Sarah H. Chapter 26: Heritage of the Middle East Section 4: Imperialism and Nationalism Updated by Mr. Dougherty Lesson Questions • What challenges did the Ottoman Empire face? • How did Imperialism spur the growth of nationalism in the Middle East? • What reforms did nationalist leaders introduce? Vocabulary • mandate: territory administered but not owned by a member of the League of Nations • anti-Semitism: hatred or fear of Jews Introduction The Suez Canal • In ancient times, Egyptian pharaohs began digging a canal that would link Mediterranean with Red Sea; more than 2,000 years later, the French finally completed task • Egyptian workers labored for nearly 11 years to dig 100mile Suez Canal • Europeans welcomed the canal because it reduced the ocean voyage to Asia by thousands of miles • By late 1800s, European influence in Middle East was growing • During Age of Imperialism, European interference in Middle East would spur growth of nationalist movements Suez Canal Important Route for Oil (1956) Challenges to Ottoman Power • • • • • • • • Reform Efforts National groups within empire sought independence from Ottoman rule Greeks, Serbs, Romanians, and Bulgarians Russia encouraged these groups to revolt against Ottoman rulers France and Britain alarmed at Russia’s ambitions and tried to prevent breakup of Ottoman Empire Turkish nationalism Young Turks formed in late 1800s Young Turks wanted to strengthen Ottoman Empire and end western imperialism 1908: overthrew the sultan, placed a new sultan in power, forced him to carry out program • • • • • • • Young Turks supported policy of Turkish nationalism; they abandoned traditional Ottoman tolerance of diverse cultures and religion Young Turks tried to impose Turkish language on Arabs and mistreated Arabs in many other ways; fueled growing Arab nationalism World War I Ottoman Empires sided with Germany against Russia, Britain, and France 1919: Versailles Peace Conference, Allies stripped Ottoman empire of its Arab provinces Britain received Iraq, Transjordan and Palestine as mandates France received Syria and Lebanon as mandates ABD AL-HAMID II (1842-1918), Ruled from 1876-1909 • Ottoman sultan of Turkey he succeeded his brother Murad V (1840-1904), who had been declared insane. Russia declared war against Turkey in the second year of Abd al-Hamid's reign. He lost many battles. The Treaty of San Stefano in 1878, resulted in the lost European territory. Massacres of Armenians occurred in Turkey during 1895 and 1896, but Abd al-Hamid refused to intervene. His despotic rule led to the development of the powerful revolutionary organization known as the Young Turks. In 1909 Abd al-Hamid II was deposed and exiled. Resting after battle during Turkish revolution • Soldiers resting after a battle during the 1911 Turkish revolution. A group of Turkish revolutionaries called the "Young Turks" organized the overthrow of the Ottoman regime in 1908. Power struggles and political turmoil ensued, leading to several coups d'etat by 1913. In the meantime, the Empire continued to lose control of its provinces one by one. A battle in the first Balkan War (1912) • In this first Balkan War battle, the Turks are defeating the Bulgarians. In the years before World War I, the Balkans were a locus of serious international conflict, as they struggled to free themselves from the last vestiges of domination by Turkey. In the first Balkan War, fought in 1912, Serbia, Bulgaria, Greece and Montenegro, encouraged by Russia, fought the Turks. Then, in a 1913 quarrel over the spoils, the Bulgarians attacked the Serbs. Armenian troops march through Baku, in Russia. • Armenian troops march through Baku, in Russia. Located on the western side of the Caspian Sea, the Turks could easily march north and attack Russia by crossing their border into the Caucasus. Combined British and Russian forces fought fierce battles against the Turks from July 1918 until November, when they finally reoccupied Baku. The forgotten Holocaust: The Armenian Massacre • During World War I Armenia became a battleground for Russian and Turkish armies. Between January and August 1916, the Russians conquered the greater part of Turkish Armenia, but the revolution in 1917 forced their withdrawal, and the Turks reoccupied the country. As the war raged on, Turkish atrocities against Armenians increased, leading the