Taking ABA into the Natural Environment

Report
Taking ABA into the Natural
Environment
Angela Saturno, MS, BCBA
Syracuse, NY
Shelli M. Harris, MS, BCBA
Milford, NH
Instructional Technologies derived from Behavior Analysis
FluencyBased
Instruction
Precision
Teaching
Errorless
Learning
Incidental
Teaching
Instructional
Technologies
Naturalistic
Behavioral
Approaches
Programmed
Instruction
Personalized
System of
Instruction
Discrete
Trial
Instruction
Direct
Instruction
Script Fading
Pivotal
Response
Training
An Implicit Technology of Generalization
 Train and Hope – Generalization is not actively pursued
 Sequential Modification – Systematically train for




generalization
Introduce to Natural Maintaining Contingencies –
Transfer of behavior control from the teacher/experimenter to
natural contingencies
Train Sufficient Exemplars –Teach another, then another, then
another, until generalization occurs consistently
Train Loosely – Careful, restricted conditions vs. looser more
variable conditions
Use Indiscriminable Contingencies – Intermittent schedules
of reinforcement…never knows in which setting a response will
or will not be reinforced
(Stokes & Baer, 1977)
Naturalistic Behavioral Approaches
 Naturalistic teaching involves using materials and other activities in
which the child finds interesting and arranging the environment to
improve speech, increase spontaneous language, and encourage
generalization
 Examples of naturalistic approaches
 Pivotal Response Training (PRT)
 Incidental Teaching (IT)
 Script Fading
 Naturalistic procedures
 Loosely structured sessions





Trials initiated and paced by the child
Use of stimulus that may be selected by the child
Variation of stimuli across trials
A variety of prompts
Incorporates naturalistic reinforcement
(Cowen & Allen, 2007)
Naturalistic Behavioral Approaches
 The three general principles include:
 Natural consequences
 Occur naturally and do not require rigid
programming
 Incorporation of mediators
 Training using stimuli in which the student will come
in contact in other situations and in the natural
environment
 Training diversely
 Training with less rigidity under varying conditions
using a variety of stimuli
 More closely matches naturally occurring events
(Cowen & Allen, 2007)
Naturalistic Behavioral Approach:
Research
 Ingersoll and Schreibman (2006) taught object imitation using a






