsouth arterial connecting San
Francisco and San Jose, CA
 The modeling corridor consisted of:
□ A six-mile segment of El Camino
Real
□ Three lanes in each direction for
the majority of the corridor with a
40 mph speed limit
□ 27 signalized intersections that
were well coordinated / optimized
□ Intersection spacing that varied
from 650 to 1,600 feet
El Camino Real Corridor
in Paramics Traffic
Simulation Model)
U.S. Department of Transportation
ITS Joint Program Office
10
Eco-Approach and Departure at Signalized
Intersections Application
Application Overview
 Collects signal phase and timing
(SPaT) and Geographic
Information Description (GID)
messages using vehicle-toinfrastructure (V2I)
communications
 Collects basic safety messages
(BSMs) from nearby vehicles
using vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V)
communications
 Receives V2I and V2V messages, the application performs calculations to
determine the vehicle’s optimal speed to pass the next traffic signal on a
green light or to decelerate to a stop in the most eco-friendly manner
 Provides speed recommendations to the driver using a human-machine
interface or sent directly to the vehicle’s longitudinal control system to
support partial automation
U.S. Department of Transportation
ITS Joint Program Office
11
Eco-Approach and Departure at Signalized
Intersections Application: Modeling Results
 Summary of Preliminary Modeling Results
□
□
5-10% fuel reduction benefits for an uncoordinated corridor
Up to 13% fuel reduction benefits for a coordinated corridor
▪ 8% of the benefit is attributable to signal coordination
▪ 5% attributable to the application
 Key Findings and Takeaways
□
□
□
□
The application is less effective with increased congestion
Close spacing of intersections resulted in spillback at intersections. As a
result, fuel reduction benefits were decreased somewhat dramatically
Preliminary analysis indicates significant improvements with partial
automation
Results showed that non-equipped vehicles also receive a benefit – a
vehicle can only travel as fast as the car in front of it
 Opportunities for Additional Research
□
Evaluate the benefits of enhancing the application with partial automation
U.S. Department of Transportation
ITS Joint Program Office
12
Eco-Traffic Signal Timing Application
Application Overview
 Similar to current traffic signal
systems; however the application’s
objective is to optimize the
performance of traffic signals for
the environment
 Collects data from vehicles, such
as vehicle location, speed, vehicle
type, and emissions data using
connected vehicle technologies
 Processes these data to develop signal timing strategies focused on
reducing fuel consumption and overall emissions at the intersection, along a
corridor, or for a region
 Evaluates traffic and environmental parameters at each intersection in realtime and adapts the timing plans accordingly
U.S. Department of Transportation
ITS Joint Program Office
13
Eco-Traffic Signal Timing Application:
Modeling Results
 Summary of Preliminary Modeling Results
□
Up to 5% fuel reduction benefits at full connected vehicle penetration
▪ 5% fuel reduction benefits when optimizing for the environment (e.g., CO2)
▪ 2% fuel reduction benefits when optimizing for mobility (e.g., delay)
 Key Findings and Takeaways
□
□
Optimization of signal timings using environmental measures of
effectiveness resulted in mobility benefits in addition to environmental
benefits
For the El Camino corridor, modeling results indicated that shorter cycle
lengths produce greater benefits than longer cycle lengths
 Opportunities for Additional Research
□
□
Consider analysis for different geometries (e.g., grid network) and traffic
demands (e.g., a corridor with higher volumes on the side streets)
Investigate adaptive or real-time traffic signal timing optimization algorithms
U.S. Department of Transportation
ITS Joint Program Office
14
Eco-Traffic Signal Priority Application
Application Overview
 Allows either transit or freight
vehicles approaching a signalized
intersection to request signal
priority
 Considers the vehicle’s location,
speed, vehicle type (e.g.,
alternative fuel vehicles), and
associated emissions to determine
whether priority should be granted
 Information collected from vehicles approaching the intersection, such as a
transit vehicle’s adherence to its schedule, the number of passengers on
the transit vehicle, or weight of a truck may also be considered in granting
priority
 If priority is granted, the traffic signal would hold the green on the approach
