ACES_consolidated_presentations-ENG-FINAL01

Report
SAETO
Self-Assessment
for Educational and
Training Organisations
CONTENT
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2.
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9.
What is the presentation for
Information on ACES project
Quality in ETO
SAETO tools
What is excellence
EFQM Excellence Model
Self-assessment
Continuous improvement process
Management Tools supporting EFQM Excellence Model
What is the presentation for?
• This presentation was created within the frame of ACES project (Self-Assessment as a
Basis for Accreditation and Certification in Educational Sector).
• The presentation is a learning material designed primarily for trainers of excellence and
educational organizations which are interested in self-assessment and implementation
of EFQM principles.
• It provides a preview in EFQM Excellence Model.
• It enables to understand principles of self-assessment.
• It is highlighting the importance of continuous improvement process and quality
improvement in educational sector
• It provides basic information on implementation of self-assessment through the set of
SAETO tools.
Information on the project
ACES – Self-Assessment as a Basis for Accreditation and
Certification in Educational Sector
Multilateral project, in which cooperate partners from Germany, Denmark, Czech Republic
and Scotland.
• Project is designed to develop quality in vocational education and training.
• It is one of a suite of projects aiming to assist European Education Providers cross match
their national accreditation systems against EFQM and self assess their activities.
• The project target is an endeavor to customize and implement existing SAETO tools for
self-assessment according to quality requirements of educational sector.
• Project outputs are adapted software modules of GOA-WorkBench© and supportive
learning materials.
Do you want to be better than the others?
How to be better and find the journey to excellence
Choose from trainings that are offered by EFQM!
(for detailed information see www.efqm.org)
•
Training – Journey to Excellence Training
2-day training for organizations which starts with self-assessment
•
Training – Basic Assessor Training
Online training for individuals for basic understanding of EFQM Excellence Model
•
Training – Leaders for Excellence
2-day training for managers who want to understand and apply the EFQM Excellence
•
Training – Internal Assessor Training
3-day course during which the participants will get to practice
•
Training – EFQM Assessor Training
3-day course provides a more detailed understanding of EFQM Excellence Model and RADAR Logic
Quality in ETO
 Educational and Training Organisations (ETO) without an ISO 9000 or ISO 29990 series
certificate will find it increasingly difficult to do business in a commercial environment.
 However, this series of quality management system standards should be regarded by
organisations as the minimum and the objective should be to surpass the specified
requirements!
 There are also the organisations which don‘t have ISO series certificates, however it is
not any impediment being excellent. These organisations are also able to try to improve
quality and search for the journey to excellence.
 In particular, the current challenge is to develop effective preventive action disciplines
and mechanisms that will help organisations to: to ensure that these drive continual
improvements and broaden the vision from.
 implement continual improvement processes,
 realize improvements, instead of a mere paper work system audit.
Beyond ISO: Excellence
 Many organisations have an ISO 9000 series registration and remain stuck on this quality
management foundation stone.
 They require simple effective advice on what steps to take next on the improvement
journey towards business excellence.
 The challenge is to provide this in appropriate and easily understandable stages, which
can move them from ISO 9000 series registration to real, internationally recognised
excellence in their business area.
Beyond ISO: Excellence
 The basis for this was developed by the European Foundation for Quality Management
and is called the EFQM Excellence Model.
 The gap between the requirements of the ISO 9000 series and the holistic nature of the
EFQM Excellence Model cannot be bridged by taking just another list of criteria for
measuring the organisation.
 More of the basics need to be put in place before the EFQM Model can be effectively
used for assessing and organisation.
 By using EFQM-based self-assessment, it will also be easier to carry out self-assessment
according to the Common Quality Assessment Framework (CQAF) and the processes as
defined in the European Quality Assurance Reference Framework in Vocational
Education and Training (EQARF in VET).
CQAF – Common Quality Assurance Framework
 Common Quality Assurance Framework was developed by
European Union for the purpose of the support to develop
quality of VET providers.
 It results from key principals of existing relevant models
(e.g. Deming cycle PDCA).
CQAF comprises:
Review
(Feedback and
procedures
for change)
Planning
(purpose
and plan)
Methodology Implementation
 a model, to facilitate planning, implementation,
Assessment
evaluation and review of systems at the appropriate
and
evaluation
levels in Member States;
 a methodology for assessment and review of systems:
the emphasis has been given to self-assessment, combined with external evaluation;
 a monitoring system: to be identified as appropriate at national or regional level, and
possibly combined with voluntary peer review at European level;
 a measurement tool: a set of reference indicators aiming at facilitating Member
States to monitor and evaluate their own systems at national or regional levels.
Source: FUNDAMENTALS OF A ‘COMMON QUALITY ASSURANCE FRAMEWORK’ (CQAF) FOR VET IN EUROPE
EQARF – The European Quality Assurance
Reference Framework
 EQARF requires continuous improvement and provides a homogeneous framework of
quality assessment across all existing quality systems and levels of education.
 A reference instrument which provide a systematic approach to modernizing education
systems, especially by improving the effectiveness of training.
 It provides a methodological suggestions for quality assurance of VET, based on:
 Quality assurance and improvement cycle.
 Quality criteria and indicative descriptors (see).
 Indicators and benchmarks for monitoring progress towards the Lisbon objectives in
education and training.
 Copenhagen Process: „Self-assessment will become the cornerstone of continuous
improvement in education and training in Europe.“
 SAETO meets all requirements of EQARF in VET.
The added benefit of SAETO
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European solution with multinational validation.
Methodology based on CAF, CQAF, EFQM & ISO 9004/29900
Software licensed by EFQM.
Extensive survey catalogues for stakeholder analysis.
All questionnaires are adapted in language and contents to the educational and training
sector.
Modular structure to allow for short or in-depth surveys.
Adaptable to specific and individual needs.
Supports strategic improvement planning and direct follow-up on suggestions using
GOA Balanced Q-Card.
Integration of methodology, training modules and software.
Support by an international partner network.
Compatibility
The SAETO solution is compatible with many international and regional ETO specific
quality systems, such as:
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ANECA: Spanish National Agency for Quality Assurance and Accreditation
CQAF: Common Quality Assessment Framework
eduQua: Swiss quality certificate for ETOS
EQUARF: European Quality Assurance Reference Framework
Gütesiegelverbund Weiterbildung: Quality Label Association for Continuing VET, Germany
HEA: Irish Higher Education Authority
INK: Instituut Nederlandse Kwaliteit (Dutch Quality Institut)
ISO 9001/9004: Software allows to report the collected evidence alternatively in this ISO format
ISO 29990: Software allows to report the collected evidence alternatively in this ISO format
LQW: Learner-oriented Quality in Continuing VET, Germany
PAS 1037:2004: QM model of stages of RKW Berlin-Brandenburg for the education sector
Q2E: Qualität durch Evaluation und Entwicklung, Switzerland
YODEK: Academic Evaluation and Quality Development Commission, Turkey
The SAETO software solution
 All assessment and survey catalogues have been adapted in content and language to the
educational and training sector.
 The assessment solution is scalable to the organisations size and requirements and the
advanced modules cover both CQAF/EFQM and ISO 9001 .
 The survey questionnaires are built on
 the requirements collected by a stakeholder analysis,
 the expert knowledge on what kind of questionnaires are mostly used when evaluating ETOs.
 The modular structure of the catalogue of questions allows to fit each survey exactly to
the demand in size, depth and complexity.
Benefits of using GOA-WorkBench
 Conforms to both the CAF and the EFQM model and is always kept up to date.
 Is consistent with the requirements of CQAF and EQARF
 Re-sorts the collected assessment data to a number of ISO standards and allows to
generate reports for ISO 9001/4 or ISO 29990
 Cross-links the collected assessment data to a number of national accreditation
standards, such as e.g. Dutch, German, Irish, Scottish, Swiss or Turkish systems
 Supports methodology and provides a well structured implementation.
 Offers self-assessment as well as a number of satisfaction surveys for collecting the
needed raw data from different stakeholder groups.
 Minimizes the training needs to implement EFQM.
 Is adaptable to the individual requirements of your organisation.
 Offers multilingual assessment and survey catalogues.
 Fast and efficient reporting integrated.
 Follow-up on improvement suggestions and CIP implementation planning with the
Balanced Q-Card.
What is Excellence?
Excellent Organisations achieve and sustain outstanding levels of performance that meet
or exceed the expectations of all their stakeholders.
(definition by EFQM)
Organisation
What is Excellence?
Excellent Organisations show a strong commitment to the satisfaction of all their
stakeholders, related to what they do today, how they do it and how they plan to do it in
the future.
During the 80s emerged several, closely related models to measure this kind of excellence.
Their overall approach is similar, but the reflect the business and political frame conditions
of their regions of origin.
Nowadays three approaches are recognized as international standards:
 Baldrige Award in USA
 Deming in Japan
 EFQM in Europe