government of the U.S. to send a formal note of protest to Turkey on Feb. 17, 1916. Deaths attributed to massacres and famine reached an estimated 800,000 during the war. Many Armenians fled, seeking homes in other lands, including the U.S.; about 200,000 found refuge in Russia. Famous Armenian-Americans Arshile Gorky (Artist) Alex Seropian (Founder of Bungie Software Products Corporation) Famous Armenian-Americans Avedis Zildjian (Cymbal Manufacturer) • Family tradition had it that the head of the company would only pass its secrets down to the oldest son, but Avedis III gave the information to both his sons, Armand and Robert. This led to a family feud and a legal squabble, resulting in Robert leaving Zildjian to form the rival Sabian company. Republic of Turkey • Atatürk’s reforms • Mustafa Kemal rallied Turkish resistance to Greek advance • 1923 Kemal had become strong enough to overthrow Sultan, abolish Ottoman Empire and make Turkey a republic • He later took name Kemal Atatürk, or “father of the Turks” • Determined to make Turkey a modern secular state • Used government funds to build industries and also insisted on separation of religion and government • Women won right to vote and hold public office; system of public schools separate from religious schools • To Atatürk, modernization meant adopting many features of western culture • He had support of Turkish nationalists, but many Muslims opposed his policies because they feared that western ways would destroy their traditions and values Flag of Turkey, Flag in use since 1844 and officially adopted in 1936. • The star and crescent are Muslim symbols. Many traditions explain the star and crescent symbol even before Islam. It is known that Diana was the patron goddess of Byzantium and that her symbol was a moon. In 330, the Emperor Constantine rededicated the city - which he called Constantinople - to the Virgin Mary, whose star symbol was superimposed over the crescent. • Atatürk's principal goal was to save his people from humiliation after WWI and to transform Turkey into a modern, 20th-century nation. Atatürk was born on March 12, 1881, in Salonika (now Thessaloníki, Greece. Atatürk died in Istanbul on Nov. 10, 1938. • Among the radical reforms instituted by Mustapha Kemal in Turkey after 1924 were changes in family law and the rights of women. Women were granted equal rights with men in marriage, divorce, and property inheritance, and in 1934 they gained the right to vote. Traditional forms of dress were discouraged or even abolished. In this 1934 photograph, the Turkish Republic has just extended political rights to women. Sixth from the left is Mustapha Kemal, President of the Republic. A woman judge holding court in Turkey • A woman judge holding court in Turkey, exemplifying the reforms in the rights of women instituted by Mustapha Kemal between 1924 and 1938. Kemal's reform program was summed up in six principles: republicanism, nationalism, populism, statism, secularism, and reformism. Conducting a census in Turkey, October 20, l935 • Borrowing selectively from European law codes, President Mustapha Kemal aimed to create a modern secular nation-state which would be able to compete with the industrialized states of Europe. Censuses had been conducted in Ottoman times to facilitate governmental control and planning. In this 1935 census, the people of the country were required to stay indoors until 6 p.m. Turkey Adopting a New Alphabet • Atatürk turned Turkey toward the west in several ways, changing the calendar, methods of time-keeping, and systems of weights and measures. He replaced the Arabic script with the Roman alphabet. Here a teacher is explaining the new alphabet to students. Within the next few months, teachers were retrained, printing presses were equipped and courses were established to teach the masses the new alphabet. A three-year plan was enacted. The literacy rates during this time increased from around 10% to 75% for men and 45% for women. The Mausoleum of Atatürk at Ankara, Turkey • Atatürk's remains were interred here on November 10,1953, the tenth anniversary of his death. This mausoleum was built in the years 1944 to 1953 according to the plans of the architect Emin Onat. Bringing Turkey into the Modern Age President Obama Addressing the Turkish Parliament April 6th 2009 • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x3PrM9W