First aid & treatments Worksheet

You’re the first
point of contact…
What do you do?
First Aid
First Aid is known as the emergency treatment administered to an injured or
sick person before professional medical or surgical care is available.
The F.A. define it as......
‘First aid is the initial management and
treatment(of a player) for the purpose of
preserving life and minimising the consequences of
serious injury/illness in (football) environments
(ambulance/paramedics) help is obtained’.
(The F.A.)
When applying first aid, you must assess the situation.
This will help you to prioritise who, what and when to
Think back to the last injury you witnessed and imagine you are the designated First
Aider, answer the following questions...
What did you see? What was the mechanism (how did it happen) of injury?
Is it safe to approach? Are their any hazards or dangers to you or others?
Can you assess situation quickly/safely?
Does the injured player respond to you?
Does player appear conscious or unconscious?
What are your priorities and what should you do next?....
If the player has no pulse and/or is not breathing
the First Aider may have to perform resuscitation.
This is keeping the injured players heart beating and lungs breathing for
them. Watch the follow video on YouTube to learn how to perform
Resuscitation… You will be having a go!
Remember only a qualified First Aider should attempt to resuscitate
someone unless there is no-one else around to help you!
Severe Bleeding is a life-threatening condition, therefore the bleeding must be controlled quickly.
There are 4 procedures to follow;
Apply Pressure
Dress the Wound
4. Monitor
1. Apply Direct Pressure
This is to try and stop the flow of blood and
encourage a clot to form.
2. Apply a Dressing
Applying a sterile non-fluffy dressing covers the
wound protecting it and preventing the spread
of infection.
If the wound is severe you may need to monitor
the player as they may go into shock due to
blood loss. You may also want to check that the
dressing isn’t too tight and restricting
3. Elevation
Elevate the bleeding limb or area above player’s
heart (if practicable). This will reduce the
amount of blood flow to the wound.
Shock is a life-threatening condition. It is caused by severe blood loss resulting in
loss of oxygen to body’s vital organs. It requires immediate hospital treatment or it
could be fatal.
Signs & Symptoms of Shock
•pale/cold/clammy skin
•blueness of lips (cyanosis)
weakness, dizziness
rapid shallow breathing
Treatment for Shock
•Dial 999 or take the player to hospital.
•Treat cause of shock i.e. stem the bleeding causing the excessive blood loss.
•Help player lie down
•Raise/support player’s legs above level of heart (if injury permits).
•Do not raise head.
•Loosen player’s clothing if constrictive at neck/chest/waist.
•Constantly reassure / do not leave player unattended.
•Monitor breathing/level of consciousness whilst awaiting ambulance.
‘A fracture is a loss of continuity in the
bones surface’. (The F.A.)
What is a Fracture?
A fracture is a break, crack, flake or chip in the bone.
Signs &Symptoms of a Fracture
•The player or others may have heard a ‘crack’.
•There will be localised pain
•Sometimes there can be a visible deformity, for example a bend in the limb
or bone protruding from the skin.
•Localised swelling &) bruising.
•The player may be unwilling or unable to move or put weight on the limb.
•Sometimes there can be numbness or tingling
(pins & needles).
Treatment of a Fracture
•Do not move the player.
•Immobilise the injured limb.
•Call 999 for an ambulance.
•Keep player warm.
Prevention of
After breaking the skin there is a risk of infection for both the injured player and
the First Aider. This can be prevented by following the guidelines below:
•hand cleansing (as/when appropriate)
•cover own wounds (particularly on hands)
•wear disposable gloves
•carry ‘yellow’ plastic bags (disposal of ‘contaminated’ items)
•personal immunisation, e.g. tetanus immunisation.
Qualified Assistance & Accident Report
A First Aider should always know their capabilities and never attempt to
treat beyond those. After initial treatment they should summon
qualified assistance, for example, call 999, advise them to see their GP
or refer the player to the Physio.
A First Aider should also complete an Accident
Report Form, which most clubs should have.
This is a legal document that logs the injury,
the treatment provided and who was
involved. This covers the First Aider from
repercussions e.g. A case of negligence.
Take a look in the resources section at the example Accident Report
Form Template.