Today, the Excellence Model of the „European Foundation for Quality Management“
(EFQM) is the most used worldwide and offers a holistic view of the company.
Basics of the EFQM Model
The benefits of using the EFQM Excellence Model as a management guideline will be
optimized based on how well the leadership team understands and applies the
Fundamental Concepts of Excellence
Below, you see the eight Fundamental Concepts of Excellence, which are continually
adapted and improved:
© EFQM
EFQM Principles
The model applies the Fundamental Principles in the following Structured Management
System comprising of 9 criteria, broken down into sub-criteria and the areas to cover.
Through these, the progress of the organisation is evaluated regarding the pursuit for
Excellence.
What the
organisation
Enabler
Results
DOES
People
Results
People
Leadership
Strategy
Processes,
Products &
Services
Partnerships &
Ressources
© EFQM
Customer
Results
Key
Business
Results
Society
Results
What the
organisation
Innovation and Learning
ACHIEVES
Application of the EFQM Model
The EFQM Excellence Model represents the broad and contrasted guiding framework,
which serves as a guide in the search for increased quality, given that tools and
methodologies for improvement exist and continually arise.
Methodology to improve EFQM Self-Assessment with the RADAR Tool.
Self-evaluation according to
the EFQM Model
Results
Strengths and areas
for improvement
Assessment & Review
Approach
Evaluate and monitor
implementation and results
Plan and set methods for
implementation
Deployment
Implement methods
Benefits of the Model
A „technical“ interpretation of the model
Partnerships
&
Resources
Processes,
Products &
Services
People Results
Key Results of the Organisation
Policy
&
Strategy
People
Society Results
Customer
Results
Leadership
shows ...
... how the 5 cogwheels of the enabler criteria have to fit together to power the big results
wheel and thus move the shaft with the key results upwards.
... that now cogwheel could be left away.
... that no tooth can miss on any of the cogwheels or the shaft will never move.
EFQM & ISO 9001/4
1. Leadership
…..
1
9. Key Business
Results
1
2. Policy & Strategy
0,8
0,6
0,4
8. Society Results
0,2
ISO
9000
3. People
0
7. People Results
6. Customer Results
4. Partnership
& Resources
5. Processes, Products & Services
Links between EFQM and ISO 9001/4
EFQM Criterion / ISO
Chapter
5.1
5.4
5.5
1 Leadership
** ** ** *
**
2 Policy and Strategy
*
5.2
5.3
5.6
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8
** ** *
3 People
**
**
4 Partnership und
Ressources
*
*** *
*
*
*
*
*
*
** *
** *
*
*
*
*
7 People Results
7.4
7.5
8.1
8.2
8.4
8.5
*
* ***
8.3
**
*
*
***
** *
**
*
8 Society Results
*
7.3
*
5 Processes
9 Key Performance
Results
7.2
*
*
6 Customer Results
7.1
*
- *** = Intensity of how EFQM maps into this ISO-Chapter
**
EFQM Model - Criteria
It contains 9 criteria:
– ENABLERS
•
•
•
•
•
Leadership
People
Strategy
Partnerships and Resources
Processes, Products and Services
What an organization does and
how?
– RESULTS
•
•
•
•
People Results
Customer Results
Society Results
Business Results
What an organization achieves?
Below each criterion part are
guidance points. Many of these
guidance points are directly linked
to the Fundamental Concepts.
Source: EFQM Excellence Model (www.efqm.org)
Leadership
Excellent organisations have a management that creates and encourages the vision and
mission. The leaders work towards the long run success of values through the
implementation of specific actions, behaviours and personal actions assuring a
management system is both developed and implemented.
Possible actions and measures:
 Role model function in the definition of the mission and vision
 Active participation in continuous improvement processes
 at the management level
 at the employee level
 Showing personal commitment to customers, partners and those affected by and
visiting the business.
 Implementing effective management instruments e.g.:
 Leadership and goal setting
 Employee motivation through communication
 Incentive and recognition systems
Leadership
Excellent organisations have leaders who shape the future and make it happen. They act
as role models, demonstrating the organisations values and ethics and are inspiring trust
in all stakeholder groups at all times. Furthermore, they strive to enable the organisation
to anticipate and react in a timely manner to all internal and external influences,
ensuring the on-going success of the organisation.
Appropriate tools:
 360° Management Feedback
 Definition of critical Success Factors
 Analysis of the Key Drivers
 SWOT Analysis
Leadership
Excellent Leaders review their progress through a balanced set of results, including long
and short term priorities for all their key stakeholders, with clearly defined “cause and
effect” relationships.
They develop and continuously improve the organisation’s management system, including
evaluating the set of results in order to improve future performance and provide
sustainable benefits to stakeholders.
Appropriate tools:
 Balanced Scorecard
 KPI Analysis
 Risk Planning
 Scenario Management
Leadership
To understand how an organisation can best fulfil its Mission and achieve its Vision it is
important for the Leaders to understand how they interact with external partners that
have an interest in the organisation’s success.
These stakeholder groups include different types of investors, customers, employees,
suppliers or the society’s representatives of the region the organisation is sitting in.
This engagement with the stakeholders is a two way street where the organisation is not
only collecting information from these external sources, but where it also provides
transparent information about its own activities.
Appropriate tools:
 Communication Analysis
 Stakeholder Mapping
 Stakeholder Management
Leadership
To understand the internal and external drivers of organisational change, the leaders have
to understand the environment their organisation is acting in.
Doing so will help them provide for long-range needs rather than just aim for short-term
profitability and thus become and remain competitive.
Appropriate tools:
 Analysing Core Competencies (Qualification Matrix)
 PEST
 Risk Planning
 Stakeholder Mapping
 Stakeholder Management
 SWOT
Strategy
Excellent organisations introduce their vision and mission through a clear strategy
directed at stakeholders. This strategy addresses and supports politics, plans, goals, subgoals and processes.
Possible actions and measures:
Development of a business strategy should make considerations for:
 Data and facts from observations, experience and analysis
 The needs and expectations of stakeholders
 The results of performance drivers and learning processes
 Comparison with top organisations
 Identification of critical success factors
Development of goal and controlling systems:
 Use strategic methods such as the Balanced ScoreCard
 Break down and implement strategic goals and numbers
 Introduce goal controlling processes
Strategy
Excellent organisations implement their mission and vision by developing their strategy
with a strong focus on requirements and expectations of their core stakeholder groups.
To base the organisation’s Strategy on the understanding of the needs and expectations
of both stakeholders and the external environment it is needed to first define who these
groups are and to define their interfaces with and their priority to your own organisation.
Additionally to the needs and expectations of the stakeholder groups, the long and short
term impact of changes to relevant political, legal, regulatory and compliance
requirements must be considered in this analysis
Appropriate tools:
 Stakeholder Mapping
 Stakeholder Management
 PEST Analysis
 SWOT Analysis
Strategy
To base the organisation’s Strategy on the understanding of internal performance and
capabilities it is important to really know operational performance trends, to have a full
understanding of its core competencies and regular outcomes, as well to understand its
current and potential capabilities.
Appropriate tools:
 Qualification Matrix
 Benchmarking
Strategy
Excellent organisations identify and understand the Key Results required to achieve the
mission and evaluate progress towards the vision and strategic goals. To do so, they adopt
effective mechanisms to understand future scenarios and manage strategic
Appropriate tools:
 KPI Analysis
 Scenario Management
 Strategy/Value Matrix
 Risk Planning
Strategy
To communicate, implement and monitor Strategy and its supporting policies, the
organisation must define the required outcomes, identify related performance indicators
and establish targets.
The organisational structure and a framework of key processes must be maintained and
aligned accordingly and in a way that adds real value for their stakeholders, achieving the
optimum balance of efficiency and effectiveness.
Appropriate tools:
 Target Setting
 Scorecard development
 Strategy/Value Matrix
People
In excellent organisations people perform well and achieve organisational and personal
goals. To achieve this, the values and strategies in the organisation are clear and
everybody enjoys a culture of trust and empowerment.
Possible actions and measures to support this are:
 Systematically gather employee satisfaction data through questionnaires,
interviews and employee discussions
 Work out demand, qualification and suitability profiles
 Conception of employee evaluation systems
 Carry out employee discussions
 Develop communication systems
 Empower employees to work independently and to participate for example
through:
 Cooperation and improvement activities
 Cooperation in teams
People
People plans support the organisation in reaching its targets.
The organisation’s strategy must be understood and lived by all people involved.
Therefore, you need to have people plans, specifying the individual contribution to the
strategic targets. It includes defining the performance levels required to reach these
targets and making all people involved understand.
Appropriate tools:
 People Plan
People
People development raises the organisation’s performance and productivity.
Organisations are successful, when they are capable of raising performance and
productivity.
Here are the most important ones:
• Develop the knowledge and capabilities of your people, according to individual career
plans. A skills matrix will help you to identify gaps between skills and talents and the
actual or envisaged position.
• Support your people with adequate resources and tools to perform their work
• Inform and empower them, so that they can reach best possible results
Appropriate tools:
 Skills matrix
