(수정2) - Physical Pharmacy Laboratory

Report
SKKU Physical Pharmacy Laboratory
성균관대학교 물리약학연구실

Introductions

Concentration expressions

Equivalent weights

Ideal solution & Real solution

Colligative properties
SKKU Physical Pharmacy Laboratory
성균관대학교 물리약학연구실
 Composition
Solvent
Solute
 Classification
True solution ex) sucrose soln., air
Coarse dispersion ex) spray, blood
Colloidal dispersion ex) acacia soln., milk
SKKU Physical Pharmacy Laboratory
성균관대학교 물리약학연구실
 Colligative
properties
vapor pressure lowering,
freezing point depression
 Additive
properties
molecular weight
 Constitutive
properties
refraction of light, electric properties
SKKU Physical Pharmacy Laboratory
성균관대학교 물리약학연구실
Expression Symbol
Characteristics
Molarity
M, c
Dependent on temp.
Normality
N
Dependent on temp.
Molality
m
Independent on temp.
Mole fration
X, N
Mole percent
Percent
% w/w, v/v, w/v
SKKU Physical Pharmacy Laboratory
성균관대학교 물리약학연구실
•
Equivalent weight is ….
The quantities of atom or molecule
combining with 1.008 g of hydrogen
•
Equivalent weight
= atomic weight / valence
SKKU Physical Pharmacy Laboratory
성균관대학교 물리약학연구실
NaCl
0.01mole
“분자간의 인력이 균일”
1L
SKKU Physical Pharmacy Laboratory
성균관대학교 물리약학연구실
Temperature, Concentration, Pressure…..
SKKU Physical Pharmacy Laboratory
성균관대학교 물리약학연구실
Equilibrium
vapor pressure
SKKU Physical Pharmacy Laboratory
성균관대학교 물리약학연구실
PA= P’A * XA
PB= P’B * XB
P= PA + PB
SKKU Physical Pharmacy Laboratory
성균관대학교 물리약학연구실
•Adhesion
•Cohesion
>
<
SKKU Physical Pharmacy Laboratory
성균관대학교 물리약학연구실
>
Ex) chloroform + acetone
•dilution effect
•attraction
•Van der Waals force
SKKU Physical Pharmacy Laboratory
성균관대학교 물리약학연구실
<
Ex) benzene + ethanol
•escaping tendency의 증가
부분 증기압 증가
Psolvent = P’solvent * Xsolvent
SKKU Physical Pharmacy Laboratory
성균관대학교 물리약학연구실
Psolute = Ksolute * Xsolute
SKKU Physical Pharmacy Laboratory
성균관대학교 물리약학연구실
d
v2
b
Liquid
A
e
Vapor
f
a
v1
c
B
SKKU Physical Pharmacy Laboratory
성균관대학교 물리약학연구실
•A mixture of constant
composition and constant
boiling point
ex) HCl in water
20.22% (w/w)
bp : 108.58℃
SKKU Physical Pharmacy Laboratory
성균관대학교 물리약학연구실
Psolvent = P’solvent * Xsolvent
= P’solvent * (1-Xsolute)
P / P’solvent = Xsolute
측정: manometer,
osmometer,
isopiestic method,
thermoelectric
method
SKKU Physical Pharmacy Laboratory
성균관대학교 물리약학연구실
•
Tb = K * X2
= Kb * m
• Cottrell boiling
point apparatus
SKKU Physical Pharmacy Laboratory
성균관대학교 물리약학연구실
•
Tf = Kf * m
• Beckmann method
• Equilibrium method
SKKU Physical Pharmacy Laboratory
성균관대학교 물리약학연구실
Osmosis
Osmosis vs VP depression
Osmometer
SKKU Physical Pharmacy Laboratory
성균관대학교 물리약학연구실
πV = n R T
π : osmotic pressure in atm
V : volume of solution in liter
n : number of moles of solute
R : 0.082 (liter*atm) / (mole*deg)
T : absolute temperature
π= R T * m
Morse Equation
m: Molal conc.
SKKU Physical Pharmacy Laboratory
성균관대학교 물리약학연구실
1) Vapor pressure lowering 이용
P / P’ = X2 = n2 / (n1 + n2)
W2 / M2
=
W1 / M1
M2 =
W2*M1*P’
W1* P
SKKU Physical Pharmacy Laboratory
성균관대학교 물리약학연구실
2) Boiling point elevation
이용
Freezing point lowering
Tb = Kb * m
Tf = Kf * m
1000 * W2
m=
W1 * M2
Kb* 1000 * W2
Kf* 1000 * W2
=
M2 =
W1* P
W1 * P
SKKU Physical Pharmacy Laboratory
성균관대학교 물리약학연구실
3) Osmotic pressure 이용
π=n*R*T/V
n = W2 / M2
M2 =
W2 * R * T
π*V
SKKU Physical Pharmacy Laboratory
성균관대학교 물리약학연구실

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