Dietary Supplement Education for Warfighters

Report
Dietary Supplement Education
for Warfighters
DoD Human Performance Resource Center
Website address: humanperformanceresourcecenter.org
Contact e-mail: [email protected][email protected]
v4: 082212
1
Overview
• Introduction
• Definitions and
Regulations
• Military Personnel and
Supplements
• Safety Concerns
• Finding Science-Based
Information
2
Introduction
• Military-specific guidelines are needed on how
to use dietary supplements (DS).
• Currently, there are no integrated, service-wide
policies to guide military personnel on how to
use DS safely.
• This presentation will provide “must-know”
information on DS to help you make informed
decisions.
3
What is a Dietary Supplement
and how is it regulated?
4
What is a Dietary Supplement?*
• Product containing one or more dietary
ingredients intended to supplement the diet:
–
–
–
–
Macronutrients
Vitamins, minerals, amino acids
Herbs or other botanicals
“Other” dietary substances
*Adapted from the U.S. Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994
5
What is a Dietary Supplement?
(continued)
• Intended to be taken by mouth
• In the form of a capsule, powder,
softgel, gelcap, tablet, liquid, etc.
• Not represented for use as
conventional food
• Labeled as a dietary supplement
*U.S. Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994
6
What is a Botanical?
• Plant or plant part valued for its medicinal or
therapeutic properties, flavor, and/or scent.
• Herbs are a subset of botanicals.
Flaxseed
Linum usitatissimum
St. John’s Wort
Hypericum perforatum
Soybean
Glycine max
Thyme
Thymus vulgaris
7
Why do Military Personnel use
Dietary Supplements?
Demographics
Age
Gender
Duty assignment
Education
Ethnicity
Motivations
for use
Attitudes
Determine
the
selection
of specific
products
Promote health and prevent illness
Enhance physical/cognitive performance
Increase strength and stamina
Build muscle mass
Boost energy
Lose weight
8
Regulation of DS, Foods, and
Drugs in the United States
Food Additives
Dietary Supplements
Medical Drugs
Subject to many laws
and regulations closely
monitored by the U.S.
Department of
Agriculture (USDA), the
Food and Drug
Administration (FDA),
and local agencies
Subject to limited pre-market
review and no pre-market
approval
Subject to many laws
and regulations that are
closely monitored by the
FDA, Drug Enforcement
Agency (DEA), or other
agencies
Mandatory inspections
and incident reports
Mandatory reporting of
adverse events
*No formulation standards
No product registration
No approval of claims Manufacturer is responsible
for ensuring safety and
compliance
Mandatory reporting of
adverse events
* No formulation standards. However, manufacturers must follow
current good manufacturing practices (cGMPs) - 21 CFR Part 111.
9
Regulation of DS in the
United States: Labels
• Most closely regulated part of a supplement
• Must conform to FDA standards
• Requires following information on labels:
– Statement that it is a "supplement"
– Name and place of business of manufacturer, packer, or
distributor
– Complete list of ingredients
– Net contents of the product, e.g., number of pills
– *Nutrition labeling (i.e., "Supplement Facts" panel)
*Except for some small-volume products or those produced by
eligible small businesses
10
Label Requirements
DS Claims
• Claims on Labels
– Must be truthful
– May not say the DS can be used to prevent, treat, or cure a disease or
condition
– Must have the following FDA disclaimer, if it has a structure/function claim:
• "This statement has not been evaluated by the FDA. This product is not
intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease."
• Claims on Brochures
– Claims on supplement labels and content of separate brochures and fliers
are subject to FDA and Federal Trade Commission (FTC) oversight
Federal Trade Commission (FTC) regulates
advertising for dietary supplements.
12
Regulation of DS in DoD
• Generally, if a supplement is not banned or
recalled by the FDA, FTC, or DEA, it is not
banned by DoD at large.
• DoD, each service, and each
base/command/unit has the authority to issue
guidance on specific supplements and/or
categories of supplements.
• Check to see if your base/command/unit has a
DS policy in effect.
13
Regulation of DS in the
United States:
THE BOTTOM LINE
• FDA has “post-market” responsibility to
ensure compliance with regulations.
• DS do not require pre-market approval.
• There is no guarantee of quality, purity,
composition, safety, or effectiveness of dietary
supplements.
• Many DS contain banned or harmful
substances not declared on the label.