naturalistic behavioral approach
Contingent imitation – Therapist imitated child's motions with
objects, vocalizations, & gestures
Linguistic mapping- provided a running commentary
Interspersed contingent imitation with bids for child to
imitate therapists behavior
Actions modeled with novel toys
Used 3 trials before physically prompting
Results: Participants increased imitation skills and
generalized these skills to novel environments. Also increased
language, pretend play, and joint attention.
(Ingersoll & Schreibman, 2006)
Motivation
 The Motivating Operation (MO)
 An environmental event or stimulus
condition that momentarily alters the
reinforcing effect of desired events
Increases the frequency of behavior
that has produced the reinforcer in the
past
(Michael, J. 1993, 2000)
Motivation in naturalistic settings
 Importance of pairing yourself up with
reinforcers
 Satiation/Deprivation-popcorn & grapes
 “Best reinforcers” are accessed through us
 We may give the reinforcer noncontingently (freely) at first.
 We may slide in a few “requests” or target
skills
Multiple Control of the Mand: Research
 Motivating Operation (MO) as an independent variable
 Transferred the control of the mand to the motivating
operation (for some this may take explicit and systematic
fading)
 When both the item and MO are present; mand
considered multiply controlled (part tact/part mand)
 Ask for item when MO is high even if item is not present
 Rolling time delay: item present and mand occurs,
considered multiply controlled (MC) if within 15
seconds mand = MC (impure) if mand occurred
between 16 seconds - 2-min= pure mand
 Prompt fade procedures
(Sweeney-Kerwin, Carbone, O’Brien, Zecchin, Janecky, 2007)
Preference assessment
Single-Stimulus Preference Assessment
Items are presented one at a time to the child, who can interact with the item
Identifies a wide variety of reinforcers
Paired-Choice Preference Assessment
Two items are presented simultaneously to the child, who has to choose one item
Rank the order of each item
Multiple-Stimulus Preference Assessment
Multiple items are presented simultaneously to the child, who can choose
one item.
Access to item is granted (30 seconds)
Selected items are then removed (without replacement).
Other items re presented (different order)
Rank student’s preferences in order chosen.
More efficient than paired-choice.
Reinforcer Assessment Grid
1
Reinforcer Assessment Grid (Wright, 2002) Student: ________________________
Directions: Here are directions for using this grid to conduct a reinforcer assessment
with developmentally delayed students (adapted from Berg, Wacker, & Steege, 1995):
· In the section Potential Reinforcers List, list items 1-6 that you selected as possible
reinforcers for the student.
· Offer successive pairs of items to the student—following the presentation order that appears in
section II, Pairing of Reinforcer Choices. Allow the child 5-10 seconds to select one of the two.
If the student selects an item within the time limit, record the child’s choice. If the child fails to
choose before the time expires, remove the two reinforcer choices and mark ‘No Choice’.
· Continue to present sets of two reinforcer choices to the child until all choices have been
paired with one another (Section II: Pairing of Reinforcer Choices: left column).
· OPTIONAL: To increase your confidence in your assessment, readminister the items in the
order listed in the right column of Section II: Pairing of Reinforcers.
· Summarize the student’s preferences in Section III, Reinforcer Assessment Results.
I. Potential Reinforcers List
Item 1:
Item 2:
Item 3:
Item 4:
Item 5:
Item 6:
II. Pairing of Reinforcer Choices
Trial Set 1: First item presented on student’s right
Paring of items
Student Choice
Item 3 & Item 6
3……6……No Choice
Item 2 & Item 4
2……4……No Choice
Item 4 & Item 6
4……6……No Choice
Item 1 & Item 3
1……3……No Choice
Item 2 & Item 5
2……5……No Choice
Item 3 & Item 4
3……4……No Choice
Item 1 & Item 5
1……5……No Choice
Item 2 & Item 3
2……3……No Choice
Item 1 & Item 2
1……2……No Choice
Item 5 & Item 6
5……6……No Choice
Item 3 & Item 5
3……5……No Choice
Item 1 & Item 6
1……6……No Choice
Item 1 & Item 4
1……4……No Choice
Item 4 & Item 5
4……5……No Choice
Item 2 & Item 6
2……6……No Choice
Jim Wright
(Optional)
Trial Set 2 : First item presented on student’s left
Paring of items
Item 2 & Item 6
Item 4 & Item 5
Item 1 & Item 4
Item 1 & Item 6
Item 3 & Item 5
Item 5 & Item 6
Item 1 & Item 2
Item 2 & Item 3
Item 1 & Item 5
Item 3 & Item 4
Item 2 & Item 5
Item 1 & Item 3
Item 4 & Item 6
Item 2 & Item 4
Item 3 & Item 6
[email protected]
Student Choice
2……6……No Choice
4……5……No Choice
1……4……No Choice
1……6……No Choice
3……5……No Choice
5……6……No Choice
1……2……No Choice
2……3……No Choice
1……5……No Choice
3……4……No Choice
2……5……No Choice
1……3……No Choice
4……6……No Choice
2……4……No Choice
3……6……No Choice
http://www.interventioncentral.org
Reinforcer Assessment Grid
2
III. Reinforcer Assessment Results
Number of times item 1 selected / total number of choices including item 1 = (____ / ____)*100 = ____ %
