TEMPERATE RAIN FOREST By: Lexi Lesperance and Adi Hays Temperate Rainforest What is The Temperate Rainforest? The Temperate Rainforest is a small biome along the northwest coast of Northern California. It also includes little parts of Southern Chile, New Zealand. The Temperate Rainforest covers about 75 million acres of earth. 2/3 of The Temperate Rainforests are in the Pacific Northwest. Temperate Rainforest Rain Fall in Temperate Rainforest The temperate Rainforest receives about 60 to 200 inches of rain per year. There are 2 seasons in The Temperate rainforest. One long wet season and one very short dry and humid season. Latitude of The Temperate Rainforest Mid- altitude between 23.5 degrees and 55 degrees South and West. FIVE PLANTS 1. Deer Fern (Blechum Spicant) • Deer Fern is very common in the Temperate Rainforest. It is native to the temperate rain forests of Western North America, Iceland and Norway. This also grows on the floor of the forest. • Adaptations- The Deer Ferns grow early in the spring with long, quick-growing leaves. This allows the plant to absorb as much sunlight as possible before the forest trees leaf and block the full strength of the sun. Deer Fern 2. Sitka Spruce (Picea Sitchensis) • The Sitka Spruce, or Picea sitchensis, is a plant very often associated with the temperate rain forest. The Sitka Spruce can grow in poor soils where many other trees can't, this is one reason why it is so successful. It is a huge tree, growing up to 100 meters tall and 5 meters thick. • Adaptations- The trees have to grow larger leaves to absorb the most light during the growing season. The bark of trees is thicker than tropical trees to protect the inner core during long, hard winters. Sitka Spruce 3. Giant Horsetail (Equisetum Telmateia) • The giant horsetail lives in the temperate rain forest, and its scientific name is Equisetum telmateia. It can grow up to 200 cm tall. • Adaptations- The giant horsetails biggest adaptation is it must adapt to the moist environment. Giant Horsetail 4. Salmonberry • Salmonberry is one of the most abundant temperate rainforest plants. The tender spring shoots can also be eaten, and have a sweet, almost candy-like, taste to them. A three-foot long, straight, finger-width section of a salmonberry branch can make a good hand drill stalk for making friction fires. • Adaptations- The Salmonberry grows and bloom before shrubs and trees leaf out and cut off their sun supply. They only bloom for a few weeks in the spring. Salmonberry 5. Western Red Cedar • Western Red Cedar is a widespread tree. It has a seemingly endless list of uses. Traditionally, the bark was used for baskets, rope, mats, and clothing. The wood was used for plank long houses, canoes, paddles, and many other types of tools. A tincture can be made from the fronds that is a topical antifungal medicine. • Adaptations- The truck and roots have to be thicker or they will die in the Temperate Rainforest. Western Red Cedar FIVE HERBIVORES 1. Squirrels Adaptations- They store large supplies of food in the ground for later in the season. -Hibernating 2. Roosevelt Elk Adaptations- They use there antlers and for defense and mating purposes. Flat teeth for grinding. And than Sharp hooves for defense too. 3. Douglas Squirrels Adaptations- Curved claws for climbing, and great leaping ability. Vocal calls used to warn animals of nearby predators. 4. Beaver Adaptations- They have fur to keep them warm when it gets cold. 5. Snakes Adaptations- They eat berries, shrubs, mushrooms, grass and more to keep them alive. FIVE CARNIVORES 1.Black Bears • Black Bears are one of the main carnivores in the Temperate Rainforest. They are usually always on a meat diet. If they aren’t they are eating berries. • Adaptations- The weight they gain during the summer and fall allow them to hibernate during the winter when the weather is cold and there is barely any food. Black Bears 2. Mountain Lions • Mountian Lions another main carnivore in the Temperate Rainforest. • Adaptations- They have to adapt to the climate since it is colder and have really hard winters. While adapting they eat a lot to gain weight so they can survive the winter. Mountain Lions 3. Gray Fox • The Gray Fox likes to feed on the a lot of mice and wood rats. • Adaptations- They like to store their food so in the winter they don’t have to go hunt in the cold weather. Gray Fox 4. Bobcat • The bobcat is a carnivore that lives in the Olympic Peninsula. They eat mostly rodents and rabbits. Sometimes in the winter, they will even eat deer. Bobcats are highly adaptable and live in many other biomes. • Adaptations- The Bobcat is very good at adapting the climate of the biom. Bobcat 5. Wolf • Wolves mainly eat rabbits and other mammals. They are one of the main carnivores for the Temperate Rainforest. • Adaptations- Wolves grow thicker pelts in the fall to protect the animals during the cold winter months. Wolf 8. Food Web Ecological pyramid of the Temperate Rainforest. Predator/Prey -Wolf/Wild Hare The population of the Wolf fluctuates with the population of the hare. As the wolf population increases the rabbit population decreases. With the lack of the hare, the wolves begin to die off. Once the population of the hare increases the rise in the wolf populaton begins. VS Parasitism Parasitism in the Temperate rain forest is when a lychee or a tick sucks the blood out of another animal. Competition The moose and elk both compete with eachother for the shrubs and plants in the North American Temperate Rainforest. VS Mutualism The insects pollinating flowers and the flower providing food for the insects in the form of pollen or nectar is mutualism in the Temperate Rainforest. Benefits • Some benefits of the Temperate Rainforest are they are useful for fresh air because of all the trees. They are also good for tourism and scientific resources. • How we perserve it- We use the trees for wood and decorations. We also use some of the animals for food resources, and a lot of tourisms go there to. Threats • The trees that make up the temperate rainforest are huge, and their value as timber is based on their size. With forests elsewhere already cut, there is tremendous pressure in temperate rainforests. Timber cutting is the number one threat to these forests. If not done carefully, soil erosion can happen. Any Wetlands? • Yes, there are a lot of swamps, lakes, and rivers in the Temperate Rainforest.