JZus Famous Turkish-Americans Harry, Varol, and Seckin Ablak Founders of Vocelli Pizza Tunch Ilkin Steelers Player and Sport Commentator , Muhtar Kent, Chief Executive of Coca-Cola Company Famous Turkish-Americans • Ersan İlyasova, Milwaukee Bucks Mehmet Okur, Utah Jazz Rise of Modern Egypt • During Age of Imperialism, other parts of Ottoman Empire came under European control; Egypt became the focus of imperialist rivalry between Britain and France; Whoever held the Isthmus of Suez would control shipping and trade between Europe and Asia • 1798, French general Napoleon Bonaparte invaded Egypt, British and Ottomans forced the French to retreat but French influence remained strong in Egyptian culture 1798- Napoleon Bonaparte The Battle of the Pyramids (Egypt) Battle of the Pyramids, François-Louis-Joseph Watteau, 1798–1799 Defeat of Napoleon in Russia (Russia’s winter has been nicknamed “General Winter” because it defeated Napoleon and later Hitler) Exiled to Elba ESCAPE! • “Here I am. Kill your Emperor, if you wish." The Battle of Waterloo Exiled by the British (again) St. Helena Rise of Modern Egypt Continued • Muhammad Ali • 1805, Muhammad Ali, an Albanian soldier who fought • against the French, became governor of Egypt Ali invited French experts to train Egyptians in the latest European military and scientific techniques, established new farming methods, improved irrigation, and promoted the growing of cash crops : cotton, sugar, and tobacco Muhammad Ali (1769-1849), the Founder of Modern Egypt This Albanian soldier maneuvered his way to political power in 1805 in the aftermath of the French and British invasions of Egypt. His attempts to extend Egyptian influence in Arabia and Syria over the following decades met Ottoman and British resistance. Muhammad Ali embarked on an ambitious program of economic reform, expanding irrigation and turning large areas into cash crop production. His ruling dynasty lasted until 1952 when his descendant, King Farouk, was overthrown. King Farouk of Egypt (c.) with Crown Prince Farouk at his left, watching a Cairo parade around 1930. Farouk (1920-1965), • The last reigning descendant of Muhammad Ali in Egypt, came to power in 1937 and soon came under pressures from Europe. Farouk was discredited in the eyes of many Egyptians by his dependence on the British, his extravagant life style, and the poor Egyptian performance in the first Palestine war of 1948-49. In 1952 he was overthrown and sent into exile as a result of a coup organized by Gamal Abd alNasser. Farouk's Palace Rise of Modern Egypt continued • Growing foreign influence • Ali’s successors continued his policies but had to borrow money from European banks in order to pay for them; France and Britain used these debts as an excuse to interfere in Egypt’s internal affairs • French won the right to build the Suez Canal; faced with huge debts, Egyptian ruler, Ismail, sold his shares in the canal to the British • Egyptians rebelled because Britain and France took control of Egypt’s economy • British forces occupied country in 1882 • Both Muslims and Egyptian Christians, known as copts, supported efforts to end British control • Egypt declared its independence from Britain in 1922, Suez Canal remained in British hands until 1956 The influence of the British and French in Egypt • Khedive Ismail Pasha of Egypt (r. 1863-1879) encouraged a massive influx of Europeans into his country. The beginning of his reign was prosperous, since the Civil War in the United States had brought a great demand for Egyptian cotton. Prosperity encouraged European bankers to lend the khedive great sums of money, although at high rates. Unschooled in the ways of western finance, the khedive became so much indebted to European bankers that his country was on the verge of bankruptcy. Here, Britain and France, depicted as sailors, tie up the khedive, after chiding him for having created his own sorry situation. Famous Arab-Americans • Steve Jobs, head of Apple, biological father was Syrian • John J. Mack, CEO of investment bank Morgan Stanley (Lebanese parents) Famous Arab-Americans • Maloof family, (The Maloof family is a Lebanese family which owns numerous business properties in the Western United States, majority owners of the Sacramento Kings and the Palms Casino Hotel in Las Vegas, Nevada • Paul