WEST AND CENTRAL AFRICAN Interagency Child Protection Systems Mapping Initiative BRIGETTE DE LAY, UNICEF WCARO MONROVIA 20 APRIL 2010 Strengthening National Child Protection Systems 2 Where are we coming from….. Where are we going… Projects – focus a collection Programmes – focus on systems activities Focus on categories of children – vertical approached - rescuecharity building Focus on all vulnerable children – not just categories – move toward horizontal programming Short term planning – 1-2 year Long term planning – 5 to 10 Large investment in NGOs, little Increased project cycles investment in state structures – poor coordination between actors- fragmented programming year vision investment/prioritization in building gov’t capacity to fulfill their role as duty bearers UNICEF What is a child protection system? 3 Education and ECD Social protection Livelihoods & employme nt C4D Social Welfare and Justice Health Civil registratio n UNICEF Child Protection is Everyone’s Business 4 Health & Protection IEC campaigns against domestic violence as a public health concern Health protocols to prevent abandonment and separation of children from their families at health facilities Detecting and reporting abuse - Linking at risk children and families with social service support Age appropriate medical and mental health care, treatment and support for victims of violence and sexual abuse (PEP kits, fistula repair, etc.) – preserving forensic evidence Education & Protection Access to all children to education as a protective factor Promote life skills-based education to strengthen children’s resilience and ability to protect themselves from HIV, STDs, substance abuse, violence, exploitation, etc. Combating violence and abuse at school, including sexual violence and grades in exchange for sex Addressing corporal punishment – sexual abuse and exploitation – bullying Screening and early detection of abuse , at risk children – reporting and referral of cases to social services Livelihood and Employment/Social Protection & Protection Poverty reduction through cash transfers, access to credit, saving schemes, IGA Vocational training programs for out of school youth and other children at risk of exploitation Universal Health Care and Free Education UNICEF WHERE ARE CHILDREN PROTECTED? 5 Govt NGOs/CSO COMMUNITY & FAMILIES COMMUNITIES, FAMILY, CHILDREN IMPLICATIONS: Systems work is built on reinforcing both informal and formal systems and their linkages UNICEF Child protection results – services – building blocks 6 UNICEF Project Overview Objectives: At country level, to build a common understanding of what exists & to identify opportunities & challenges for systems strengthening On the regional level, to develop a West and Central African conceptual framework for child protection systems Participating Countries: Sierra Leone, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Niger and Senegal Methodology: Desk review, survey sector, semi-structured interviews with key resource persons, case studies – 4 field sites Analytical Framework Analysis of existing system components (formal and informal) Analysis of how the child protection system functions to protect children Analysis of how the system fits the local context Type of information gathered on the formal system: What exists? Gap? Bottlenecks? Opportunities? Legislation, Policies, Standards, Regulations Structures Services (SW, Justice, Health, Education, Social Protection) Coordination Human and Financial Resources Capacities Information Management Systems Type of information gathered on community: Perceptions, Congruence, Barriers, Linkages Relationship and linkages between the formal and informal system Children’s access to protection services (prevention and response) Children, families and communities perceptions of the formal system Children, families and communities perceptions on the impact of the formal child protection The Ivory Coast Mapping Experience WHY? To use the mapping to bring a disperse group of protection actors together & to begin to build an evidence base to develop a more effective, efficient protection response (national child protection strategy) Hosted by Ministry of Social Welfare, with support of UNICEF and NGOs International consulting firm + national research team Focus on rural and urban Country context continued Emerging from conflict, slow transition Poverty level at 48.9% (10% in 1985) Education system in crisis 51% primary school enrolment ratio Literacy rate 15-24yrs at 52.8% (down of 6 points) The health system in crisis Uneven distribution of services, uneven presence of human resources 21% population used health services (2008) Justice sector in need of deep reform Only half of courts and prisons are functioning Inaccessible system Key Findings on the Legal and Policy Framework KF1: Fragmented child protection