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DR. RAJNI SINGH
Evolution of HRM
 Evolution of HRM of HRM is divided into 3 phases-
1. Period before industrial revolution
2. Period of industrial revolution (1750 to 1850)
3. Post Industrial revolution ( after 1850-1947)
4. Post independence period after 1948..1990s)
Period before industrial
revolution
 Agrarian economy- agriculture was the main source of
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income
Handicrafts started- pottery making, jewellery
designing, weaving etc..
Cottage industries were set up in homes.
Factory system/ capitalism came giving rise to 2 classes
mgmt and workers.
Exploitation of workers increased because employers
wanted to achieve profit maximization.
Period of industrial revolution
 Industrial revolution marked the conversion of
economy from agriculture based to industry based.
 The workers working in the industries or factories
were subjected to long working hours and very less
wages. With growing unrest , workers across the world
started protest and this led to the establishment of
Labour unions.
Post Industrial revolution
 The term Human resource Management saw a major
evolution after 1850. Various studies were released and
many experiments were conducted during this period
which gave HRM altogether a new meaning and
importance.
Post Industrial revolution
 Frederick W. Taylor gave principles of scientific
management (1857 o 1911) led to the evolution of
scientific human resource management .
 Development of industrial psychology-it asked for
fulfilling social and psychological needs of workers.
 Organizational behaviour developed as a diff. field
of study- giving knowledge about how to deal with
individuals and groups.
Post Industrial revolution
 Human relation movement started- Hawthorne
studies by Elton Mayo suggested that for increasing
the productivity of workers good relations are
required.
Post Industrial revolution
 Industrial relations started becoming better after first
world war (1914-1918).
 International labour org. ILO (1919)
 Royal commission on labour (1931) recommended
“labour officers” in order to protect conditions of
workers.
Post independence
 Post independence –Factories act 1948, there must
be “welfare officers” inside factories having 500 or
more workers.
 Post independence 3 imp. Acts- factories act, min.
wages act and ESI act supported the welfare of working
community.
 Later on dev. of 5 year plans also supported growth of
human relations
Post independence
 In 1970s to 1980s there was dev. Of personnel
management.
 During late 1980s or early 1990s HRM developed as a
separate field.
 After globalization (1991), need for HRM and strategic
HRM was realized.
 Thus, human resource func. In India has grown
through several stages- LABOUR WELFARE,
INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS, LABOUR ADM.,
PERSONNEL MGMT, HRM AND FINALLY TO HRD.

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