until the transit or freight vehicle clears the intersection
U.S. Department of Transportation
ITS Joint Program Office
15
Eco-Traffic Signal Priority Application:
Modeling Results
 Summary of Preliminary Modeling Results
□
□
Eco-Transit Signal Priority provides up to 2% fuel reduction benefits for transit
vehicles  Up to $669,000 annual savings for fleet of 1,000 transit vehicles driving
44,600 miles each on arterials a year; larger fleet of 3,000 vehicles $2M
Eco-Freight Signal Priority provides up to 4% fuel reduction benefits for freight
vehicles  Up to $649,000 annual savings for fleet of 1,000 city delivery vehicles
driving 30,000 miles on arterials each year
 Key Findings and Takeaways
□
Eco-Transit Signal Priority
▪ Reduced emissions for buses; however in some cases, signal priority was detrimental to the
overall network
▪ Provided greater overall environmental benefits when the bus’ adherence to its schedule was
considered by the algorithm
□
Eco-Freight Signal Priority
▪ Passenger vehicles and unequipped freight vehicles also saw reductions in emissions and
fuel consumption, benefiting from the additional green time
 Opportunities for Additional Research
□
Investigate advanced algorithms that collect data from all vehicles and evaluate
impacts of granting priority in real-time
U.S. Department of Transportation
ITS Joint Program Office
16
Environmental Impacts of Combined
Applications
•
•
Results assume 100%
connected vehicle penetration
rate for baseline traffic
conditions on El Camino Real
Environmental improvements
are presented as improvements
above baseline conditions (e.g.,
corridor with well coordinated
signal timing plan)
25.7%
25.0%
15.9%
11.2%
9.6%
9.6%
U.S. Department of Transportation
ITS Joint Program Office
17
Impact on the Environment due to Increasing
OBE Penetration Rates
•
•
•
Overall environmental
improvements increase with
increasing penetration rate
Passenger vehicle
improvements “plateau”
around 65%-80% OBE
penetration
Improvements in transit are
roughly consistent for all levels
of OBE penetration rate
9.6%
8.2%
8.3%
5.8%
4.3%
2.6%
U.S. Department of Transportation
ITS Joint Program Office
18
Impact of Demand/Congestion
•
11.0%
9.6%
•
The applications are most effective at
low levels of congestion, where the
applications can better alter vehicle
trajectories
There are only minor improvements to
gain at saturation, since there is little
opportunity to push vehicles effectively
through the corridor
0.9%
U.S. Department of Transportation
ITS Joint Program Office
19
Opportunities for Future Research
 While commercial products do not exist for the Eco-Signal
Operations applications (or other connected vehicle applications),
the AERIS Program sees opportunities to work with the adopter
community to move these concepts toward deployment.
 Future research opportunities include:
□
□
□
□
Continuing to enhance the underlying algorithms;
Developing prototypes of the applications to test their efficacy and
usefulness;
Working with the adopter community (e.g., state and local DOTs, vehicle
OEMS, traffic control industry, etc.) to pilot AERIS applications in a
real-world environment including the USDOT’s CV Pilots initiative;
and
Transferring benefits and lessons learned to entities likely to deploy the
applications.
U.S. Department of Transportation
ITS Joint Program Office
20
How to Get Involved (or Stay Involved) in the
AERIS Program
 AERIS Program Website: http://www.its.dot.gov/aeris/index.htm
□
Program Overview, News, Published Reports, and Contact Information
 2014 AERIS Summer Webinar Series
□
Webinar #1: Combined Modeling of Eco-Signal Operations Applications
Wednesday, June 25th, 2014 at 1:00pm ET
□
Webinar #2: Preliminary Eco-Lanes Modeling Results
Wednesday, July 23rd, 2014 at 1:00pm ET
□
Webinar #3: Preliminary Low Emissions Zones Modeling Results
Wednesday, August 20th, 2014 at 1:00pm ET
Registration: www.itsa.org/aerissummer2014
 AERIS Workshops
□ In-person meetings to provide an update on the AERIS Program
and solicit stakeholder inputs/feedback on AERIS research
ITS JPO Newsletter: http://www.its.dot.gov/its_newsletter.htm
U.S. Department of Transportation
ITS Joint Program Office
21
Contact Information
Marcia Pincus
Program Manager, Environment (AERIS) and ITS Evaluation
USDOT Research and Innovative Technology Administration
marcia.pincus@dot.gov
J.D. Schneeberger
Noblis
john.schneeberger@noblis.org
U.S. Department of Transportation
ITS Joint Program Office
22

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