Number of times item 2 selected / total number of choices including item 2 = (____ / ____)*100 = ____ %
Number of times item 3 selected / total number of choices including item 3 = (____ / ____)*100 = ____ %
Number of times item 4 selected / total number of choices including item 4 = (____ / ____)*100 = ____ %
Number of times item 5 selected / total number of choices including item 5 = (____ / ____)*100 = ____ %
Number of times item 6 selected / total number of choices including item 6 = (____ / ____)*100 = ____ %
Reference:
Berg, W.K., Wacker, D.P., & Steege, M.W. (1995). Best practices in assessment with persons who have severe or
profound handicaps. In A. Thomas & J.Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology-III (3rd ed., pp.805816). Washington, DC: National Association of School Psychologists.
NOTE: For a more complete description of how to conduct a forced-choice reinforcer assessment,
see: Wright, J. (2003). Forced-choice reinforcer assessment: Guidelines. Available on-line:
http://www.interventioncentral.org/htmdocs/interventions/specialneeds/rftassessment.shtml
Jim Wright
(Berg, Wacker, & Steege, 1995)
[email protected]
http://www.interventioncentral.org
Preference assessment scoring sheet
Name: _________________
Date: ____________
Setting: ________________
Time: ____________
1. Present an array of 6 items on a table or on the floor in front of the child.
2. On each trial, prompt the child to “pick one.” Block attempts to pick up multiple items
and prompt the child again.
3. When an item is picked, let the child play with it for about 30 seconds and remove all
other items. After the 30 seconds, take the item away from the child and presen t all of the
left over items as in step 1 (now there will be one fewer item).
4. Continue to follow steps 1 -3 until all trials have been conducted (including the trial
that contains only one item).
Place an “X” under the item chosen on each trial. For t he next trial, remove the
previously chosen item (there should always be fewer items to choose from on each trial).
ITEMS
List items
across top
Trial 1
Trial 2
Trial 3
Trial 4
Trial 5
Trial 6
Summary rank based on order of selection
(DeLeon & Iwata, 1996)
1. ________________________________
4. ____________________________
2. ________________________________
5. ____________________________
3. ________________________________
6. ____________________________
Incidental Teaching
 Interactions between an adult and child
 Arises naturally in an unstructured situation (e.g. free play)
 Child initiated
 Child initiates (look, request, vocal, gesture, sign)
 Adult provides attention (physical approach, eye contact,
questioning look)
 Adult decides what behavior is to be obtained
 Adult decides what prompt level to employ
 Incidental teaching initially designed to facilitate
generalization
 To facilitate spontaneous use of language
(Hart & Risley, 1975)
Incidental Teaching: Research
 Taught children nouns-labels for items they requested “truck”
 Taught compound sentences “I want a truck” to increase adult
asked, “why?” “What are you going to do with it?” then
prompted use of whole sentence “I want a truck so I can play
with it”
 Adult directed request to peer “Ask Bill to get it for you”
 Results replicated earlier studies by Hart & Risley (1968 &
1974)
 Increased unprompted use of compound sentences in all 11
children
 Increased first to teachers
 Then increased to peers who attended to the child’s request
for play materials
(Hart & Risley, 1975)
Incidental Teaching: Research
 Increasing reading skills
 Two children with autism acquired sight
word reading skills in the context of a play
activity.
 Access to toy was granted when label of
toy was selected
 Up to a FO5
 Generalization probes showed reading
skills to locate toys in labeled boxes
(McGee, Krantz & McClannahan, 1986)
Scripts and script fading
 Scrip fading is used to teach verbal interactions
 Students learn a script and then it is faded
 Ex: “I like dolls” would be faded to “I like” then “I”
and then just a blank paper, then nothing
 Scripts can be presented as written or auditory stimuli
 The use of scripts and script fading allows fading of
verbal and other prompts
 Responses may generalize once fading starts i.e. if
taught, “I like dolls,” student may continue to verbalize
the script and say new words
(McClannahan & Krantz, 2005)
Scripts and script fading: Research
 Krantz and McClannahan (1998) used the scripts
“Look” and “Watch me” to teach verbal interactions
in three boys with autism ages 4, 4 and 5
 Researchers imbedded the textual cues in the
student’s picture schedules
 Results showed improvements in unscripted
interactions and verbal elaborations
 Unscripted interactions generalized to other
activities
 Unscripted interactions continued post treatment
(Krantz & McClannahan, 1998)
Pivotal Response Training
 PRT is a behavioral intervention that focuses on teaching in
pivotal areas that may have collateral effects and produce
generalization