14
Making Informed
Decisions on DS Products
• RECOMMENDATION: Shop for products with
seals from third-party verification programs.
• They evaluate and certify DS for quality.
• Examples are:
–
–
–
–
United States Pharmacopeia (USP)
NSF International
Informed-Choice, HFL Sport Science
ConsumerLab.com
15
Safety Concerns
Tainted Dietary Supplements
16
Beware of Tainted DS
• Supplements with hidden drugs & ingredients
• Potentially dangerous ingredients include:
–
–
–
–
Approved prescription drug ingredients and their analogs
Drugs banned by the FDA for safety reasons
Controlled substances such as anabolic steroids
Untested/unstudied new active drug ingredients
17
Health Hazards of Tainted DS
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Contain undeclared ingredients
Sometimes contain 3-4x recommended dose
Claim to be “natural” or “herbal”
Contain untested and unstudied ingredients
Interact with other medications
Possible side effects
Consumer perception that more is better
18
Red Flags to watch for
• High-risk category products:
–
–
–
–
Bodybuilding products
Sexual enhancement products
Weight-loss products
Diabetes products
19
Red Flags to watch for
• Claims on labels such as:
– “Do not take if you have any medical condition, if you are
taking any prescription medications, or if you are pregnant.”
– “May cause a positive result in a performance-enhancing
drug test.”
– An alternative to (or claiming to have similar effects to) an
FDA-approved drug—e.g., “All natural alternative to XYZ.”
These claims often indicate that the supplement may contain
substances not on the ingredients list, prescription drug
analogs, or banned substances.
20
Red Flags to watch for
• Claims about the supplement curing a wide range of
unrelated diseases (e.g., cancer, AIDS, in addition to
diabetes)
• Labels missing the statement below if supplement claims to
affect normal body structure or function (e.g., “helps
promote bone health”)
– “These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug
Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or
prevent any disease.”
• Supplements promising “quick fixes” (e.g., to cure XYZ in
seven days, lose weight in nine days, shrink tumors in one
week, cure impotency in two weeks, etc.)
21
Red Flags to watch for
• Labels that have…
– text in a foreign language
– directions or warnings that resemble FDA-approved drug products
– claims that it is as effective as an FDA-approved drug
– inadequate or absent safety warnings
– a black-box warning
• Supplements not verified by a third-party
verification program. Some third-party verification
programs are:
– United States Pharmacopeia (USP)
– NSF International
– Informed-Choice, HFL Sport Science
– ConsumerLab.com
22
Red Flags to watch for
• Solicitations (e-mails) offering products in the
high-risk product categories
• Directions and warnings that resemble FDAapproved drug products
• Inadequate or absent safety warnings
• Product marketed with personal testimonials
about amazing results from using the product
• Products rated 7 or lower by the Natural Medicines
Comprehensive Database (NMCD).
• The NMCD rates commercial products based on safety,
effectiveness, and quality. Each product gets a rating of 1-10
with 10 being the best and 1 being the worst.
23
Red Flags to watch for
• Products that contain any of these problematic
ingredients…
5-HTP
(5-Hydroxytryptophan)
Aconite
Adrenal extract
Aga
(Amanita muscaria)
Alkanna
American mistletoe
Apricot kernel
Aristolochia
Beth Root
Bitter Orange
(Synephrine)
Bittersweet nightshade
Bladderwrack
Blue Cohosh
Blue Flag
Butanediol (BD)
Buttercup
Calamus
Calotropis
Canadian hemp
Catnip
Cesium
Chaparral
Chenopodium oil
Clematis
Clubmoss
Colloidal Silver
Coltsfoot
Comfrey
Country Mallow
Coltsfoot
Comfrey
Country Mallow
24
Red Flags to watch for
• Products that contain any of these problematic
ingredients…
DMAA
(1,3 dimethylamylamine)
Dolomite
Ephedra
European mandrake
Germanium
Gamma-butyrolactone
(GBL)
GHB (Gamma
hydroxybutyrate)
Gravel root
Greater Celandine
Hawaiian baby
woodrose
Heartleaf (Sida
cordofolia)
Hemp oil
Horny goat weed
(Epimedium
grandiflorum)
Indian snakeroot
(Rauwolfia)
Jaborandi
Jimson weed
Kava
Laminaria
Lobelia
Pinellia ternata
Salvia
(Diviner's sage)
Usnea or Usnic acid
Vinca rosea
(madagascar periwinkle)
Wild indigo
Yohimbe
25
Additional Safety Concerns
• Lack of science-based information
– Lack of studies in military-like environments
• Excess protein intake
– Consuming protein shakes, bars, and
powders may result in excessive intake
of protein
• Excess nutrient intake
– Using more than one supplement may
result in too much of one ingredient
• Stacking
Ephedra/
Synephrine
20 - 25 mg
Aspirin
80 mg
Caffeine
200 mg
– Taking multiple ingredients together
to increase effects of selected ingredients
26
Additional Safety Concerns
• Proprietary Ingredients
– Actual ingredients and their amounts typically are not
provided.