 People Development
People
People work in line with the company strategy and are incorporated in the organisation.
People will only do the right things and show best performance,
• when they are aligned and involved in the organisation’s vision, mission and strategic
goals
• when they work in a culture of recognition and creativity
• when they feel like an entrepreneur in their organisation
• when they are encouraged to regularly review and improve the processes
Appropriate tools:
 Questionnaire
People
Internal communication is planned well and efficient.
Communication is more often a success factor than you might expect. Organisations need
to understand how they can improve communication structures to create an atmosphere
of performance and trust. Think of formal and informal opportunities to motivate your
people to exchange information, knowledge and ideas – you will be rewarded by a raise in
productivity and innovation.
Appropriate tools:
 Communication Plan
People
The organisation appreciates, awards and cares for their people.
People will bring best performance when they feel recognized and awarded. To reach this
a whole set of different factors needs to be considered:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Salary and benefits
Work / life balance
Diversity
Working environment
Social activities
Team feeling
Appropriate tools:
 Questionnaire
Partnership and Ressources
In order to excel, an organisation should plan and manage ones external partnerships,
suppliers and internal resources in a way which supports ones strategy and policy, and the
efficiency of processes.
During the planning and management process, the organisation takes into account the
interests, plans and needs of ones stakeholders, market and the environment.
Possible actions and measures:
 Choose partners who agree with the politics and strategy of the organisation
 Carry out supplier evaluations
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Benchmark with regards to defined processes with partners
Set finance plans based on priorities of the politics and strategy
Create a system to identify and value new and alternative technologies
Introduce and practice knowledge management
Partnership and Ressources
Partnerships are managed with a vision to achieve sustainable results
In order to achieve the sustainable results while managing organisation’s partnerships,
any type of organisation should identify ones key partners that can foster the
implementation of the organisation’s mission and strategy. In addition, the partnership of
the organisation should bring an added value to ones customers, and should be beneficial
to all involved parties. Besides, the partnership should ensure sharing of knowledge and
equality among the partners involved.
Appropriate tools:
‒ The Capacity Project Toolkit: Identifying Promising Partners
‒ The Capacity Project Toolkit: Diagnosing Alliance Challenges and Finding Effective
Remedies
Partnership and Ressources
Finances are managed in a way which ensures the sustainable success of processes
In order to ensure the sustainable success of processes by managing finances, any type of
organisation should first of all develop a specific strategy that describes the management
of finances, meeting the requirements of the overall policy and strategy. To ensure the
success of the finance management, it is advisable to establish the reporting procedures,
and to identify the expectations of the stakeholders concerning the usage of the finances.
Besides, the sustainable success of processes by managing finances can be reached by
developing and implementing methods for managing risks throughout the organisation.
Appropriate tools:
‒ Cash Flow Analysis
‒ Activity-Based Costing
‒ Financial Risk Management
Partnership and Ressources
Buildings, equipment, materials and natural resources are managed in a sustainable way.
In order to manage the organisation’s buildings, equipment, materials, natural and other
resources in a sustainable way, any type of organisation should develop a strategy that
describes the particular aspect which fits with the common policy and strategy of the
organisation. In addition, the organisation manages the maintenance and the utilization of
ones resources in an environmentally friendly manner in order to follow the appropriate
life cycle of the resources. The organisation reduces and recycles waste, and optimizes its
inventory as much as possible. Besides, the organisation takes care about an optimal usage
of transportation.
Appropriate tools:
‒ Resource Levelling
‒ Cost Comparison
Partnership and Ressources
Technologies are managed with a vision to realize the strategy.
In order to manage the technologies with a vision that realizes the strategy, any type of
organisation should develop a strategy of managing the available technologies that
describes the technology involvement in the realization of organisation’s policy and
strategy. In addition, the organisation should be aware of an existing and currently
developing technologies that may help to realise one’s policy and strategy. Besides, the
organisation uses available Information and Communication Technologies in order to
support the improvement of the organisation, and to ensure the effectiveness of the
organisation’s processes.
Appropriate tools:
‒ Technology needs analysis
‒ Disaster plan
Partnership and Ressources
Information and knowledge are managed with a vision about a capable organisation,
and in a way that ensures the effective decision making process.
In order to create a capable organisation with an effective decision making process while
managing organisation’s information and knowledge, any type of organisation should
develop a strategy that helps to manage these issues. In addition, the organisation should
identify ones requirements regarding the information and knowledge. The information
and knowledge should be structured and managed in a way that it meets the internal
policy and strategy. Besides, the information and knowledge should be accessible to the
potential users with the relevant access rights.
Appropriate tools:
‒ Internal Information database
‒ Story telling
Processes, Products & Services
Excellent organisations arrange, manage and improve processes to support strategy and
politics, to satisfy customers and stakeholders and to increase value creation.
Possible actions and measures:
 Process management and its’ facets:
 Process analysis
 Process documentation
 Process evaluation
 Process responsibility
 Process optimization
 Process controlling
 Regular, systematic review of customer satisfaction through questionnaires
 Introduce complaint management to continuously gather data resulting from daily
contact with the customer
Processes, Products & Services
Processes are designed and managed to optimize stakeholder value.
What any organisation should do is analyzing, categorizing and prioritizing of processes
within the organisation but also of those beyond their boundaries. The subsequent task
of the management team should then be effective management of processes and their
improvement.
Analyzing processes is essential. Key processes need to be identified and who is
responsible for maintaining and improving processes. Links between process inputs and
outputs should be also shown.
Part of the analysis and innovation process is a measurement system which includes
performance indicators, measures the outcomes and links them to strategic goals.
The management team is also responsible for driving innovations. It should therefore be
trying to incorporate new ideas and innovations into processes and be able to evaluate
their impact and added value.
Appropriate tools:
 Process Maps
 Process identification
 Measurement of processes
 PDCA
Processes, Products & Services
Products and Services are developed to create optimum value for customers.
Mission of each organisation should be creating of innovative values for its customers. To
find out, if those values are really successful and if the improvements are efficient, every
organisation has to carry out market research, customer surveys and similar activities.
Process of innovation and improvement of products shouldn‘t be isolated – all employees
as well as customers and other relevant stakeholders should be involved. It is also
important to be opened to new technologies, their impact and potential on
accommodation of customers‘ needs.
It is necessary to be creative while creating and developing new innovative products and
services. Stimuli from relevant stakeholders should be involved in this process. Especially
customer‘s opinions and desires are valuable.
Appropriate tools:
 Identification of customer expectations
 Customer satisfaction analysis
 Customer requirement matrix
Processes, Products & Services
Products and services are effectively promoted and marketed.
Marketing is essential. Before you start with any such action, you should analyze needs of
all relevant stakeholders. Meeting them ensures sustainability.
Marketing strategy should begin with defining a business model and understanding the
position of the organisation in the market place. The target group of customers need to
be identified and distribution channels decided.
Development of marketing strategies and their improvement is a continuous process and
it is necessary to promotion of products and services to current customers as well as to
potential ones.
There is one general rule to obey in marketing – never promise what you can‘t execute.
Appropriate tools:
 Marketing Plan 4 P´s – Product, Place, Price, Promotion
 CRM Customer Relationship Management
Processes, Products & Services
Products and Services are produced, delivered and managed.
 Produce and deliver products and services to meet or exceed, customer needs and
expectations, in line with the offered value proposition.
 Ensure their people have the necessary tools, competencies, information and
empowerment to be able to maximize the customer service.
 Manage Products and services throughout their entire lifecycle, including reusing and
recycling where appropriate, considering any impact on public health, safety and
environment.
 Compare their product and service delivery performance with relevant benchmarks
and understand their strengths in order to maximize the value generated for
customers.
 Involve their people, customers, partners and suppliers in optimising the effectiveness
and efficiency of their value chain.
Appropriate tools:
 Identification of Customer expectations
 FMEA – Failure mode and effect analysis
 Cause and effect diagram
 Benchmarking
Processes, Products & Services
Customer relationships are managed and enhanced In practice, excellent organizations.





