Powerpoint - The Ohio State University

Ethics + Academic Integrity
ENGR 1181
Class 3
What is the first
name of your
team members?
Ethics in the Real World (Price Fixing Example)
Mark Whitacre was a whistleblower in a massive price fixing scheme with
ADM. While wearing an FBI wire, Mark made an unethical decision to commit
fraud and ended up in prison himself. He lost his whistleblower immunity and
served 8-1/2 years in federal prison. Quite an amazing story.
Today's Learning Objectives
 After today’s class, students will be
able to:
• Define the term ethics and identify
potential sources of a person’s
code of ethics.
• State why professions like
engineering have their own code
of ethics and explain how the
codes are used.
• Implement a structured approach
to addressing an ethical dilemma
that a student or professional
engineer may encounter.
Ethics & Practicing Engineering
Defining Ethics
 How would you define ethics?
Available Definitions Ethics
Ethics can be defined as:
 Synonyms for “morally* correct” or justified; set of “justified”
moral principles of obligation, rights, and ideals
 Particular beliefs or attitudes concerning morality
 Area of study or inquiry – an activity of understanding moral
values, resolving moral issues, and justifying moral judgments
*Morality (from the Latin moralitas "manner, character, proper behavior")
How Are Ethics & Law Related?
Illegal &
Illegal &
Legal &
Legal &
Illegal, but Ethical:
Parking in A space with
C sticker while taking
roommate to ER
Illegal and Unethical:
Stealing a bike
Legal and ethical:
Coming to class!
Legal, but Unethical:
Selling an outdated
textbook to an
unaware student
In-Class Ethics and Law Activity
 Each group should use
the large sheets of
paper to come up with
an example for each
 Pictures and drawings
are highly encouraged!
Illegal & Ethical
Illegal &
Legal & Ethical
Legal &
Ethics for Engineering
 Engineering ethics is the study of the moral values,
issues, and decisions involved in engineering practice.
 Why should ethics be important to you as an engineer?
 Your career as an engineer begins with your college
education, not when you graduate.
Academic Integrity
 Your pre-class assignments outlined student
responsibilities in maintaining Academic Integrity.
 Most problems in the First Year Engineering Program
involve copied lab reports and homework problems.
 Individual assignment means you do it alone – and print
out your own work!
 What you achieve/neglect here will have an effect on
your future career path, as well as be a part of that path.
Academic Integrity
 Zero tolerance for academic misconduct
• Any situation where misconduct is suspected must be
submitted to The Ohio State University Committee on Academic
 The person who shares their work is equally at fault/responsible.
 If someone comes to you for help, point them in the right direction
or help them understand. Do not just give them your work!
 If you do share your work, don’t assume it won’t be copied.
Where Can We Find Help?
 Codes of Ethics - Professional organizations
address complex moral issues in their fields by
developing codes of ethics.
• Example: NSPE Code in pre-reading
The Codes of Ethics and Its Role
 Shared Standards
 Positive Support to Act Ethically
 Guidance Concerning Obligations
 Motivation
 Education
 Deterrence and Discipline
 Professional Image
Engineering Code of Ethics
 Professional codes of ethics consist primarily of
principles of responsibility that delineate how to promote
the public good.
 A few examples are NSPE’s:
• Fundamental Canons
• Rules of Practice
• Professional Obligations
NSPE Code of Ethics
 Engineers, in the fulfillment of their professional duties, shall:
• Hold paramount the safety, health, and welfare of the public.
• Perform services only in areas of their competence.
• Issue public statements only in an objective and truthful manner.
• Act for each employer or client as faithful agents or trustees.
• Avoid deceptive acts.
• Conduct themselves honorably, responsibly, ethically, and lawfully
so as to enhance the honor, reputation, and usefulness of the
Ethical Dilemmas
 Ethical dilemmas are situations in which two or more
moral obligations, duties, rights, goods, or ideals come
into conflict with one another.
 Multiple stakeholders can have conflicting interests.
 How does one decide whether a response is wellreasoned? What criteria apply? Can we reliably judge?
Resolving an Ethical Dilemma
 Good ethical practice requires that all of the Consequences
of any potential Course of Action be determined before
taking that action.
