Unit 2 - Joints

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PSE4U

FIBROUS JOINT
◦ Bound tightly
together by
connective tissue and
allow no movement
◦ Ex. Joints between
skull bones (sutures)

CARTILAGINOUS
JOINT
◦ Body of one bone
connects to the other
by means of cartilage
◦ Slight movement
◦ Ex. Intervetebral
discs between
vertebrae.

SYNOVIAL JOINT
◦ Bony surfaces are
separated by
lubricating fluid
(synovial fluid) and
cartilage.
◦ Joined by ligaments
(enclose ends of
bones to form a
capsule)
◦ Ex. Knee joint

JOINT CAVITY: filled with synovial fluid (acts as a
lubricant for joint)

JOINT CAPSULE

BURSA: small flattened fluid sac found at friction
points between tendons, ligaments and bones

ARTICULATING CARTILAGE: found at the end of a
bone that comes into contact with another bone
 Fibrous Capsule: stops synovial fluid from leaking out. Is
located on the outside of the joint.
 Synovial Membrane: allows certain nutrients to pass through.
Located right below the fibrous capsule.
 Purpose: protection, creates smooth contact, acts as a shock
absorber
INTRINSIC LIGAMENTS
Thick bands of fibrous
connective tissue that
help to thicken and
reinforce the joint
capsule
EXTRINSIC LIGAMENTS
Separate from joint
capsule and help to
reinforce the joint by
attaching the bones
together.
BALL & SOCKET
‘ball’ of one bone fits
into ‘socket’ of
another
* Movement around 3
axes*
GLIDING
Connects flat or
slightly curved
bones
PIVOT
A rounded point of
one bone fits into a
groove of another
* Allows rotation in
one plane*
SADDLE
Allows movements
in 2 planes F &E,
ABD & ADD but not
rotation
ELLIPSOID
Allows movement in
2 planes
HINGE
Convex portion of bone
fitting into concave
portion of bone
* Movement in 1 plane*

Tendons: attach
bone to muscle
◦ Composed of
collagen
◦ Can stretch further
than ligaments
◦ Dynamic stabilizers

Ligaments: attached
bone to bone
◦ Tough connective tissue
◦ Can stretch but have less
movement than tendons
◦ Static stabilizers of joints
◦ Can strengthen through
training = stronger joint

Strains, sprains, tears and pulls:
 Sprains and tears – associated with ligaments
 Strains and pulls - associated with tendons
 1st, 2nd and 3rd degree

Tendinitis:
 Inflammation of a tendon caused by irritation due to
prolonged or abnormal use

Dislocations:
 Bone displaced from its original location
 Damage to join capsule and ligament occurs.
 SYMPTOMS – joint looks deformed, joint is painful touch or
move, joint is not useable.

Separations:
 Occurs when bones held together by fibrous ligaments
tear and separate from each other

Cartilage:
 Usually known as `torn cartilage`
 Arthroscopy – surgical procedure to diagnose injury

Shin Splints
 Painful condition occurring on medial/lateral side of
tibia cause by tearing of interosseus membrane or the
periosteum
 SHARP
 S – swelling
 H – heat
 A – Altered (will not
function properly)
 R- red
 P - painful
 PIER
 P – pressure
 I – ice
 E – Elevation
 R – restriction



Articulation of femur and tibia
Modified hinge joint: flexion and extension,
however, some medial and lateral rotation
can occur (technically modified ellipsoid joint
– movement in 2 planes)
2 menisci (meniscus singular)
◦ sit on tibial condyles and sit on either side of
intercondyle eminence

6 ligaments
◦ CRUCIATE LIGAMENTS: cross each together over the
intercondylar eminence
 Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) – stops anterior movement
 Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) – stops posterior movement
◦ Ligaments that hold fibrous tissue together
 Medial collateral ligament (MCL) – stops medial movement
 Lateral collateral ligament (LCL) – stops lateral movement
◦ Other ligaments
 Posterior meniscofemoral ligament – strengthens posterior
aspect of joint
 Oblique popliteal ligament – strengthens posterior aspect of
joint
 Patellar ligament – hold patella in place



Synovial ball-and-socket joint : unstable Joint –
this unstableness gives the shoulder joint its
versatility and movement
Joint made up of scapula and humerus and
indirectly the clavicle
Athletes who are involved in sports where
actions like throwing, swimming and lifting
occur are susceptible to shoulder injuries

4 Ligaments
 Coracoclavicular ligament – attaches the
coracoid process and clavicle
 Acromioclavicular ligament – attaches the
acromion process and clavicle together
 Glenoid humeral ligament – attaches the
scapula and humerus
 Coracoacromial ligament – attaches the
acromion process and coracoid process

Biceps tendinitis – overuse of biceps brachii

Shoulder separation – tearing of acromioclavicular


ligament
Shoulder dislocation – occurs when the humerus
‘pops’ out of the glenoid cavity.
Rotator cuff tears – rotator cuff: supraspinatus,
infraspinatus, teres minor and subscapularis
 Supraspinatus, infraspinatus and teres minor share the
common insertion on the greater tubercle. When part of
the tendon is torn it affects all muscles.

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