Know who their different customer groups are and respond to, and anticipate, their
different needs and expectations.
Determine and meet customers day-to-day and long term requirements.
Build and maintain a dialogue with all their customers, based on openness,
transparency and trust.
Continually monitor and review and experiences and perceptions of customers and
respond quickly and effectively to any feedback.
Advise customers on the responsible use of products and services.
Appropriate tools:
 Identify your Clients and their different needs
 Brainstorming
Customer Results
Excellent organisations achieve and sustain outstanding results that meet or exceed the
needs and expectations of their customers.
To monitor this, they use a set of perception measures and related performance
indicators to determine the successful deployment of their strategy and supporting
policies, based on the needs and expectations of their customers with clear targets set for
achieving satisfying results.
Examples of such measurements are (in alphabetical order):









complaint ratio
environmental profile
failure rate of courses
index for handling complaints
intent to repurchase
number of requests addressed to the institution
ratio of received to processed complaints
recommendations
response time for complaints
People Results
Excellent organisations achieve and sustain outstanding results that meet or exceed the
needs and expectations of their people.
To do so they use a set of perception measures and related performance indicators to
determine the successful deployment of their strategy and supporting policies, based on
the needs and expectations of their people and measured against clear targets for key
people results .
Examples of such measurements are (in alphabetical order):