Responsivity to multiple cues
Motivation
Child choice
Natural reinforcers
Interspersing maintenance trials with skills acquisition
Reinforcement for attempts
Self management
Self initiation
(Koegel, Koegel, Harrower & Carter, 1999)
Pivotal Response Training: Research
 Pierce and Schreibman (1997) taught peers how to




implement pivotal response training strategies and measured
the effects on social behavior in two children with autism
Training took place in the classroom and during recess
Dependent measures included, initiation of play, initiation of
conversation, and maintenance of interactions
Results showed an increase in initiations from baseline for
both participants
Both participants maintained skills at post treatment
(Pierce and Schreibman, 1997)
Verbal Operants
 Echoic -Vocal imitation/echoing the sounds and word of others
 Mand-Requesting wants and needs
 Motor Imitation-Copy movement
 Tact- TFFC (Tact by Feature, Function, Class)-Labeling or describing
things.
 Intraverbal-Verbally (or using sign language) responding to questions,
participating in conversations, filling in the blank
 Autoclitic - using phrases like “I think…I really… I
played…speaker’s own VB functions as SD or MO for more speaker
behavior.
 Textual- Reading words
 Copying a text- Copying words
 Transcription – spoken word evokes written, typed, or finger
spelled response
Listener Behavior
 Receptive When the learner “receives
information” and follows directions or instructions,
discriminates between pictures and objects (i.e.
“clap”, pick up that toy, give me the juice)
 RFFC (Receptive given feature, function or class.)
responding when provided a description of an item
or thing and not their “name”.
Increasing language: Setting up the environment
 We know the child wants to go outside and jump
on the trampoline.
 We obtain a mand for “trampoline” or “jump”
 Using the Transitive Conditioned Motivating
Operation (CMO-T) contrive opportunities to
increase manding
 Socks, shoes, help, outside, door, unlock, open,
jump, high, higher, run…
23
CMO-T
Mand
 B.F. Skinner coined the term “Mand” in his book Verbal Behavior
published in 1957. “The term “mand” has a certain mnemonic value
derived from “command, ” “demand,” “countermand,” and so on, and is
conveniently brief.” (Skinner, pp. 35–36)
 “The mand occurs when the form of the verbal response (what the
person says) is under the functional control of motivating operations
(what a person wants) and specifies its reinforcement (what the person
gets) ” (Sundberg, (2008) pp. 6) i.e. I ask for juice, I get juice
 So if I want something…I will “mand” for it.
 Make a request.
 Naturalistic behavioral approaches
include the mand-model procedure.
“I want it NOW”
Manding
Frequency recording sheet
Behavior: Spontaneous mands
Learner:______________________
Date
Initials
Time Period
40
39
38
37
36
35
34
33
32
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
30 min
40
39
38
37
36
35
34
33
32
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
30 min
40
39
38
37
36
35
34
33
32
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
30 min
40
39
38
37
36
35
34
33
32
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
30 min
40
39
38
37
36
35
34
33
32
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
30 min
40
39
38
37
36
35
34
33
32
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
30 min
40
39
38
37
36
35
34
33
32
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
30 min
1. Each column represents a time period (e.g. 60 minutes, 1 hour, 1 day)
2. Make a slash on the numbered row each time the behavior occurs.
*This sheet made possible by Dr. Bobby Newman; Room to Grow; http://room2grow.org/
40
39
38
37
36
35
34
33
32
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
30 min
Joint Attention
Child spontaneously shifts gaze between object and adult
for the purpose of sharing; child must make eye contact
1. Adult looks at the child, points and says, “Look up there”
2. Child takes eye gaze to the airplane
3. Child shifts gaze, makes eye contact with adult, and says,
“Airplane”
Adult
(Ingersoll & Schreibman, 2006)
Child
Tact, receptive command, mand
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
A child looks at the swing set (MO)
Adult says, “what’s over there?”
Child says, “swing” (tact/mand)
Adult says, “let’s go” (receptive command)
Child & adult run toward swing
There are 2 kick balls (red and green) in the way.
Adult says, “Give me the red ball” (discrimination training)
Child picks up and gives adult the red ball. (verbal praise)
Child sits on the swing and you wait 5 second (time delay)
Child says, “push me!” (mand)
You push the child on the swing (reinforcement)
Intraverbals
 The child enjoys a few specific songs.You use these songs to




