China, which way

An introduction to China . . .
10 minutes and you know china
Totalitarian vs Authoritarian
Totalitarianism is a tricky and often misused term, though quite
distinct from authoritarianism. Totalitarianism connotes violence
and error, and so the word is often used in a partisan way to label
a political system that we particularly dislike.
What then is the difference between totalitarianism and other
forms of nondemocratic rule? There are several important
elements. Totalitarianism is a form of nondemocratic rule with a
highly centralized state and a regime with a well-defined ideology
that seeks to transform and fuse the institutions of state, society,
and the economy. Unlike other nondemocratic regimes, the main
objective of totalitarianism is to use power to transform the total
institutional fabric of a country according to some ideological
goal. Finally, because of the ambitious goals of totalitarianism,
violence often becomes a necessary tool to destroy and obstacle to
Democratic regimes have rules that emphasize a large role
for the public in governance and protect the basic rights and
freedoms. Authoritarian regimes limit the role of the public
in decision making and often deny citizens’ basic rights and
restrict their freedoms.
Although the CCP’s original heroic stature and revolutionary
legitimacy may have little hold on China’s younger generations,
recent party leaders have effectively employed a mixture of
• authoritarian controls,
• patriotic nationalist appeals, and
• economic benefits to maintain the party’s monopoly of political
Sovereignty, Authority, and Power
China is a _____Party-State
National Party
Apex: Standing
Committee of
National People’s
“p_______ hierarchies”:
All gov’t exec. , leg and adm. agencies are matched by a corresponding party organ.
Parallel Organization of the Chinese Communist Party and the Chinese Government
Party Office or
Officeholder or Number of
Members or Departments
Corresponding Government
office or Organ
Officeholder or Number of
Members or Departments
Office abolished in 1982
President (head of state)
Xi Jinping
General secretary
Xi Jinping
Premier (head of gov.)
Li Keqiang
Politburo standing
committee (PSC)
9 members
State council standing
10 members
24 members
State council
43 members
Committee (CC)
198 members
National people’s congress
standing committee
159 members
National party
2979 members
National People’s Congress
2120 members
Central military
8 members
Central Military
7 members
CMC Chairman
Hu Jintao
CMC Chairman
Xi Jinping
Large staff of the party
State council general office
Large staff of civil servants
Party departments
Approx. 46 departments
Bureaucratic ministries
Approx. 46 ministries,
bureaus, and commissions
Central discipline
121 members
Supreme people’s court
1 president and 8 vice
Good youtube explanation on NPC vs NPC
In contrast with the NPC which has become more assertive
since the 1990s, the NPC has shown no signs of becoming a
deliberative assembly with independent power
As China’s economy and society have become more
complex, it and its standing committee have gradually
become venues for delegates to offer opinions, express
dissatisfaction with government policy and even occasionally
cast dissenting votes. .. . . as its constituent committees and
specialized policy groups have become more knowledgeable
and sophisticated, it has started to shape the policies of
Graphic and video
BBC China’s leaders what you need to know:
BBC role of party
Decoder: how China chooses its leaders
Mao: “Political power grows out of the b ________ of a
______. Our party commands the gun and the gun must never be
allowed to command the party.”.
Link b/w Military and politics: Xi president and GS AND is also
chair of ______ _____ ________
Officers and men swear allegiance to ______ and state.:
PLA officers are also ____ members
a separate Party machine inside the military makes sure rank
and file stay in line with Party thinking
Gen Sec is _____________ in ___________________
Institutions: the military
Thousands of soldiers and rows of tanks commemorated 60 years of
Communist Party rule during National Day celebrations in Beijing. Female
officers and soldiers of the People's Liberation Army marched during the
military parade
Changing of the Guard
Close Army Ties of China’s New
Leader Could Test the U.S.
March 8, 2013
In the last four months, China has forged an aggressive, more nationalistic posture in Asia that
may set the tone for Mr. Xi’s expected decade-long tenure, analysts and diplomats say, pushing
against American allies, particularly Japan, for what China considers its territorial imperatives.