You should now be prepared to write instructions
for a First Aider who has come across a player with
one of the following:
- An open fracture
- Collapsed and not
- A large gash to the thigh
Choose 1 of the 3 scenarios
above and explain how to
administer first aid at the
After following these steps you
can make an informed decision
on whether the layer should
come off or carry on playing.
Stop – when the player goes down
Ask – the player what happened and how they feel? This will give
you an indication of the severity of the injury.
Look – for obvious visual signs of an injury e.g. bleeding, swelling
or deformity
Touch – to see if you can locate the source of pain (if the player
allows it) which may indicate what the injury is and how severe it
may be
Active – is the player able to actively move the injured area
themselves with full range of movement?
Passive – are you able to passively move the area with full range of
Strength – does the player maintain original strength?
After administering First Aid,
you may go on to follow the
PRICED acronym.
Protect – your first objective is to protect the injury from further damage
Rest – by resting the injury (for example not weight bearing) you prevent
further damage and allow the injury to begin the healing process
Ice – applying ice reduces inflammation and decreases discomfort and pain
Compression – applying compression through a bandage or tubigrip helps
reduce swelling
Elevation – elevating the injured area allows gravity to drain some swelling
Diagnosis by Professional – always refer the player to a professional
such as a Doctor or Physio for an accurate medical diagnosis
Taping, Bandaging & Tubigrip
Strapping and taping is used in sport to prevent injuries
and also aid a smooth return to sport post-injury.
Tape can restrict unwanted movement or activate
inactive (or lazy) muscles.
There are many different types of tape, all claiming to
optimise sports performance, some of which include;
kinesio tape, zinc oxide, elastic adhesive and self
cohesive .
Bandages and Tubigrip are
more likely to be used in the
acute stages of an injury to
create compression, reduce
swelling and give added
Hot & Cold Therapy
After an injury ice can be very beneficial. It can:
•Reduce bleeding within tissues
•Prevent or reduce swelling
•Reduce muscle spasm
•Reduce pain by numbing the area and reducing swelling
(which causes pain through pressure)
Ice or cold packs should be applied for 10-15 minutes every 2-3 hours. Be sure to protect
the skin if you apply ice/cold packs to prevent an ice burn.
Heat is only beneficial when the injury is 48-72 hours old,
otherwise it can worsen the bleeding and inflammation.
Heat can be applied in the form of:
•Deep heat creams
•Heat pads
•Hot water bottles
•Heat lamps
Heat works by dilating the blood vessels allowing more blood to
the area which has a soothing effect. It eases pain and muscle
spasms. Heat can be used at the players preference but, again,
care should be taken not to burn the skin.
Sprays & Creams
Sprays and creams work on the same
principle as Hot & Cold Therapy. However,
they are more mobile and so are used more
“on-the-go”. They work more superficially and
are thought to be less effective.
Limb Supports & Splints
Splints are used to immobilise a
limb or joint, where range of
movement needs to be restricted
(maybe after an operation or after a
torn ligament for example)
Limb supports include
packs, leg or arms braces
and foot orthotics.
Fracture packs are used in emergencies to
immobilise joints. Limb braces may help with
introduces movement to a joint gradually, after
an operation and foot orthotics are used to
improve the biomechanics of the foot.
Electrotherapy is used to reduce
symptoms and promote healing.
This uses sound waves at a high frequency to
penetrate tissues. The vibration caused by the
sound waves stimulates cell membranes to
enhance the repair process.
T.E.N.S. (Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation)
A low intensity electrical current is passed through electro pads
placed on the tissues. The result is decreased pain and swelling
and increased blood flow, all of which promote healing.
Laser Therapy
It is unclear as to how this method of therapy works, but it is thought
to be effective in reducing pain in the short term as well as promoting
Medical Referrals
GP or Doctor
MRI Scan
Severe or on-going injuries may need
a medical referral to a specialised
professional or for the use of
specialised equipment. This may
After familiarising yourself with common
treatments used, write down the possible
treatments for:
Lower back pain
Ankle sprain
Fractured tibia
ACL rupture
Choose 1 of the above and remember to
- Which of the treatments would be
appropriate to use
- The timescale of these treatments, when to
use them?
- What are the benefits of the treatments?

similar documents