get the child to “fill in the blank”…”SpongeBob SquarePants,
SpongeBob SquarePants, SpongeBob_________” or “Mary
had a little _____.” Do, re, me, fa, sol, la, ti, ___
“What are some things we can do at the park?”
Teaching turn taking while playing a game:
The child loves to play the blues clues matching game. We use
this game to teach turn taking.
Game play teaches many skills…waiting
your turn, labeling, asking,
rule governed behavior…etc
What do you hear?
Prompting
 Verbal Prompt- using words to hint at the correct response
 Visual Prompt- using a visual cue or picture
 Gestural- pointing or looking toward something
 Modeling- demonstrating the behavior (imitation training)
 Tactual or Physical- a touch or nudge
 Physical or Manual Guidance-(hand over hand)
 Most to Least Prompts- used when targeting a new skill
 Least to Most Prompts-used when targeting mastered
skill
Prompting
 Time Delay- wait before prompting…increase prompt if
needed
 Fading- Transfer of stimulus control from prompt to naturally
occurring MO’s & SD’s. (Overall Goal is for learner not to require
prompt)
 Shaping- The differential reinforcement of successive
approximations to reach a desired behavior.
 Prompts are faded systematically and as quickly as possible to
avoid prompt dependency. The goal is to fade prompts so that no
prompts are needed for the individual to perform the desired
behavior.
Pointing, counting, prompting,
NET
Natural Environmental Teaching
 In NET, the teacher has a curriculum in mind (what to
teach) and takes it into the environment. Following the
student's motivations initially, the teacher generates
ways to teach the curriculum using those motivations
and the materials in the natural environment. In NET,
learning does not depend upon the setting or specific
materials. It depends on motivation, creativity, and
instructional control. Christina Burk
Joint Attention; Tact an action
Changing Emphasis of DTT & NET as the Child Learns Language
(Sundberg & Partington, 1998 pp. 211)
Phase 1
NET>DTT
Focus on early manding, pairing,
compliance, stimulus control
Phase 2
NET=DTT
Focus on mand, tact, receptive, imitation,
echoic, intraverbal
Phase 3
DTT>NET
Focus on academic activities and specific
skill development
Phase 4
NET>DTT
Focus on learning from group instruction,
from peers, and without a highly structured
environment; training is more like that of
typical kindergarten and 1st grade
classrooms
Phase 5
DTT>NET
Focus on academic skills and structured
learning characteristic of later elementary
classrooms
Assessments
 Verbal Behavior Milestones Assessment and Placement
Program
 Language and Social Skills Assessment Program for Children
with Autism or Other Developmental Disabilities
 170 Milestones
 Criterion referenced
assessment; not norm
referenced (standardized)
VB-MAPP, Mark L. Sundberg, PhD, 2008
VB-MAPP
Master Scoring Form
Key:
Child's name:
Bill Ashton
Date of birth:
12/2/98
Age at testing:
1 13yrs 1 mo. 2
1st test:
Score
Date
126
1/9/12-2/1/12
Color
Tester
2nd test:
3
4
3rd test:
4th test:
LEVEL 3
Mand
Tact
Listener
VP/MTS
Play
Social
Mand
Tact
Listener
VP/MTS
Play
Social
Mand
Tact
Listener
VP/MTS
Play
Social
Reading
Writing
LRFFC
IV
Group
Ling.
Echoic
LRFFC
IV
Group
Ling.
Echoic
Vocal
15
14
13
12
11
LEVEL 2
Imitation
10
9
8
7
6
LEVEL 1
5
4
3
2
1
Copyright 2007-2008 Mark L. Sundberg
Imitation
Math
VB-MAPP
Language Barriers Scoring F orm
Key:
Score
Date
Child's name:
Bill Ashrton
1st test:
40
1/9/12-2/1/12
Date of birth:
12/2/98
2nd test:
1 13yrs 1 mo 2
Age at testing:
3
4
Color
Tester
AS
3rd test:
4th test:
Behavior
Problems
Defective
Mand
Instructional Control
Defective
Tact
Defective
Echoic
Defective
Imitation
4
3
2
1
1
2
3
Defective
MTS
4
1
VP-
2
3
4
Defective
Listener
1
2
3
4
Defective Intraverbal
1
2
3
4
1
Defective
Social
Skills
2
3
4
1
Prompt
Dependent
2
3
4
Scrolling
4
3
2
1
1
2
3
4
Defective Scanning
1
2
3
4
Defective Conditional
Discrimination
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
1
3
4
1
Response
Requirement
Weakens MO
Weak
Motivators
Failure to Generalize
2
2
3
4
Reinforcer
Dependent
4
3
2
1
1
2
Self-
3
4
Stimulation
1
2
3
4
Defective Articulation
1
2
3
4
ObsessiveCompulsive Behavior
1
2
3
4
Hyperactive Behavior
1
2
3
4
1
Failure to Make Eye
Contact
2
3
4
Sensory
Defensiveness
4
3
2
1
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
(Sundberg, 1998, VB-MAPP, Barriers)
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
ABLLS-R
 The Assessment of Basic Language and Learning Skills
 Use of Skinner’s Analysis of Verbal Behavior
 Helps determine educational priorities
 ABLLS-R (2006) James W. Partington, PhD, BCBA-D 2010
Essential For Living, Patrick McGreevy, Troy Fry, &
Colleen Cornwall (2012)
 A communication, behavior, and functional skills assessment,
curriculum, and teaching manual
 For children and adults with moderate to severe disabilities
The Essential Eight Skills
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Making requests – preferred items/activities
Waiting
Accepting removals – removal of preferred
items/activities, making transitions, sharing, taking turns
Completing required tasks- 10 consecutive, brief,
previously acquired tasks
Accepting “no”
Following directions – related of health and safety
Completing daily living skills - related of health and
safety
Tolerating situations – related of health and safety
(McGreevy, Fry, & Cornwall, 2012)
Books
 Kearney , A.J. (2008). Understanding Applied Behavior
Analysis. Philadelphia, PA
 Lovaas, O.I. (1981). The Me Book. Austin, TX. Pro-Ed
 Maurice, C. (1996). Behavioral Intervention forYoung
Children with Autism. Austin, TX. Pro-Ed
 Newman, B. & Reinecke, D. (2007). Behavioral
Detectives- A Staff Training Exercise Book in Applied
Behavior Analysis. Dove and Orca
 Sundberg M.L. & Partington, J.W. (1998). Teaching
Language to Children with Autism or Other Developmental
Disabilities. Concord, CA. AVB Press
References
• Berg, W.K., Wacker, D.P., & Steege, M.W. (1995). Best practices in


