Application of the Stakeholder Theory and Collaborative Advantage

Report
Application of the
Stakeholder Theory and
Collaborative Advantage
to the Vision 2020
Initiative
Authors
• Samya Riad – Alwatany (National) Eye Hospital
Cairo, Egypt
• Gamal Ezzelarab – Alnour Magrabi Foundation
Cairo, Egypt
• Abd el Monein El Minshawi – Alnour Magrabi
Foundation - Cairo, Egypt
Introduction
• Stakeholders and IAPB/WHO publications
• Background to the study
Stakeholders in IAPB and WHO
Vision 2020 Publications
1.
Ministry of Health (Chairman &
2-3 Key members)
2. Ophthalmologists
3. Eye Care Professional Groups
(OCOs, AMOs, Optometrists,
Nurses)
4. Local NGOs
5. International NGOs
6. Private Sector
7. District Representatives
8. Working Committees (HRD, IEC,
Advocacy, Disease Control,
Infrastructure Development)
9. WHO (Regional & Country)
10. Other UN Agencies
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
Training Institutions
EHSA District Representative
Civil Society
District Education Department
Community Based
Rehabilitation Programmes
Professional Associations
Academia
Research Institutions
Other International Institutions
Service Organisations
Corporate Sector
The Population
Method
• British Library Catalogue search
• National library of the United Kingdom
• Research library
• Holding over 56 million items from many
countries
• Google search of the World Wide Web
• Key words: ‘stakeholders’ and ‘collaboration’
Results
The Stakeholder Theory
•
•
•
•
•
•
Detailed by Edward Freeman in 1984 (University of Virginia)
A Management Science subject
Formulated mainly for business organisations
Used by healthcare consortiums in the USA
Adopted later by policy and development organisations
World Bank and ODA did detailed work on stakeholder
analysis
• One study relating to eye health policy in lower and middle
income countries (Camacho-Cuena et al, 2012)
Results
Definitions for Stakeholders
Strategic Definition
Those groups without whose support the
organisation would cease to exist – SRI, 1963
Descriptive Definition
Groups who can affect or are affected by the
organisation’s objective – Freeman, 1984
Definitions for Stakeholders
Instrumental Definition
Groups who are needed to achieve certain
corporate performance goals, Donaldson and
Preston, 1995
Normative Definition
An entity with a declared or conceivable interest
or stake in a policy concern – Donaldson and
Preston, 1995 – also used by the World Bank
Group
Results
Classification of Stakeholders
Area of contribution
Economic
Political
Technological
Social
Managerial
Position in relation to the organisation
Internal
External
Interface
Classification of Stakeholders
Strength of influence
Key
Contribution is essential
Their demands place severe strain on organisation
Attempts by them to threaten the organisation threatens its viability
Their contribution can easily be switched to another organisation
Marginal – they are high on neither threat or cooperative potential
Type of influence
Potential for threat
Potential for cooperation
Mixed Blessing – High on potentials of threat and cooperation
Results
Stakeholder Management
Levels 1&2: Manipulation and Therapy
Level 3: Informing
Level 4: Explaining
Level 5: Placation
Level 6: Consultation
Level 7: Negotiation
Level 8:Involvement
Level 9: Collaboration
Results
Collaboration
Occurs when groups and organisations come
together to do something useful
Collaborative Advantage
Occurs when an objective is met that no
organisation or group could have produced on
its own.
Results
Conditions for Good Collaboration
1. Inclusion of stakeholders
2. Partner selection
3. Mutual trust
4. Honesty and reliability
5. Shared vision
6. Mutual interdependence
Conditions for Good Collaboration
7. Open communication
8. Appropriate distribution of power
9. Political influences
10. Appropriate governance structure
11. CEO support
12. Skilled convenors
Discussion
• For Vision 2020 objectives, we need to decide
which definition of stakeholders is the most
suitable for the particular objective
• We need to decide the type of each
stakeholder and whether we really need to
include this group in the collaboration
• We also need to decide at which level will
each stakeholder be managed
Discussion
• We need to identify the most useful
collaborators and decide how they should
interact with each other to achieve
collaborative advantage
• This is a difficult exercise for one team alone
and may lead to frustrations and mistakes
Conclusion
• Vision 2020 objectives could be enhanced by
adopting the principles of the stakeholder
theory and collaborative advantage as defined
and used in business
• It would be useful if we understand the
suggested Vision 2020 stakeholders at a
generic level
Conclusion
This could be achieved by probing the
experience and expertise available in the
Prevention of Blindness community, collating
and documenting the results and
disseminating them to less experienced
workers
Conclusion
• This study demonstrates the difficulties of
working in isolation in the prevention of
blindness field and using tools and manuals
for major projects. In our experience, there is
a query at every step.
• The study proposes the adoption of the ideas
and approaches of business studies and
management science in Vision 2020 projects
Thank you

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