The son of a revolutionary general, Mr. Xi, 59, boasts far closer ties to China’s fast-growing
military than the departing leader, Hu Jintao, had when he took office. As Mr. Xi rose through the
ranks of the Communist Party, he made the most of parallel posts in the People’s Liberation
Army, deeply familiarizing himself with the inner workings of the armed forces.
Even if Mr. Xi does not immediately become head of the crucial Central Military Commission as
well as party leader, he will almost certainly do so within two years, giving him at least eight
years as the direct overseer of the military.
This combination of political power as head of the Communist Party and good relations with a
more robust military could make Mr. Xi a formidable leader for Washington to contend with,
analysts and diplomats in China and the United States say
Xi Jinping
Elected Chinese President, Military Chief
Xi Jinping Elected Chinese President, Military Chief
Xi Jinping Elected
Chinese President,
Military Chief
BEIJING, March 14 2013 (RIA Novosti) - General Secretary
of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China
Xi Jinping was elected Chinese president Thursday morning
at the session of the 12th National People's Congress.
Xi, who replaced Hu Jintao in this post, was also elected the
chairman of the Central Military Commission of China
The “Princelings”
An important but informal politically influential group in China are the so-called
“princelings.” This group consists of relatives (most frequently, the sons and
daughters) of senior Chinese government officials who use their family relationship
to obtain access to privilege, positions of power, and wealth—often by
circumventing the official channels and procedures. For many people in China, the
“princelings” represent that type of “class privilege” that the Cultural Revolution
was supposed to eradicate. Because their access to power and privilege is seen not
necessarily to be based on merit, some view the “princelings” at least as a minor
source of corruption and at worst as a serious threat to the Party’s legitimacy with the
The “princelings” have chosen different avenues to power in China. Some have used
their access to better education and job opportunities to become important figures
within the Party or the government. Others chose to focus their energies on obtaining
economic power by establishing private companies (often by securing special loans
from state-run banks) or being appointed the leading officials of important state-run
Although some of the “princelings” have used their preferential access to
power for social causes, some have been accused of serious corruption.
Deng Pu-fang, son of Deng Xiao-ping and himself a paraplegic,30 is
widely known in China as a leading advocate for the rights of the
handicapped. Hu Hai-feng—son of President Hu Jin-tao and party
secretary for Tsinghua Holdings, a multibillion dollar state-owned
conglomerate, was accused of bribery by the Namibian government during
the summer of 2009.
See you tube on princilings and My father is the mayor
“My father is Li Gang” has become a bitter inside joke, a catchphrase for
shirking any responsibility — washing the dishes, being faithful to a
girlfriend — with impunity
Update: General’s BMW-Driving Son Gets a Year
The son of a Chinese army general well-known for his singing
will be detained for a year, state media reported late Thursday,
following an alleged assault that renewed public criticism of the
children of the nation’s powerful elite.
The son of Li Shuangjiang, a 72-year-old senior official in the
People’s Liberation Army known for singing patriotic songs at
public events, will be detained by police in a correctional
facility for one year, according to the state-run Xinhua news
agency. Police said Gen. Li’s 15-year-old son last week
assaulted a Beijing couple following a traffic dispute then
warned onlookers not to call the authorities, according to staterun media.
Levels of Government: SupRAnational?
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an international body
whose purpose is to promote _____ trade by persuading
countries to abolish import t_________ and other barriers. As
such, it has become closely associated with globalisation.
The WTO is the only international agency overseeing the rules of
international trade. It polices free trade agreements, settles trade
disputes between governments and organises trade negotiations.
WTO decisions are absolute and every member must abide by its
rulings. So, when the US and the European Union are in dispute over
bananas or beef, it is the WTO which acts as judge and jury. WTO
members are empowered by the organisation to enforce its decisions
by imposing trade sanctions against countries that have breached the
Membership of the WTO now stands at 149 countries. China formally
joined the body in December 2001 after a 15-year battle. Russia
wants admission, but must first convince the EU and US that it has
reformed business practices. (note—provisional permission to get in
has been granted) news flash Russia is in
18 October 2012 Last updated at 22:00 ET
China tariffs on US steel:
WTO rejects Beijing's appeal
The World Trade Organisation (WTO) has upheld
its decision that China's tariffs on imports of certain
US steel products were illegal
Beijing had imposed duties on a particular kind of US steel, alleging that its makers were being
given subsidies by the US government. The WTO ruled against the tariffs in June, a decision it
upheld saying that China had failed to prove its charges.