•


assessment with persons who have severe or profound handicaps.
Cooper, J.O., Heron, T.E., Heward, W.L., (2007). Applied Behavior Analysis.
Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Cowan, R. J., & Allen, K. D. (2007). Using naturalistic procedures to
enhance learning in individuals with autism: A focus on generalized teaching
within the school setting. Psychology in the School, (44)7, 701-715.
DeLeon, I.G. & Iwata, B.A. (1996). Evaluation of a multiple stimulus
presentation format for assessing reinforcer preferences. JABA, 29, 519-533.
Hart, B. & Risley, T.R. (1975). Incidental teaching of language in the
preschool. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 8, 411-420.
Ingersoll, B. & Schreibman, L. (2006). Teaching reciprocal imitation skills to
young children with autism using a natural behavioral approach: Effects on
language, pretend play, and joint attention. Journal of Autism and
Developmental Disorders, 36, 487-505.
References: Continued
 Koegel, L. K., Koegel, R. L., Harrower, J. K., & Carter, C. M. (1999). Pivotal





response intervention I: Overview of approach. The Association for Persons with
Severe Handicaps, 24(3), 174-185.
Krantz, P. J., & McClannahan, L. E. (1998). Social interaction skills for children
with autism: A script-fading procedures for beginning readers. Journal of Applied
Behavior Analysis, 31, 191-202.
McClannahan, L. E., & Krantz, P. (2005). Teaching conversation to children
with autism. Bethesda, MD: Woodbine House.
McGee, G.G., Krantz, P.J., & McClannahan, L.E. (1986). An extension of
incidental teaching procedures to reading skills for autistic children. Journal of
Applied Behavior Analysis, 19, 147-157.
Michael, J. (1993). Establishing operations. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 16,
191-206.
Newman, B., Reeve, K.F., Reeve, S.A., Ryan C.S. (2003). Behaviorspeak, Dove
and Orca.
References: Continued
• Pierce, K., & Schreibman, L. (1997). Multiple peer use of pivotal responses training
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
to increase social behaviors of classmates with autism: Results from trained and
untrained peers. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 30, 157-160.
Skinner, B.F. (1957). Verbal Behavior. Prentice Hall, Cambridge, MA.
Stokes, T.F. & Baer, D.M., (1977). An implicit technology of generalization. Journal of
Applied Behavior Analysis, 10, 349-367.
Sowden, H., Perkins, M. & Clegg J. (2011). Child language and therapy, Journal of
Applied Behavior Analysis, 27, 21-38.
Sweeney-Kerwin,E.J., Carbone, V.J., O'Brien. L., Zecchin, G., & Janecky, M.N.,
(2007). Transferring the control of the mand to the motivating operation in children
with autism. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 23, 89http://www.christinaburkaba.com/NET.htm Christina Burk
http://verbalbehavior.pbworks.com/w/page/8131340/Datasheets%20and%20te
mplates#NET Data Sheets
https://www.establishingoperationsinc.com/helpfulinfo.php Data sheets
http://www.precisionteachingresource.net/ Richard Kubina Precision Teaching
Questions?
Contact Information
Angela Saturno
[email protected]
Shelli Harris
[email protected]

similar documents