Orfalea, Nicknamed "Kinko" because of his curly red hair, born in Los Angeles, California, to parents of Lebanese descent, founded the copy-chain Kinko's. Famous Arab-Americans • Joseph Haggar, founder of Haggar Clothing (Lebanese) • Catherine Bell, actress on JAG, mother is Persian Famous Arab-Americans • Justin Abdelkader, an American ice hockey forward playing for the Detroit Red Wings of the National Hockey League (NHL). (Parents of Jordanian Ancestry) Famous Arab-Americans • Ralph Nader, consumer advocate and frequent presidential candidate (Lebanese parents) Struggle for Iran • Both Russia and Britain acquired spheres of influence in Iran; both nations competed for influence elsewhere in Asia, and each sought access to the Persian Gulf • By early 1900s, Iranian nationalists were demanding reform • 1925; Reza Khan set up the Pahlavi dynasty and made himself shah • Khan set out to end foreign control and create a modern industrial state; built roads, factories, modernized the army, and reduced power of Muslim clergy • Men and women adopted western clothing, women gained more freedom to move about in public, schools emphasized western courses of study, and government used western models for its law code Reza Shah Pahlavi (1878-1944) • Ruled Iran from 1925 to 1941. An obscure military officer, he rose through the ranks and led the overthrow of the government in 1921. He became prime minister in 1923 and then deposed the last Qajar Shah, having himself crowned as Pahlavi Shah in 1925. Like Atatürk in Turkey, Reza Shah embarked on ambitious plans to reform Iran culturally and economically. When he refused to cooperate with the Allies at the beginning of World War II, Britain and the Soviet Union forced him to resign in favor of his young son, Muhammed Reza. Arab Nationalism • Arabs felt betrayed by peace settlement that ended World War I • Britain and France gained control of many Arab lands that had been part of the Ottoman Empire-only in Saudi Arabia did an Arab ruler gain independence • Throughout 1920s and 1930s, Arab nationalists continued their demands for self-rule • Growing importance of oil from Middle East, made Britain and France unwilling to withdraw from region • 1932- Iraq gained independence, 1943-Lebanon won freedom, 1946-Syria independent Colonel Thomas Edward Lawrence (1888-1935), the legendary and enigmatic "Lawrence of Arabia." • When the British encouraged the Arabs to revolt against Turkish rule in 1916, T. E. Lawrence led the movement. He is shown here (second from right) with the Arab delegation to the Paris Peace Conference, where the peacemakers refused to grant independence to the Arabs. In center front is Prince Feisal, who commanded the Arab army against the Turks. Played by Peter O’Toole • At the outbreak of World War I in 1914, Lawrence joined the British Military Intelligence Service in Cairo. From there he was sent with a British relief column to the Arab prince Faisal (later King Faisal I of Iraq) in the Hejaz (now in Saudi Arabia). Lawrence then worked among the Arabs in revolt against Turkish rule and, having been accepted as their military adviser, unified their armed forces and led them against the Turks. In 1918 Lawrence and Faisal triumphantly entered Damascus before the arrival of the British army. Lawrence participated in the Paris Peace Conference in 1919, but was unsuccessful in his efforts to gain Arab independence. Colonel T. E. Lawrence's house in Wadi Rum, Jordan. • From this cave-house Lawrence carried out operations and negotiations connected with the Arab revolt against Turkey. Photo by Henry Burroughs. Zionism Conflict Over Palestine • During 1920s and 1930s, British mandate of Palestine became the center of conflict between Jewish and Arab nationalists • During late 1800s, persecution of Jews led to the modern form of Zionism; sought to reestablish a Jewish state in Palestine • AD. 70: Romans expelled Jews from Palestine; Jews dreamed of returning Conflict Over Palestine • As anti-Semitism increased, the desire for a Jewish homeland grew • In Eastern Europe and Russia, thousands of Jews were killed in organized massacres; violence led many European Jews to migrate to Palestine Liberation- Lord Balfour wrote a letter to Zionist leader Rothschild, outlining the British position in support of a Jewish homeland, of which the Arabs were unaware. Tents of