absenteeism

employee turnover

accident rate

fluctuation ratio

annual training days per employee

kindergarten places per employee

annual training investments per employee


CIP participation and participants
number of employees trained in fire prevention
relative to total staff

communication index

overtime coefficient

employee attendance at pedagogical train

re-hiring rate of employees

employee satisfaction

sickness rate

training evaluation
Society Results
Excellent organisations achieve and sustain outstanding results that meet or exceed the
needs and expectations of relevant stakeholders within society.
To do so they use a set of set of perception measures and related performance indicators
to determine the successful deployment of their strategy and supporting policies, based
on the needs and expectations of the relevant external stakeholders and measured
against clear targets for key society results.
Examples of such measurements are (in alphabetical order):

access frequency on internet homepage

participation in courses offered for further education

awards and prizes

publications and lectures

image analysis

rate of public orders

indicators of environmental protection

support of health and welfare institutions

newly created jobs

support of sports and leisure activities

number of job applications

number of new indirect jobs

number of press reports
Key (Business) Results
Excellent organisations achieve and sustain outstanding results that meet or exceed the
needs and expectations of their business stakeholders.
To do so they use a set of key financial and non-financial results to determine the
successful deployment of their strategy, based on the needs and expectations of their
business stakeholders and measured against set of clear targets for key (business results).
Examples of such measurements are (in alphabetical order):












age of equipment

capitalisation ratio

cash flow

cash ratio

course utilization

credit terms extended to customers
credit terms extended to supplier 

depreciation of fixed assets

depreciation per period

innovation ratio

investment ratio

level of debt

liquid cash resources

market share

net profit
number of customers per employee 

number of customers per
organisational unit
productivity
profit margin
profit per employee
rate of inventory turnover
ratio of tangible fixed assets to total
return on total capital employed
ROI (return on investment)
share of subcontracting
staff workload
turnover per employee
value-added quota
What is Self-Assessment? (1/2)
Self-Assessment:
 Examine own performance and continuous improvement activities
 Systematically and regularly evaluate duties and results of the organisation
 Position fixing, mirror
•
the organisation evaluates itself
•
analyses its’ strengths and weaknesses
•
agrees upon necessary actions for continuous improvements
What is Self-Assessment? (2/2
It is a detailed map for management and employees with answers to the following
questions:
 How does our organisation „work”?
 How good are we?
 How good are we in comparison to others?
 How good do we need to be?
 What do we need to do to change/improve/develop?
 Where and when can we most effectively start?
Why to do a Self-Assessment?
To…






objectively evaluate an organisation and identify possibilities for improvement
to integrate „Island solutions“ and create a general direction for activities
to transfer knowledge and experience within the organisation
to improve internal awareness of TQM
to create a basis for comparison of results to others
to participate in national or international prizes of excellence
Why to do a Self-Assessments?
International excellence awards:
European Excellence Award – see more: http://excellence-awards.eu/
EFQM Excellence Award – see more: http://www.efqm.org/what-we-do/recognition/efqmexcellence-award
The Purpose of Self-Assessment
Self-Assessment
 is a strategic tool to support business planning, strategy development and performance
improvement.
 creates a comprehensive picture of the organisation.
 integrates all interested partners and creates a requirement for intensive
communication and explanations between them.
 encourages an understanding for business organisation and creates a common
language.
 is a structured method based on facts.
 allows for a systematic analysis of strengths and possibilities for improvements.
 creates the chance to find possibilities for improvement projects.
Self-Assessment: Success Factors
Self-Assessment
 creates realistic expectations especially at the beginning of the self-assessment
processes.
 creates understanding that:
• self-assessment is not a one time process, rather needs to be continuously
implemented in order to measure improvements.
• self-assessment can not solve any problem on its’ own.
 depends on the active participation of managing through example.
 encourages integration of all stakeholders.
 creates a relationship between self-assessment results and ongoing projects and
intentions.
Self-Assessment: Conditions
Preparation for Self-Assessment
 The EFQM-Model is reworded for the specific business.
 Numbers, data and facts are in a form easy to communicate.
 Clear rules for implementation are set.
 Be sure all participants have enough self-assessment experience.
Implementation of Self-Assessment
 Openness and personal responsibility of the current and actual situation are necessary.
 A neutral and qualified moderator should be used.
 It is important not to focus only on percentages, rather to put strengths and weakness in central
focus.
Follow-up of Self-Assessment
 Implementation of steps need to be actively followed.
 Results should be visualized, interpreted and communicated.
Self-Assessment: the Process
Gain acceptance for self-assessment
Plan self-assessment
Create teams) for the implementation
and training for self-assessment
Control Steps
Communicate the plan to those involved
Carry out the self-assessment
Create an action plan
Carry out action plan
Quelle: EFQM
Starters: Easy Assessment
Attributes:

Easy Assessment – Education is based on the EFQM-Model and the nine criteria.

The pre-defined catalogue contains questions in which language complexity is reduced. This
makes the self-assessment self-explanatory and easier to understand.

A complete self-assessment is possible within less than a day.

With Easy Assessment as the single solution a self-assessment can be carried out in a Workshop
with many participants.

With the Team version (Easy Assessment Team), electronic distribution to pass questions to many
participants is possible.

Creates an easy self-assessment.

Link to ISO 9001/4 and ISO 29990
Easy Assessment PC-Support
Easy Assessment Web-Support
Easy Assessment Evaluation
Advantages:

User friendly ratings with pre-defined questions

Questions can be individually altered

Explanations to every question provided

Electronic tracking of improvement actions is possible

Low implementation costs

No consensus workshop is necessary: There is an average valuation when
improvement suggestions are gathered.

The results can generate a report in MS Word or HTML-Format.

Can be implemented for the beginner or expert.

