CHP in Germany

Report
Energy
Efficient Energy Production with
Cogeneration – German Experience,
Situation & Prospects
17th Mai 2011, Dublin
Adi Golbach
Managing Director
B.KWK – The German CHP Association
1
Overview
•
•
•
•
•
B.KWK – The German CHP Association
Facts & Figures
Potentials & Problems
Policy & Perspectives
CHP examples in Germany
17th Mai 2011
Dublin
2
The B.KWK - The German CHP Association
 all kinds of operators
 all kinds of technologies
 all kinds of fuels
 all branches
bundle forces
integrates
provides information
interferes
17th Mai 2011
Dublin
3
Overview
•
•
•
•
•
B.KWK – The German CHP Association
Facts & Figures
Potentials & Problems
Policy & Perspectives
CHP examples in Germany
17th Mai 2011
Dublin
4
The Background
Climate Change
Ressource scarcity
„Always look on the bright side of life.“
17th Mai 2011
Dublin
5
The three bridges to sustainable energy supply
11 t CO2/a
x Person
Resource
usage
Higher efficiency
 CHP
Renewable energy
2 t CO2/a x
Person
Change in needs
17th Mai 2011
Dublin
6
Energy streams in Germany
Mt of hard coal equivalents
25% of
PEC
Source:
Arbeitsgemeinschaft
Energiebilanzen 2007
17th Mai 2011
Dublin
7
Systemvergleich KWK vs. getrennte Erzeugung
17th Mai 2011
Dublin
8
The Difference
Power Plant
17th Mai 2011
CHP
Dublin
9
The German heating market – a system
of enormous wasting exergy
heating energy
other
Electricity
3%
4%
district
heating
13%
Gas
48%
heating oil
32%
17th Mai 2011
• Conventional heating technology is
squandering EXERGY
• 70 °C heat produced from simply
burning gas with 1100 °C
squanders more than 80% of exergy
• Electricity is pure exergy
• So it‘s better to produce as much
electricity as possible from fuels
Dublin
10
CHP Fuels in Germany
in Plants > 1 MW elt, 2005
Total 78 GWh
Nat. Gas
Hard Coal
Lignite
Mineral Oil
Biomass & Waste
Source: Eurostat
17th Mai 2011
Dublin
11
17th Mai 2011
Dublin
Kroatien *
Malta
Norwegen
Zypern
Griechenland
Frankreich
Irland
Vereinigtes Königr.
Spanien
Estland
Slowenien
40%
Schweden
Bulgarien
Luxemburg
Italien
Rumänien
EU 25
Deutschland
Portugal
Belgien
Tschechische Rep.
Litauen
Island
Österreich
Polen
Ungarn
Slowakei
Niederlande
Finnland
Lettland
Dänemark
CHP in the EU
CHP share in electricity production 2007
45%
Source: EUROSTAT 2/2008
35%
30%
25%
20%
15%
10%
5%
0%
12
Overview
•
•
•
•
•
B.KWK – The German CHP Association
Facts & Figures
Potentials & Problems
Policy & Perspectives
CHP examples in Germany
17th Mai 2011
Dublin
13
CHP Potential in Germany
(As of March 31, 2006)
economically feasable up to 2020; fiction: no political barriers
17th Mai 2011
Dublin
14
Barriers against CHP
• Lack of information about chances and
technical details (sleeping giant)
• Communal or industrial CHP in opposition to
the strategic objectives of some big electricity
companies
• Very ambitious pay-back criteria in industry
(< 3 years)
• Unstable prospects regarding fuel security
and prices
17th Mai 2011
Dublin
15
Benefits of CHP
•
•
•
•
•
Saves energy resources
Climate protection
Saves money in the medium and long run
Reducing energy dependency
Substitution of energy import expenditures by
technical and economical knowledge
• Creates new jobs
• Higher electric grid stability, higher security of
supply
• Smart and flexible to operate
17th Mai 2011
Dublin
16
Overview
•
•
•
•
•
B.KWK – The German CHP Association
Facts & Figures
Potentials & Problems
Policy & Perspectives
CHP examples in Germany
17th Mai 2011
Dublin
17
2007 G8 Summit Declaration
• The G8 Summit Declaration (June 2007)
highlights cogeneration in the section on
Energy Efficiency.
• In section 70. Power Generation: „…
adopt instruments and measures to
significantly increase the share of
combined heat and power (CHP) in the
generation of electricity",
17th Mai 2011
Dublin
18
The German government‘s new energy and climate
package from August 2007
Reduction up to 2020
in Mio. t/a CO2 equ
Measures
Doubling CHP share in electricity production to 25%
20
Reducing electricity consumption by 11 %
40
Substitution of old power plants by new ones
30
Higher share of RES in electricity production
55
Reducing energy consumtion of houses by
modernisation of buildings and heating systems
41
Higher share of RES in heating
14
Higher efficiency in the traffic and rising share of bio
fuels up to 17 %
30
Reduction of non-CO2 gases
40
17th Mai 2011
Dublin
19
New CHP act 2009
•
Target: doubling CHP share in electricity production to 25% in 2020
•
Focus on new installations being brought into operation by the end
of 2016
•
Bonus system again; paid finally by the electricity consumers (max.