newly arrived Jewish immigrants in Palestine around 1918. • The Balfour Declaration, expressing support for a Jewish national home, was incorporated into the British Mandate over Palestine after World War I. Having replaced the Ottoman authorities, the British facilitated Zionist immigration to Palestine. Zionism continued • 1897-Theodor Herzl, a Hungarian Jew living in Austria, formed an organization to promote Zionism, so Jews from Eastern Europe began migrating to Palestine: set up communities there and called on Britain and other European powers to support them • 1917: British government issued Balfour Declaration declaring that Palestine will be the home for the Jewish people The Second Zionist Congress, meeting in Basle, Switzerland in 1898 • At the podium is Theodor Herzl, leader of the Zionist movement to establish a Jewish state in Palestine. At the first Congress in 1897 and in subsequent meetings the delegates developed plans to win Western support for the establishment of a Jewish homeland in Ottoman-controlled Palestine. In 1901 Great Britain offered the Zionist movement land for settlement in East Africa, but Zionist sentiment favored settlement in Palestine, the historic homeland of the Jewish people. Theodor Herzl (1860-1904) • the father of modern political Zionism. Herzl was an Austrian journalist and playwright who witnessed the rise of anti-Jewish sentiment in western Europe in the last decade of the 19th century. Convinced that an independent Jewish state was the solution to Jewish vulnerability, Herzl published his arguments in Der Judenstaat (The Jewish State) in 1896, and organized and presided over the first Zionist congress at Basle, Switzerland in 1897. Zionism had relatively little appeal to the Jews of western Europe, many of whom favored national assimilation. Furthermore, Jews living in Palestine before World War I constituted a small minority of the total population, offering little hope for the creation of an autonomous homeland. Arthur James Balfour (1848-1930). • Politically a conservative and socially an aristocrat, Balfour served as Prime Minister of England from 1901 to 1905. The fall of his government ushered in a long period of Liberal rule. During World War I, Balfour served as foreign minister, and is best known for drafting the Balfour Declaration. David Ben-Gurion (1886-1973) the first Prime Minister of Israel, proclaiming Israeli independence on May 15, 1948. • The new state was immediately recognized by the U.S. and the Soviet Union. Behind Ben-Gurion is a portrait of Theodor Herzl, the founding father of political Zionism, who had called the first Zionist conference almost exactly 50 years before. Born in Poland, Ben-Gurion had emigrated to Palestine in 1906 and was active in the labor movement after 1921. He served in the Israeli government until 1963. David Ben-Gurion (1886-1973) Arab response • • • • • • At the time, Arabs- both Christian and Muslim- greatly outnumbered Jewish settlers in Palestine; nationalism was stirring In time, nationalism would lead Palestinians to call for their own independent state During 1930s, Jewish immigration increased as anti-Semitism worsened in Europe; tensions between Arabs and Jews in Palestine heightened Zionist groups helped Jews to buy land from Arab landowners Arab tenant farmers on those lands were suddenly forced to leave and many migrated to the cities; with no money and few skills beyond farming, they faced severe hardship Arab peasants joined other Arabs in attacking Jewish settlements, Jewish settlers fought back, and eventually, the conflict in Palestine erupted into war Palestinian Arabs demonstrating against the Balfour Declaration at Jaffa. • To Arabs, the 1917 Balfour Declaration lending British support to Jewish national aims in Palestine became a symbol of British betrayal of promises which had been made to Arab leaders during World War I. General promises of British support for Arab independence had been contained in the correspondence between Egyptian High Commissioner McMahon and Hijaz Emir Husayn in 19151916. Lawrence presented a British committee his plan for Arabia and launched a lobbying campaign to draw attention to the Arab cause. Lawrence and Faisal used Wilson's Fourteen Points to argue their case for Arab autonomy and persuaded the Peace Conference organizers to give them a hearing.