legal framework; no comprehensive child protection law; disconnect between traditional justice systems and formal systems KF2: Lack of a comprehensive strategic direction on child protection and family welfare – three driving, but disconnected strategies OVC most articulate, but narrow focus , objective is the reach of 800 thousand children GBV in humanitarian content, piloting new approach – policy, planned database Trafficking, mainly on law enforcement and repatriation, exploitation cases, narrow focus with exceptions, intake guidance Key Findings continued..... KF3: Competing approaches – working in isolation – inefficient use of limited resources for children OVC, through Social Service Centers as a coordination function, services provided by NGOs, no sustainability plan, no national standards GBV, through Social Service Centers/NGOs, referral pathways; professional networks, comprehensive intake, piloting case management Trafficking, Child protection committees, role of the Prefet and law enforcement, involvement of all local services Committee against violence on women and children, small scale pilot, centre d’ecoute (social service centers) Key Findings on Social Services KF1: Health playing no role in detection & reporting, weak response to victims KF2: Education working in isolation to resolve some protection concerns, but no prevention dimension KF 3: Social Service Centers limited in reach, extremely weak, little evidence of actual service provision KF4: No logic behind geographic coverage - NGOs scattered, uneven presence, driven by mandate (OVC, GBV, Trafficking); Gov’t services only in select areas MAP 1- Government services MAP 4 – INGOs VS poverty Key Findings continued...... KF5: Children and communities in all exemplar community unable to mention any of the NGOs or Government Services Child protection committees act as the link with formal systems, but not fully functional, little evidence of impact, and often focused on specific child protection issued that are donor driven (OVC, trafficking, GBV) Community leaders generally not involved and not playing a significant role in the formal system Key Findings on Coordination & collaboration: National Planning KF1: There is no child protection national coordination platform (draft decree) – specific sector coordination bodies exist, but do not formally interact (OVC, trafficking, GBV, protection cluster) KF2: Government priorities largely dictated by donors Little negotiating power without a national policy KF3: Lack of collaboration among donors and key agencies Tightly sealed, siloed sectoral interventions (OVC, GBV, Trafficking) Overall child protection vulnerabilities not considered Unrealistic expectations of positively changing the child protection system through sectoral approaches Key Findings on Coordination and collaboration: Referral Mechanisms and Practices KF1: Referral mechanisms 94% of programmes require collaboration with other programmes/services 36.8% of them have referral mechanisms and protocols somehow formalized 42.1% of them work on informal basis KF2: Frontline workers’ perspective: 28% good collaboration 22% not very good collaboration 41% no collaboration at all Key Findings on Data Management KF 1: Separate databases: National database on OVC (one planned for GBV) KF 2: There is no standard reporting format for any of the basic social welfare services Use of database in Programmes NO 50% YES - part of a national system 6% YES - internal system 39% YES - system shared with other agencies 5% Key Findings on Human Resources KF1: Capacity of front line workers Almost 40% are professional social workers 58% has more than 5 yrs experience (28% one yr or less) 97% received additional training (OVC, GBV, CRC) KF2: Education and training opportunities INFS university level education for social workers and educateurs specialise (approximately 500 per year) 74% (respondents) describe the education and training opportunities as good or satisfactory (26% as poor) Key Findings on Financial Resources KF1: National Social Sector expenditure makes up 2627% of national budget: Education 97.7% Health 2 % Child Protection 0.2% Key Finding continued...... MFFAS 2008 budget distribution by sector related to Child Protection Secours Social 5% Local social services 10% institutions 23% INFS - education 55% Central and regional structures 7% NEXT STEPS Ivory Coast in the process of discussing findings and validating the report Partners considering whether to maintain the systems mapping steering committee Commitment to develop a broad, comprehensive social protection policy that includes child protection (prior to mapping, separate child protection strategy planned) – mapping findings will feed into this process Commitment to pilot a systems approach in one region (coordination, referral pathways, standards) Is Ghana ready?