The case is the latest in a series of trade conflicts between the countries.
"Today we are again plainly stating that we will continue to take every step necessary to ensure
that China plays by the rules and does not unfairly restrict exports of US products," US trade
representative Ron Kirk said.
'Beating China' Disagreements between China and the US have been growing in recent times and
the two have sparred over issues ranging from China's currency policies to allegations of state
subsidies given to Chinese firms.
The US has upped its ante against Beijing recently, not least because of the upcoming
presidential elections.The impact of China's growing economic might on the US economy, and
how the US should respond to it, has become a key issue in the elections.
Levels of Government: from the Economist
Decentralisation of power is substantial BUT . . . .
Given China's geographical size—the People's Republic of China is almost as big as the US—
and the extent of some of its provinces, local authorities have historically enjoyed a high
degree of devolved power. Sometimes this has led to chaos, notably during the Cultural
Revolution that took place during the 1960s and 1970s. However, more often experiments at
the local level have been able to function as pilot projects; agricultural schemes in Sichuan, for
example, paved the way for the national reform programme of the early 1980s.
Since then, the devolution of control has continued. Regional governments have become
major stakeholders in many local enterprises (TVEs) and have sought to maximize
employment, output and revenue-raising opportunities in areas under their jurisdiction,
sometimes acting counter to central government policy.
Some observers argue that devolution is irreversible and that the government will eventually be
reorganised along federal lines. However, the central government is far from powerless and
can intervene to enforce compliance with its main policies. The promotion prospects of local
officials depend on their ability to meet targets based on the government's policy guidelines.
Moreover, the central authorities can still exercise considerable influence through their ability
to appoint and remove leading local officials, and provincial governors are frequently
reshuffled to prevent them from "going native"..
Number of TVEs (millions)
Gross output of TVEs
Contribution of TVEs to rural income per capita
Sources: China Statistical Yearbook, 1997,
1998. The Yearbook of Chinese ________and
Village Enterprises, 1995, 1996 1997, 1998.
China Economic Yearbook, 1997, 1998.
Market Reform in China: Creating a “Socialist Market Economy”
“_______cat, White Cat, it doesn’t matter what color the cat is, as long
as the Cat catches________”
“to get rich is glorious“
"poverty is not Socialism"
“Socialism with Chinese
“ENGELS never flew on an aeroplane;
Stalin never wore Dacron.”
Deng’s words meant Maoist dogma was out
and pragmatism was in.
Architect: _________Xiaoping
Time: early 19______s
•Perestroika without_________
•"Crossing the river by groping for
•Strong state model continues in
planning and ownership
V. Political and Economic Change ……………………………….15%
A. Revolution, coups, and war
B. Trends and types of political change (including
1. Components
2. Promoting or inhibiting factors
3. Consequences
C. Trends and types of economic change (including privatization)
1. Components
2. Promoting or inhibiting factors
3. Consequences
D. Relationship between political and economic change
E. Globalization and fragmentation: interlinked economies,
global culture, reactions against globalization, regionalism
F. Approaches to development
VI Public Policy……………………………………………………………10%
Common policy issues
A.Economic performance
B.Social welfare (e.g., education, health, poverty)
C.Civil liberties, rights and freedoms
E.Population and migration
F.Economic development
Factors influencing public policymaking and implementation
How: Two Pillars
One: Decentralize the economy by:
(A) Shifting authority for decision making from central bureaucrats to individual
families (first through the “__________responsibility system), factory managers, local
governments (“T__ ___”s) and private entrepreneurs:
(B) recognizing diverse forms of _________rights
•in 2001 Jiang invited so-called "red _______s" - private entrepreneurs and high tech
barons - to join the Party –
•March 2004, NPC changed constitution so that it says “Citizen’s
Lawful p_________ _________is inviolable” and that the state will protect private
property and give compensation when it is confiscated”
(C) Most prices set by s________ and d__________, not administrative decree
(D)_________ of law: So far, the main change is a gradual regularization of
commercial law
Note that this is limited Privatization: diminish (NOT
eliminate) state owned factories
TWO: Opening China to the outside world by . . .