• Multiple-ingredient products
– Some products contain several ingredients, which may
or may not be listed on the label.
27
Wishful Thinking
Common sense tells us that popping a pill alone does not build muscles.
In reality, individuals must use skills, disciplined physical training,
personal effort, and good nutrition to realize their full potential.
28
Guidelines for Evaluating
Dietary Supplements
29
Guidelines for Evaluating DS
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
What is in it?
Does the label conform to FDA rules?
Is it the right stuff?
Is it safe?
Does it make sense?
Does it work?
Does it reach its target?
What other sources exist?
Why take it?
30
Guidelines for Evaluating DS
• What is in it?
– What does DS contain? Are there multiple ingredients?
• Does label conform to FDA rules?
– Does product label state that it is a "supplement”?
Name and place of manufacturer/packer/distributor?
A complete list of ingredients?
• Is it the right stuff?
– Is the active ingredient of the same quality/quantity as
the one used in studies showing effectiveness?
31
Guidelines for Evaluating DS
• Is it safe?
– Have credible professional organizations expressed
concerns?
• Does it make sense?
– Is the claim consistent with current knowledge of
exercise physiology and nutrition?
• Does it work?
– What effect does it have on performance and what is
the evidence for this? What is the recommended dose?
32
Guidelines for Evaluating DS
• Does it reach its target?
– Are there differences in bioavailability* between dietary
and supplemental sources?
• What other sources exist?
– Is it a dietary ingredient? What are the sources? Does it
come naturally in food?
• Why take it?
– Supplements cannot take the place of training or overall
dietary adequacy.
*Bioavailability: How much of the supplement you've taken is actually
received by the body once it is ingested, digested, and distributed into
the bloodstream?
33
Finding Information on
DS Safety or Effectiveness
Examples of credible resources:
–
–
–
–
–
Human Performance Resource Center
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database
Office of Dietary Supplements
U.S. Food and Drug Administration
PubMed
Search engines:
– Google Scholar
– WorldCat
34
DoD Dietary Supplement
Classification System
• Classifies DS for DoD service members based on
expected risk and potential benefit
• Located at:
– http://hprc-online.org/dietary-supplements/dietary-supplementclassification-system-1#.UDP8no4Qh5g
– Accompanying monographs contain information on:
– Dose range/upper limit
– Putative benefits
– Military performance and survivability
– Medication interactions
– Withdrawal effects
– And more…
35
Dietary Supplement Risk Matrix
Benefit
Safety
< Minimal
Concern
Low
Concern
Moderate
Concern
High
Concern
High
Potential
1
2
7
9
Moderate
Potential
3
4
8
10
Low
Potential
5
6
11
12
36
Summary
• DS cannot offset the unfavorable effects of
poor food choices.
• Be an informed consumer and know:
–
–
–
–
How DS are regulated.
What third-party verification programs are.
Potential safety concerns and health hazards.
Which DS product categories are high risk.
• Use reliable, science-based resources to stay
informed.
37
References and Resources
• Arsenault J, Kennedy J. Dietary supplement use in U.S.
Army Special Operations candidates. Mil Med.
1999;164:495-501.
• Human Performance Resource Center
• IOM (Institute of Medicine). 2008. Use of dietary
supplements by military personnel. Washington, DC: The
National Academies Press.
• Lieberman HR, Stavinoha T, McGraw S, White A, Hadden L,
and Marriott B. Use of dietary supplements among active
duty US Army soldiers. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;92(4):985-995.
• Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database
• Nutrition Standards and Education. Army Regulation 40–25
BUMEDINST 10110.6. AFI 44-141.
• Office of Dietary Supplements
• US Food and Drug Administration
38

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