Generates a basis from assessment data for the ISO-Handbook.
Disadvantages:

No evaluation following the RADAR-Logic
RADAR-Logik
The RADAR-Logic encourages:




interpretation of results with regards to politics and strategy
planned methods to reach results
the systematic implementation of methods and
valuation of the methods and implementation
RESULTS
State the desired results
ASSESSMENT & REVIEW
Evaluate and monitor
implementation and results
APPROACH
Plan and set methods for
implementation
DEPLOYMENT
Implement methods
Advanced Users: Excellence Check-Up
Attributes:
 This self-assessment version uses top levels of the RADAR-Logic.
 The 9 criteria of the EFQM-Models are ordered in pre-defined questions which can be
individually altered, deleted or added.
 Questions can be electronically distributed and answered by chosen persons.
 Results create the basis for a consensus workshop.
 Can be used by the beginner and the expert.
 Links to ISO 9001/4 and ISO 29990
 Links to …...
Remark:
Due to regional preferences of some Ministries of Education, the ETO Version of this
approach exists alternatively also with a scoring scale that follows the detailed PDCAScoring of the CAF Model instead of RADAR.
Excellence Check-Up PC-Support
Excellence Check-Up Evaluation
Advantages:

System based on EFQM-Criteria

Reduced expenses through user friendly software, support and automatic analysis

Questions can be individually changed

Simple RADAR-Logic

Evaluate based on target points with a EFQM weighting

List the strengths and areas for improvement based on the criteria of the EFQMModel

For each level of the summary, proof of strengths, improvement potential and notes
are provided

Links to external documents is possible

Generates a basis for the ISO-Handbook from assessment data

Allows alternatively PDCA or RADAR scoring
Disadvantages:

Higher training efforts needed than with Easy Assessment

Higher assessment resources needed than with Easy Assessment
Experts: Full EFQM Assessment
Attributes:
 Addresses EFQM Professionals
 implements completely the EFQM-Model and the complete RADAR-Logic.
 The self-assessment is carried out from the starting point.
 Many participants can be included and can answer the questions with no consideration
to time.
EFQM Assessment PC Support
Excellence Check-Up Evaluation
Advantages:

The self-assessment follows the EFQM-Model.

Software support and automatic data analysis reduce expenses.

The complete RADAR-Logic is used.

At the end, a point evaluation for EFQM exists.

A list of strengths and areas for improvement based on criteria of the EFQM-Model is
created.

For each of these levels, the demonstration of necessary strengths and improvement
potential is summarized.

Links to external documents can be made.

A pre-evaluation for the consensus workshop can be created.
Disadvantages:

All people involved in the process need to understand the EFQM concept.

All people involved in the assessment need to know how to score and collect
assessment notes according to EFQM.
Summary of Assessment Levels
Self-Assessment
Module
Basic Assessment
Easy Assessment
EFQM Check-Up
EFQM Assessment
Standard
Committed to
Excellence




Recognised for
Excellence




National Quality
Award




EFQM Excellence
Award (EEA)




Steps on the way of Excellence
phase
Phase 5
Simplified
Question
catalogue
(Easy Assessment
Education)
Choice of
improvement
projects
Implement action
catalogue
Apply for
„Committed to
Excellence“
Phase 2
Phase 3
Repeat SelfAssessment
Introduce a CIP
based on the results
Phase 1
3 Months
Phase 4
6 Months
Introduction
2. Year
Move to RadarLogic (EFQMCheck-Up)
Introduce
frequent
questionnaires
Apply for
„Recognised for
Excellence“
3. Year
Optimisation
Complete
Assessment
(EFQM-EDU)
Apply for
national or
European
quality award
From 4. Year
time
Why implement Continuous Improvement?
Changes in the competitive environment
Market Expectations
Customer
Satisfaction
Time to Market
Stakeholder
Expectations and
Cont. Improvements
Training Quality
Customer
Satisfaction
Time to Market
Costs
The Right Classes
Training Quality
Costs
The Right Classes
Customer Satisfaction
Training Quality
Costs
The Right Classes
Yesterday
Today
Tomorrow
Two Sources of Progress
Progress
 large steps
 often expensive, high effort
 new levels, new breakthrough ideas
Stagnation
 stagnation/loss in daily business
 selective people involved
Innovation
Time
Progress
 continuous small steps
 good value, low effort
 common sense
 daily business
Continuous
Improvement
 ALL people involved
Time
CIP is
not a sprint,
but a marathon!
Combining Innovation and CIP
Progress
Best results with CIP
AND innovation
continuous
improvement
Innovation
New level
stagnation/loss/
costs for
implementation
Time
The Deming Wheel or PDCA Cycle
Continuous Improvement Process (CIP)
CIP works in a 4 step cycle
 plan the improvement steps
 do the improvement work
 check the results of improvement steps
 act: corrective action/further improvements
For all 4 steps, measurements are required to decide on:
 What is the situation?
 What is the present status?
 What has changed?
 Is the plan successful?
CIP is a
never-ending cycle of P-D-C-A
System Standards supports CIP
System standards like ISO9001 and EFQM help fix the level of progress which organisations
can achieve with CIP and innovation
CIP
Progress
Standards assure the level
(e.g. ISO 9001)
Time
Relationship between CIP and EFQM
Results
Enabler
People
Results
People
Leadership
Policy &
Strategy
Processes
Partnerships &
Ressources
Customer
Results
Key
Performance
Results
Society
Results
Innovation and Learning
The dimension “Assess and Refine”
►MEASUREMENT: quantitative indicators
► LEARNING & CREATIVITY: learning activities are undertaken
to identify good and best practices or better ways of working
► IMPROVEMENT & INNOVATION: output from
measurement and learning is used to identify, prioritise, plan and
implement improvements and innovative ways of working.
This can be incremental improvement or “step changes”, driven by
innovation.
CIP is a core element of EFQM:
self-assessment
 Learning
 CIP cycle
How to motivate all Employees
 Create benefits for all people
 give them recognition
 empower them
 give them incentives
 Show benefits for both people and
the processes
 Tell them success stories
 Realize quick wins (progress in small steps)
 Train the people in CIP methods and instruments
 Leaders should give a shining example for CIP
How to generate and collect Ideas for
Improvement
 EFQM self-assessment
 Benchmarking
 Input from customer and people surveys
 Conferences, meetings, workshops:




Quality circles
Idea management:




brainstorming, creativity techniques
conferences with key customers
letter-box, idea-box
intranet/extranet
Projects
Process review, audit, measurements of processes
How to select and process Ideas
Many ideas....
...a filtering process…
...few priorities
Expenditures
Low
High
Low
High
Consequences
CIP involvement process
Challenge
IS*
AfI
All stakeholders
Prioritisation
Complaint
*IS = Improvement Suggestion
IS
List
of rated
IS
IS
IS
data
base
Improvement
activities & projects
Concept of Balanced Q-Card
Balanced Q-Card (BCQ) supports collecting and selecting ideas from surveys or
assessments and performing your CIP
BQC helps you to:
 filter/select ideas form surveys and
assessments and generate ideas
- stand-alone PC
- team application in the web
 allows to emphasise selected EFQM criteria
or levels of assessment
 describe improvement actions
 support the project management
 monitor the state of the different projects
Inquiry Techniques: Functional Chain
The functional chain between satisfied employees and satisfied customers
Internal
service
quality
Employee
motivation,
engagement
and
satisfaction
Employee survey:
Analyze and improve
working and management
situation
External
service
quality
Customer
satisfaction
and loyalty
Customer survey:
Analyze and meet needs
and expectations
Empirical studies have confirmed that in organisations with dissatisfied employees, customer
satisfaction also sinks in middle run results of the business. Satisfied employees are the
basis for satisfied customers and business success.
Inquiry Techniques: Procedure
1
Explain and motivate the crew/organisation
and project team
2
Set the target groups and
business goals
3
Explore previous attempts
4
Define examination attempts
Create questionnaires, formulate questions; question
content, choice of questionnaire participants
5
Carry out questioning and analysis
of the data
Field work, set dates, value qualitative data, value
quantitative data, evaluate and organise satisfaction
data
6
Visualise and present the results
Create a results report, visualise results with pictures,
prepare and carry out presentation, choose the proper
presentation medium
Questioning Techniques: Satisfaction Survey
Target performance
(expected performance;
i.e. quality, credibility,
design)
Compare
Actual performance
(existing performance)
Results of the
comparison
Target > Actual
Target = Actual
Target < Actual
Dissatisfaction
Satisfaction
Enthusiasm
SAETO Survey Support
SAETO can support your organisation in obtaining the needed measurements with a
number of inquiry tools and survey knowledge bases, such as:
 360° management Feedback
 People Satisfaction Survey
 Team Effectiveness Analysis
 Training Evaluation
…
GOA Inquiry Modules
Team Effectiveness
LOP Inventory
Objectives
360° Management Feedback
Objectives
InnoMan Culture
Supplier Audits
Basell II
People Inquiry
Organisational Climate
Customer Inquiry
KVP WorkBench
Project Excellence
InnoMan Process & Project
Inquiry Prof.
Implementation of EFQM Model
Tools supporting the EFQM Model
Tools supporting the EFQM Model
360° feedback
 The tool supports development of human resources.
 The fundamental of 360° feedback is objective multi-evaluation of the
employee/manager - feedback from his/her co-workers, subordinates, superiors,
customers who assess his/her behavior. (Assessors remain anonymous).
 The employee/manager also assess himself/herself.
 Assessment of employee/manager by using questionnaires
 An individual structured report is a result, which serves as a basis for designing
the development plan for particular employee/manager.
Tools supporting the EFQM Model
Definition of critical success factors (CSF)
 Simple analytical technique that is used to identify key factors for the success which
are essential for organization/plan/purpose/project.
 Various models might be used for defining of CSF (e.g. PQM - Process Quality
Management)
 Critical success factors can be divided into:
•
•
•
•
Internal (controlled by management)
External (management is not able to influence them directly)
Monitoring (focused on the current situation of the company)
Adapting (focused on the development and growth of the company)
 Identification and analysis of critical success factors (CSF):
- definition of the frame/field of operation,
- data collection,
- data analysis,
- interference of CSF,
- CSF analysis.
Tools supporting the EFQM Model
Analysis of the key drivers
 Used to identify the key attributes that have a significant impact on customers'
decision making during the purchasing products/services of the organization.
 It helps to determine:
 What affects customer satisfaction?
 What determines the customer's willingness to buy for the given price?
 What is crucial to increase sales?
Tools supporting the EFQM Model
SWOT analysis
 It is one of the basic tools of strategic management.
 A method that is used to identify the STRENGTHS and WEAKNESSES of the
organization and the potential OPPORTUNITIES and THREATS.
 Strengths and weaknesses are internal factors (human capital, know-how, equipment,
capacity, etc.).
 Opportunities and threats are external factors
(market size, competition, macroeconomic factors, etc.).
 It can be used for analysis of the company, but also for
analysis of products or services.
SWOT analysis is useful only if it is followed by other
additional activities (e.g. modification of strategic plans,
improving of identified imperfections, elimination of risks, etc.)!
S
W
O
T
Tools supporting the EFQM Model
Balanced Scorecard (BSC)
 A strategic management tool which is
used
to
measure
business
performance.
 It is based on strategy of the company,
which is developed and put into
specific objectives and targets.
 It enables organization to monitor
continually the achievement of
strategic goals:
 Comparison of pre-defined
quantitative goals with actually
achieved results.
FINANCE
CUSTOMERS
VISION and
STRATEGY
LEARNING
and
GROWTH
BUSINESS
PROCESSES
Tools supporting the EFQM Model
Analysis of KPI
 Business performance monitoring by using so-called "key performance indicators".
 Performance indicators are usually quantified and derived from organizational targets.
 Actual targets are compared with predetermined ones.
 Examples of performance indicators:
 Costs of production of 1pc
 Number of defective products
 Number of orders
 Net profit
 Market share
 Return on investment
 etc.
Tools supporting the EFQM Model
Risk Management
 The process of identification and elimination of existing or potential threats (risks).
 Analysis of risk factors and their impacts (positive/negative) on the organization
and its environment.
 Decision-making on implementation of measures aimed at risk elimination or
minimization of impacts.
 There are two possible approaches:
 REACTIVE STRATEGY
 The organization responses to current situation ( organization applies
corrective actions).
 PROACTIVE STRATEGY
 The organization predicts the potential risks and takes action to prevent
adverse situations (preventive action plan, crisis plans).
Tools supporting the EFQM Model
Scenario planning
 This method used for creation efficient strategy through forecasting variants of future
development of external environment of the organization.
 Scenarios represent description of possible situations in the future development of the
company environment.
 Management create various strategies for each scenario of future development.
 Types of scenarios:
 OPTIMISTIC
 PESSIMISTIC
 REALISTIC
 SURPRISING
Tools supporting the EFQM Model
Communication Plan
 It is a formal document which regulates the information flow within the organization.
 It specifies the rules of internal communication - the way of distribution of
information, standard communication documents, who, when, where and to whom
reports; periodicity of meetings, etc.
 It should help to assure that accurate and relevant information are available to
relevant groups of employees at the right time .
Communication Analysis
 It is used for efficient assessment of an operation of marketing-communication tools
which are actually used by organization for promoting its products and services to
target groups.
 The analysis help to assess suitability of communication channels used, relevance of
marketing message, effectiveness of marketing activities, etc.
Tools supporting the EFQM Model
Stakeholder Management
Mapping of stakeholders
 Identification of key stakeholders and their expectations .
 Mapping of stakeholders‘ influence - each stakeholder has different role
(decision-makers , influencers , players, etc.).
 Mapping
of
stakeholders‘
attitudes
towards
the
organization
(positive/negative/neutral).
 Designing of suitable communication (formal/informal) with various stakeholders.
Tools supporting the EFQM Model
PEST analysis
 Strategic analysis of macroeconomic effects of the external environment.
 POLITICAL (LEGISLATIVE) factors

Political stability/instability of region, legislation, taxation, etc.
 ECONOMIC factors

Development of macroeconomic indicators, business cycle, etc.
 SOCIAL-CULTURAL factors