(A) Increasing trade with a focus on “ex_______ lead”
(B) encouraging foreign investment (e.g create Special
___________Zones (SEZs))
Jiang Zemin’s ________Represents
(1) the most advanced forces of production [Read: allow
entrepreneurs and professionals to become Party members]
(2) the most advanced forces of culture
(3) the fundamental interests of the broadest number of people
(including c___________s GULP!)
comm party home of richest
Hu’s “______________s Society”
October, 2006: The annual meeting of the ruling party’s
Central Committee formally adopted President Hu
Jintao’s proposal to “build a harmonious socialist
society,” a move some analysts said was one of most
decisive shifts in the party’s thinking since Deng
Xiaoping accelerated the push for high growth rates in
the early 1990’s.
The leadership declared that a range of social
concerns, including the surging wealth gap, corruption,
pollution and access to education and medical care,
must be placed on a par with economic growth in party
theory and government policy. . . . The catch phrase
covers a range of policies intended to restore a balance
between the country’s thriving market economy and its
neglected socialist ideology, primarily by paying
greater attention to peasants and migrant workers who President Hu Jintao, left, and
have benefited much less than the white-collar elite in Premier Wen Jiabao have called
for "harmonious society" and
China’s long economic boom.
"social stability."
Washington Post
Well, uhh did you get this one
China overtakes Japan as world's second-biggest economy
14 Feb 2011
Results: Poverty rate
overall has:
But even as officials trot out a litany of achievements
they attribute to the country’s “_____________and
opening” policy—200m fewer citizens living in
poverty, a 6% share of global GDP compared with
1.8% in 1978, a nearly 70% increase in grain
production—the world’s financial crisis weighs
heavily on their minds, and their leaders are struggling
with unfinished business
Results: The Gap between the _______ and poor grows
A man begs in Shanghai as wealthier
residents pass by. Today, some experts
say, success has become a secular
religion, reinforced by official messages
of opportunity
Living the good life in China:
Angelina Lei, 5, begins training
early. NYTimes
Results: Broken Iron _____bowl
BBC: . . .. a Chinese idiom which referred to
the now abolished system of guaranteed
lifetime employment.
After the Communists came to power, all workers
and farmers were put under state control.
Their work units controlled every aspect of daily life,
including the allocation of housing, food and
clothing. They also decided who could marry and
when, and who was allowed to have children.
Jobs for life are a
thing of the past
In return, work units would look after their workers
for life.
But China's transition from a centrally planned
economy to a market economy has smashed the old
Millions of workers have been laid off as state-run
firms have been restructured or shut down.
This has sparked angry protests from their workers,
who complain they have been left without the
Economist October 2007
Missing the barefoot doctors
Results: growing
rural/_________ income
gap and r________ gap
Results . . They now have a
________ market—in a
communist country . .
The challenges are closely intertwined. Like Mr.
Greenspan nearly a decade ago, Zhou Xiaochuan, the
current governor of the People’s Bank of China, faces
the knotty question of what to do about a speculative
mania that has drawn millions of people with limited
investing experience into betting their savings on the
stock market. May 25 2007
Results: growth in ___________ products
A couple buying
decorations in Beijing
for the Chinese New
Year 2006. Economists
say consumer spending
is becoming more
important to growth
Tho let’s not forget: China has undergone __________ reform, not
________ reform: Why you could say it has experienced
p_______________ but not g__________
Recession Elsewhere, but It’s Booming in China
The exhibition floor of the Guangzhou International Auto
Show in China. After decades of gorging on
consumption, Americans are saving. And the Chinese,
who economists thought were addicted to saving, are
spending more
F___________ D_____________
___________ up
Figure 3. Inward FDI in China (US$ billion), 1979–2004
Results: China is accepted into the__________ __________
Results: Legitimacy issues so party tries . . .