0,3 Cent/kWh)
•
Bonus on electricity fed into the public grid or directly used
 > 2 MW elt -> 1,5 ct/kWh over 6 years or max. 30.000h, industry 4 years only
 50 kW to 2 MW -> 2,1 ct/kWh over 6 years or max. 30.000h
 ≤ 50 kW -> 5,11 ct/kWh over 10 years
•
Max. 600 Mil €/a for CHP plants
•
Max. 150 Mil €/a for district heating investments (20% subsidy if at
least 50% CHP heat)
•
Monitoring in 2011
•
Start 1.1.2009
17th Mai 2011
Dublin
20
Renewable Electricity Act 2009
•
•
•
•
•
Higher Bonus for CHP-electricity (3 ct/kWh)
Technology Bonus for innovative CHP technologies
Priority for grid-connection of CHP-plants
Use of liquid biofuels only if sustainability certificated
Practicable conditions for TPA of biomethane
17th Mai 2011
Dublin
21
21
Feed-in-tarifs for electricity from biomass
Based on the Renewable Energy Act 2009
Biogas
Biomethan
11,67
9,18
8,25
11,67
9,18
8,25
11,67
9,18
8,25
7
4
7
4
6
4 / 2,5
4
1
0
0
Technology bonus general
Technology bonus gas processing
2
2
0-2
2
CHP bonus
3
3
3
Basic tarif
< 150 kW
< 500 kW
< 5 MW
Bonus for electricity from energy
crops
< 500 kW
< 5 MW
Manure bonus
< 150 kW
< 500 kW
17th Mai 2011
Dublin
Biomass
Cent/kWh
22
Renewable Energy Heat Act 2009
• Obligation to use pro-rata renewable energy
(e.g. solar panels, pellets)
• alternatively use of CHP heat (≥ 50 % produced
in CHP)
• Obligation for new buildings after 1.1.2009
• Legitimization of local district heating obligation
by reason of climate protection
17th Mai 2011
Dublin
23
23
The governments energy plan
• Sept. 2010:
 extension of the operating time of
nuclear power plants by an average of 16
years
17th Mai 2011
Dublin
24
The governments energy plan
Nuclear Power Plants
in Germany
• After Fukushima:
• Reviewing the prolongation
of the operating time of
nuclear power plants
• “„Energy turn” towards
faster growth of renewable
energy and higher efficiency
17th Mai 2011
Dublin
25
Energy Turnaround:
The government new 6-point program
1. Quickly enhance Renewable energy
Core of the energy turnaround is the rapid expansion of renewable energies. The wind energy
has the biggest potentials.
2. Quickly develop electricity grids and storages ...to transport electricity from wind power
plants in the north to the south. Expansion of flexible power stations and storage, serving to
stabilize the power supply.
3. Consistently increase Energy efficiency
By 2020 the heat demand of buildings shall be reduced by 20 percent. Encourage an
ambitious renovation.
4. Quickly build flexible power plants
In future, flexible power plants must offset the increasingly fluctuating power generation from
renewable energy sources. Gas power plants have a special role. The construction of highly
efficient and flexible power plants will be promoted in accordance with EU requirements. This
is limited to operators whose share of the German power generation capacity is up to five
percent.
5. Reorienting Energy Research
The funds for research into networking and storage should be increased to 500 million € by
2020.
6. Participation of Citizens
People should be fully involved to enable a broad dialogue on the necessity of restructuring
the energy supply.
17th Mai 2011
Dublin
26
Perspective RE Development in Germany
Trends in electricity generation from renewable energies 1991-2030, based on the Lead Study prepared
by the DLR Institute for Technical Thermodynamics
27
The energy future will be decentralised
Today
Tomorrow: distributed/ on-site
generation with fully integrated network
management (INTELLIGENT GRIDS)
17th Mai 2011
cleaner, cheaper and
more
reliable
Dublin
28
The new role of CHP: flexible electricity
production complementary to wind and
solar energy
17th Mai 2011
Dublin
29
Important but neglected: Information & PR
Industry
Economics by
efficiency
17th Mai 2011
District heating
Object CHP
A lot of advantages but
lack of awairness
Big potentials &
chances for many
people
Dublin
30
WESHALB DIE FERNWÄRME EINE
DACHMARKE BRAUCHT!
6.11.2009
Demo-Kongress 2009
31
Overview
•
•
•
•
B.KWK – The German CHP Association
Facts & Figures
Policy & Perspectives
CHP examples in Germany
17th Mai 2011
Dublin
32
District heating CHP
Stadtwerke Duisburg AG
Plant
I
II / B
III / A
III / B, neu
Operation since
1986
1967
1975
2005
fuel
Operation up to
Hard coal
Hard coal
Natural gas
2025
2012
2025
> 2030
elektr. capacity
102 MW
144 MW
41 MW
239 MW
Therm. capacity
139 MW
163 MW
88 MW
167 MW
Elect. production 2006
630 GWh
811 GWh
10
1238 GWh
Heat production 2006
86 GWh
23 GWh
8 GWh
618 GWh
17th Mai 2011
Dublin
Natural gas
33
Industrial CHP, 40 MW el.
Chemical industry, Grenzach
17th Mai 2011
Dublin
34
34
Small scale CHP, 225 kW el.
public swimming pool Schwäbisch Hall
17th Mai 2011
Dublin
35
35
Micro CHP, 5 kW el.
„Dachs“ 12-appartment house
17th Mai 2011
Dublin
36
36
Summary and main results
• Energy efficiency is a core element of a sustainable energy
strategy
• Conventional heat production in boilers is a big waste of
exergy
• CHP is a core element of an energy efficiency strategy
• CHP is being discovered more and more by policy makers
• CHP has a large potential - in Germany and anywhere
• The Target of doubling CHP in Germany is a big chance for
industry and investors
• We have to make our choice on the future electricity
production path – in fact environment tells us that we don’t
have a choice
• By using CHP potential and by overcoming barriers against
CHP we may learn from each other
17th Mai 2011
Dublin
37
Energy
Thank you for your attention!
Consulting on CHP in Germany
[email protected]
17th Mai 2011
Dublin
38

similar documents