Demographic development, education, lifestyle, etc.
 TECHNOLOGICAL factors

Research and development, technological changes, pro-innovation environment, etc.
Tools supporting the EFQM Model
Key Competencies Analysis (Qualification Matrix)
 Qualification matrix enables organization to take an overview of vocational
knowledge and skills of employees.
 Qualifying matrix helps organization to identify the training areas for
employees.
Tools supporting the EFQM Model
Benchmarking
 Strategic management tool – we compare ourselves with competition.
 A systematic process for evaluation and comparison of products, processes,
services, methods of organization with the best sectorial average.
 It helps organization to define priority areas for improvement.
Tools supporting the EFQM Model
Creating Scorecard
 Scorecard is management tool used to measure the overall performance of the
organization.
 Support of strategic planning.
 Scorecard includes performance indicators (metrics) that are based on the areas
of interest of the organization and its goals.
 Scorecard facilitates to measure business performance from different
perspectives:




Financial perspective
Customer perspective
Internal business processes
Learning and growth
Tools supporting the EFQM Model
Target setting
 Targets should be SMART
S
• SPECIFIC
M
• MEASURABLE
A
• AGREED
R
• REALISTIC
T
• TIMELY
Tools supporting the EFQM Model
Human Resource Management
 Employees planning
 Prediction of the development of employees‘ needs.
 Planning of the professional and qualification structure of employees in the company.




Recruitment, selection and deployment of employees (internal vs. external resources)
Evaluation of employees
Remuneration of employees
Employees development
 Corporate education – up-skilling, re-skilling.
 Social skills training.
 Career management - mentoring, coaching, development centers.
Tools supporting the EFQM Model
Cash-flow Analysis
 Currently a very popular tool of financial Analysis.
 Cash-flow Analysis enables to find out a real flow of money in particular company for a
given period.
 It helps to identify the causes of changes in finances and evaluate financial
management and investment possibilities of organization.
 Cash-flow analysis consists of three parts:
 Operating Cash-flow
 Investment Cash-flow
 Financial Cash- flow
Tools supporting the EFQM Model
Activity Based Costing
 It is an approach for monitoring and allocation of costs – the tool for process
management of the costs.
 Costing, according to the ABC method is based on the causal relations between
incurred costs and their cause.
 In practice, it means that we follow up the activities in company and consequently try
to allocate appropriate costs to them.
 This method allows a more accurate allocation of overhead costs and provides more
accurate information on the output costs.
Tools supporting the EFQM Model
Process Management
 It is a set of activities related to planning, implementation and monitoring of business
processes.
 Process management includes definition of core business processes, processes
prioritization, gap analysis and processes improvement.
 Very important is identification of processes that might be risk – early identified causes
of risk situations allows the organization to propose and implement preventive
actions.
 For monitoring processes, we use measuring of processes (e.g. by using the key
performance indicators - KPI).
Process Map
 Process Map is a clear and visualized breakdown of all business processes and
activities.
 By using the map we can distinguish the processes as general, management and
supporting.
Tools supporting the EFQM Model
Financial Risk Management
 Financial risk might be negative (loss) or positive (profit). Therefore it is necessary to
eliminate negative ones and also search actively for yield opportunities.
 There are different types of financial risks – credit risks, investment risks, liquidity risk
or market risk.
 Financial risk management is the responsibility of managers. Objective of management
is to eliminate risk situations, portfolio diversification, or minimize impact of risk
situations.
 Financial Risk Management is based on:




Identification of risks
Risk evaluation
Strategy for managing risks
Monitoring of the development of risk situations
Tools supporting the EFQM Model
Resource leveling
 Resource leveling is one of the project management techniques, which is used to
examine unbalanced use of resources during time period.
 The aim of the resource leveling is to allocate effectively all resources, so as smooth
running of the project activities is ensured.
 Resource leveling is based on assigning the necessary resources to the given tasks.
Tools supporting the EFQM Model
Crisis plan (Disaster plan)
 Crisis plan serves as a management tool for problematic situation which disrupts or
threatens integrity and economic stability of organization.
 Content of Crisis plan:
 List of potential incidents and the probability of their occurrence.
 Potential incidents are categorized into groups for which common procedures for dealing
with incidents are designed.
 Responsible persons.
 Definition of resources needed for each group of incidents.
 Impacts of potential incidents on company processes.
Tools supporting the EFQM Model
Customer Satisfaction Analysis
• Customer satisfaction is a basic strategic goal of each organization.
• Analysis of customer satisfaction is a part of marketing research. The result of
Customer Satisfaction Analysis is comparison of customers‘ expectations with their
actual satisfaction with given product (service).
• Customer satisfaction can be examined in several ways – e.g. questioning, Mystery
Shopping, gathering of customer feedback (complaints, reclamations, compliments,
etc.).
Tools supporting the EFQM Model
Marketing Mix - 4P
• Marketing mix is a method used for
preparation
of
strategy
for
products/services.
PRODUCT
•
•
•
•
•
Quality
Brand
Design
Guarantee
Service
PRICE
COMMUNICATION
DISTRIBUTION
•
•
•
•
• Sales promotion
• Advertisement,
PR
• Communication
channels
• Sales channels
• Locations
(markets)
• Transportation
• Storage
Price list
Discounts
Loan terms
Maturity dates
Tools supporting the EFQM Model
Customer Relationship Management (CRM)
CRM – Customer Relationship Management
• It is a complex of business, marketing, communication and service processes in the
organization focused on customers.
• CRM is long, complicated and continuous process.
• CRM = building relationships with customers.
• Information on relevant customer acquisition - contact information, habits, history of
transactions, buying preferences, hobbies, perceptions, etc.
• CRM helps to identify, acquire and retain customers.
• Currently, there are available many software CRM tools that ease customer
relationship management.
Tools supporting the EFQM Model
FMEA – Failure Mode and Effects Analysis
•
•
•
•
•
•
Methodology for risk management.
Preventive analysis of the possibilities of defects and their causes and consequences.
It is used especially in pre-production stages in manufacturing companies .
It helps to identify the most likely critical factors of the production process/product.
A tool for continuous quality improvement of product.
The analysis is performed by a team with the coordinator as a team leader.
Tools supporting the EFQM Model
Cause and Effect Diagram
Ishikawa diagram
• Used to determine the most probable cause of the problem that we solve.
• Tool for quality improvement, which is based on finding logical links between causes
and effects.
• It has the shape of an imaginary fish skeleton - the head is the problem and the bones
are possible causes.
• The causes are divided into different areas - material, labor equipment, methods of
measurement, people management and environment.
• It is often used in the search for solutions team techniques (such as brainstorming).
• It can be used as a preventive tool for finding potential problems, but also for reverse
search for causes of the problem.
Tools supporting the EFQM Model
Brainstorming
• It is a team technique based on generating a large number of ideas on a specific topic.
• Promotes creative thinking and creating novel (unusual) ideas.
• The first stage of brainstorming is more spontaneous and creative – participants do
not judge ideas of the others.
• The second phase of brainstorming focused on the rational (logical) assessment of
generated ideas and their evaluation in terms of real use, performance, cost, etc.

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