“One China Policy”
Village elections
“Harmonious Society”
Results: _______imbalance for US
17 JANUARY 2013
Smog in Beijing
Patrick Chappatte, The International Herald Tribune
China's Xi urges officials to 'sweat' corruption out of system
BEIJING Tue Mar 18, 2014 6:57am EDT
China's President Xi Jinping stands next to a Chinese national flag
during a welcoming ceremony at the Great Hall of the People, in
Beijing, November 13, 2013. BEIJING (Reuters) - Chinese
President Xi Jinping urged rural officials on Tuesday to make
"spicy" efforts to "sweat" corruption out of their systems, state
news agency Xinhua reported, as he pressed on with his campaign
to crack down on deep-rooted graft. "The weapons of criticism
and self-criticism should be well-wielded, with some spice to
make every party official blush and sweat a little," Xi said during
a visit to a rural area in central China's Henan province called
Lankao, Xinhua said
China executes corrupt Hangzhou and Suzhou officials July 2011
China has executed two officials from eastern cities after convicting them of corruption.
Xu Maiyong, a former vice-mayor of Hangzhou, and Jiang Renjie, who was vice-mayor of
Suzhou, were put to death after their appeals were rejected.
Officials said Xu and Jiang took almost 300m yuan ($46m; £29m) by embezzling and taking
Corruption is one of the main causes of public discontent in China. Hundreds of officials are
convicted every year.
But only a handful are executed, and it is extremely rare for two officials to be put to death on
the same day.Xu was said to be well known for his extravagant lifestyle - reports said
investigators found gold bullion and expensive jewellery at his home.
State-run Xinhua news agency reported that he used his power to interfere with project
contracts and to help companies and people obtain land, promotions and tax breaks.
China is often criticised for its widespread use of the
comm party home of richest
China overtakes US as world's
biggest CO2 emitter
pass a
factory in
Yutian in
: Peter
Parks/AFP, Tuesday 19 June
An industrial park built in Wuhai, in Inner Mongolia, along the Yellow River. In 1998, the
city had only 4 factories; now there are more than 400. But the rapid industrialization has
created a pollution nightmare for Wuhai, and with more development planned for the
area, the demand for water is expected to skyrocket
Beijing’s Olympic Quest: Turn Smoggy Sky Blue
Beijing residents in
Square, used to
pea-soup smog,
ignored a citywide
warning on
BEIJING — Every day, monitoring stations across the city measure air pollution to determine if the
skies above this national capital can officially be designated blue. It is not an act of whimsy: with
Beijing preparing to play host to the 2008 Olympic Games, the official Blue Sky ratings are the
city’s own measuring stick for how well it is cleaning up its polluted air.
Thursday did not bring good news. The gray, acrid skies rated an eye-reddening 421 on
a scale of 500, with 500 being the worst. Friday rated 500. Both days far exceeded pollution levels
deemed safe by the World Health Organization. In Beijing, officials warned residents to stay
indoors until Saturday, but residents here are accustomed to breathing foul air. One man flew a
kite in Tiananmen Square.
As China Roars, Pollution Reaches Deadly
China’s industrial growth depends on coal, plentiful but polluting,
from mines like this one in Shenmu, Shaanxi Province, behind a
village store.
Perpetual Haze
During the three decades since Deng set China on a course toward market-style growth,
rapid industrialization and urbanization have lifted hundreds of millions of Chinese out
of poverty and made the country the world’s largest producer of consumer goods. But
there is little question that growth came at the expense of the country’s air, land and
water, much of it already degraded by decades of Stalinist economic planning that
emphasized the development of heavy industries in urban areas.
For air quality, a major culprit is coal, on which China relies for about two-thirds of its
energy needs. It has abundant supplies of coal and already burns more of it than the
United States, Europe and Japan combined. But even many of its newest coal-fired
power plants and industrial furnaces operate inefficiently and use pollution controls
considered inadequate in the West.