 Therefore, the ethical decision to resolve a conflict will be
grounded in these considerations. This allows the protagonist
to make a decision based on an organized approach and the
best available information.
 Typically, the best course of action is one that adheres to a
professional code of ethics and minimizes negative
consequences and maximizes positive consequences of the
outcome of the dilemma.
Approach to an Ethical Dilemma:
 Identify the issues and points of ethical conflict
 Who is the Protagonist? – think as if YOU are the protagonist
 Who are all of the other Stakeholders (interested parties)?
 What are all potential Courses of Action that you might take?
 What are the Consequences of each possible course of action?
• There can be both Negative and Positive consequences.
 What are the duties or obligations of the protagonist to all
interested parties?
In Class Case Study
– Main Street Bridge
Case Study – Main Street Bridge
Companies Involved:
 Designed by:
Bridge Designers, Inc.
 Steel components fabricated by:
ABC Steel Co.
 Construction Company:
Bridge Builders, Inc.
 Safety Consulting Company:
Background Information:
Yield Stress and Safety Factor
Yield stress for steel:
 Structural Steel
 Structural Nickel Steel
~200 MPa
~300 MPa
 For the Main Street Bridge design, the
Stress under maximum load in the
bridge connector plates was calculated
to be 150 MPa.
 The required safety factor for the connector plates is 2.0.
 Structural nickel steel was chosen for the connector plates.
Connector Plate Design
 The original connector plates were specified to be
0.750" thick Structural Nickel Steel. The material
was chosen because it could handle the stress
needed to achieve a safety factor of 2.
 However, after some design changes, Bridge
Designers changed the connector plate thickness
to 1.00".
 The new 1.00" connector plates were fabricated
and rushed to the construction site, where Bridge
Construction removed the old plates and
replaced them with the new 1.00" plates.
 The plates where installed in time according to
the schedule.
Main Street Bridge Schedule
 SAFECON Co. is responsible for assembling and delivering the
Final Inspection Documents to ODOT and the County Engineer.
 Final Inspection Documentation Package: Friday, August 30th
 Final Inspection by ODOT, County Engineer and City of Columbus:
Friday, September 6th
 Opening Day: Friday, September 13th
SAFECON Co. Finds a Problem!
On Friday, August 16th,
while assembling the
Final Inspection
Package, the engineer
discover an error in the
Purchase Order for the
new connector plates!
The Connector Plates Aren’t
The error is:
 The new 1.00" Connector Plates
were fabricated from Structural
Steel – not Structural Nickel
Steel, as called for in the bridge
 So now the Safety Factor for the
Main Street Bridge is 1.33,
instead of 2.0 as required by
building codes.
In Class Case Study Activity
 As a group, take time to review the previous slides
 Develop answers to the questions on next slide
 The instructor will go over possible answers and
solutions to the moral dilemma
Ethical Case Study
 What is the ethical dilemma?
 Who is the protagonist?
 Who are all of the interested parties (stakeholders)?
 What are the possible actions?
 For each course of action, what are the positive and
negative consequences?
 What are the obligations of the protagonist?
 What sections of the NSPE Code apply?
 What is your final opinion?
Ethics Case Assignment
 In this course - Ethics cases will be used as a basis for
verbal presentations later in the semester.
Steps include:
o Selection of Possible Ethics Cases
• Team picks top 3 cases of interest to submit to GTA
• GTA assigns case to Team
o Analysis of Ethics Case
• Teams will receive feedback from GTA prior to presentation due date
o A draft of the PowerPoint and plan for oral presentation are submitted
o Teams deliver an Oral Presentation on their Ethics Case
Important Takeaways
 Defined ethics and engineering ethics
 Completed an example approach to developing a wellreasoned response to a moral dilemma
 Introduced the NSPE Engineering Code of Ethics
 Completed an application activity of the Code of Ethics to an
engineering case
Preview of Next Class
 Technical Communication 1:
• Written and oral communication
• All professionals, including engineers, must be able to
communicate their knowledge to others with varying
education levels and experiences.
What’s Next?
 Review Ethics Case Assignment
 Select an Ethics Case for your group and email GTA
top 3 choices by midnight.
 Once case is assigned, you will complete an ethics
evaluation for your case.
 Preview Technical Communications 1, complete the
reading and take the Carmen quiz.

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