Expanding car ownership, heavy traffic and low-grade gasoline have made autos
the leading source of air pollution in major Chinese cities. Only 1 percent of China’s
urban population of 560 million now breathes air considered safe by the European
Union, according to a World Bank study of Chinese pollution published this year. One
major pollutant contributing to China’s bad air is particulate matter, which includes
concentrations of fine dust, soot and aerosol particles less than 10 microns in diameter
(known as PM 10).
Results: McDonald's
A busy upscale shopping district in downtown Shanghai.
Notice the advertisements for McDonald's, Coca Cola and
Pizza Hut. These and many other Western consumer goods
and chain restaurants have become pervasive in China's
larger cities
Air Pollution in China
Attribution: Jianping Fan, Guangzhou, China
China and U.S. Debt
The largest portion of U.S.
debt, 68 cents for every
dollar or about $10 trillion,
is owned by individual
investors, corporations, state
and local governments and,
yes, even foreign
governments such as China
that hold Treasury bills,
notes and bonds.
Foreign governments hold about 46 percent of all U.S. debt held by the public, more than $4.5 trillion.
The largest foreign holder of U.S. debt is China, which owns more about $1.2 trillion in bills, notes
and bonds, according to the Treasury.
In total, China owns about 8 percent of publicly held U.S. debt. Of all the holders of U.S. debt China
is the third-largest, behind only the Social Security Trust Fund's holdings of nearly $3 trillion and the
Federal Reserve's nearly $2 trillion holdings in Treasury investments, purchased as part of its
quantitative easing program to boost the economy.
Buying Dollars to Keep the Dollar Price High
China has been interested in keeping the Yuan (Chinese Currency)
undervalued relative to the US Dollar, and the easiest way (if you
can afford it) to keep the Dollar price high, and the Yuan low is to
buy dollars from the open market.
A country like China, which runs a huge Trade Surplus can afford to
buy dollars in the open market to keep the demand for dollars high,
and push the dollar price upwards relative to the Yuan. This keeps
the Yuan undervalued.
Why Does China Wish to Undervalue the Yuan?
China’s engine of growth is exports. The lower the value of the
Yuan, the better it is for China’s exporters. Basically, if 1 Dollar
buys 7 Yuans, and a exporter sells a Chinese Shirt for 10 dollars –
he pockets 70 yuans. But if one Dollar was worth only 5 Yuans, the
exporter would only be able to pocket 50 yuans.
How does China hold down the value of its yuan (
One of these lists is titled “Who might be Hurt by a Yuan Appreciation”
Another is titled “Companies Which Would Benefit from a Yuan
Appreciation” Which is which?
•U.S. manufacturers of capital equipment, such as Caterpillar (CAT) and Deere
“Companies Which Would Benefit from a Yuan
•Wholesale food exporters
like Archer-Daniels-Midland Company (ADM),
DANONE, and Chiquita Brands International (CQB),
Western commodity manufacturers, such as steel companies like Nucor (NUE),
Arcelor Mittal (MT), and Wheeling-Pittsburgh (WPSC), who face less
competition due to higher Chinese prices.
Chinese airlines, such as China Eastern Airlines (CEA) and China Southern
Airlines Company (ZNH), who now pay less in Yuan for airplanes and aviation
• Investors holding a lot of Treasury Bills or U.S.-dollar-denominated bonds.
•Mortgage providers like Countrywide Financial (CFC), Wells Fargo (WFC), and
Federal National Mortgage Association (FNM) would face higher rates, which
would decrease their business volume
•Mass-market retailers Wal-Mart Stores and Target Stores
by a Yuan
Dell (DELL),
(HPQ), Motorola
(MOT) and Nokia (NOK) who built factories in China and employed Chinese
workers to manufacture their products for the U.S. market.
Explain the two Pillar’s of Deng’s Reform and Opening:
Pillar ONE: De_____ (explain what you mean by that and give
policy examples)
Pillar TWO: Open to (explain what you mean by that and give
policy examples)
Identify 3 Political, 3 Economic and 3 Social results of the market
reform Deng started
Candidate for China's new premier finalized
Xinhua, March 14, 2013
Slide show to go along with articl e on consumers
China, which
Paresh Nath,
The Khaleej
Times, UAE
In pictures:

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