Formative Assessment and the Common Core CA Mini Corps Site Coordinators February 5, 2013 FA and the CCSS Participants will… review the “nuts and bolts” of formative assessments share their experiences with implementation of FA strategies and training learn about the shifts in instruction and assessment practices required in both math and ELA with the Common Core learn about the SMARTER Balanced Assessment Consortium (SBAC) and item types learn about Depth of Knowledge and questioning learn accountable talk, close reading and use of text dependent questions to check for understanding develop next steps for sharing information with tutors Review Find Someone Who…. Summative versus Formative Summative When instruction is finished Assessing final performance at a point in time Analogy: Driving test at DMV Uses: report card grades; these include unit tests, performance tasks, final exams, and, of course, high-stakes state tests; Formative Using evidence of student understanding to continuously fine-tune instruction and follow up with students who are confused. Analogy: Driving with your teenager as they learn to drive. More frequent = greater impact on learning 5 Formative versus Summative Formative Assessments • Improve instruction • Provide student feedback Summative Assessments Purpose? • Measure of student competency • Ongoing throughout unit When administered? • End or unit or course • Self-monitor understanding How do students use results? • Gauge their progress toward course or grade level goals and benchmarks • Check for understanding How do teachers use results? • Grades, promotion Aspects of Formative Assessment Teacher Peer Learner Where the learner is going Where the learner is Clarify and share learning intentions Engineering effective discussions, tasks and activities that elicit evidence of learning Understand and share learning intentions Understand learning intentions How to get there Providing feedback that moves learners forward Activating students as learning resources for one another Activating students as owners of their own learning Techniques: Eliciting Evidence of Learning Questioning Diagnostic Discussion Higher Order Thinking Oral Questioning Exit Tickets Entrance Tickets 3-2-1 Summary Structured Interaction—Sentence Frames Three Minute Pause Techniques to Elicit Responses Pre-flight Checklist Index Cards Yes/No (Maybe) +/Got It/No Clue Fingers to Five Face the Fact Agree-Disagree-Neither Thumb It White Boards ABCD Cards--Multiple Choice Questions 8 Techniques: Providing Feedback Circling Errors Find and Correct Errors I Tell You, You Tell Me No Complete Solutions Traffic Lighting Two Stars and a Wish Three Step Interview Partners: • Interview your partner about the topic, using the interview questions provided as a starting point. Question: What strategies did you use to share the FA information with your tutors? What were some successes and challenges for your tutors? • At signal, reverse roles. Groups at Work – Copyright MiraVia LLC – All rights reserved Three Step Interview Form quartets Partners share some of your partner’s responses Quartets develop generalizations to share with the full group Groups at Work – Copyright MiraVia LLC – All rights reserved Key Advances in ELA Reading Writing Speaking and Listening • Increased text complexity • Increased informational texts • Text-dependent questions • Emphasis on argument and informative/explanatory writing • Use of text-based evidence • Inclusion of formal and informal communication • Integrates media sources across the standards CCSS in ELA Set Requirements for: English Language Arts Reading Writing Speaking and Listening Language Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects K-5: Embedded in ELA 6-12: Separate Section (Reading and Writing only) 14 Literacy Standards across Disciplines NAEP Alignment in Reading Grade 4 8 12 Literature 50% 45% 30% Information 50% 55% 70% Percentages do not imply that high school ELA teachers must teach 70% informational text; they demand instead that a great deal of reading should occur in other disciplines. How can our tutors support this expectation? 6th Grade Integrated Model of Literacy Reading for Informational Text 6 English Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a Language Arts text and analyze how the author distinguishes his or her position from that of others. History/ Identify aspects of a text that reveal an author’s point Social Studies of view or purpose (e.g., loaded language, inclusion or avoidance of particular facts). Science and Technical Subjects Analyze the author’s purpose in providing an explanation, describing a procedure, or discussing an experiment in a text. The 3 Big Buckets of Writing Opinion/ Argument Informative/ Explanatory Narrative NAEP Alignment in Writing Grade Persuade Explain 4 8 12 30% 35% 40% 35% 35% 40% Convey Experience 35% 30% 20% 5th Grade Collaborative Conversations Engage effectively in collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners, building on others’ ideas and expressing one’s own clearly. Pose and respond to specific questions by making comments that contribute to the discussion and elaborate on the remarks of others. Review the key ideas expressed and draw conclusions in light of information and knowledge gained from discussions. Key Advances in Math Focus • Fewer topics more deeply • Emphasis on big ideas and key concepts (areas of emphasis) Coherence • Connections between ideas within grade levels • Connections of ideas across grade levels Rigorous Application • Increased ability to justify/explain reasoning • Apply and generalize to real world situations (modeling) Standards for Mathematical Practice 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. Reason abstractly and quantitatively. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others. Model with mathematics. Use appropriate tools strategically. Attend to precision. Look for and make use of structure. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning. 23 Shift in Expectations for Students Demonstrate mathematics Ability a deeper understanding of to justify their thinking Identify connections between and among mathematical ideas Use of multiple representations Representations and Reasoning Quick Images https://www.teachingchannel.org/videos/visualizing -number-combinations?fd=1 Today’s Number 36 Possible Solutions 18 + 18 32 • 22 9+9+9+9 25.65 + 10.35 9 ÷ 1/4 -15 + 51 3 √144 Today’s Number With Constraints… Today’s Number is 36. Can you find it… Using more than one operation? Using two digit numbers? Using fractions, decimals, percents? Using sets of numbers and operations? Using exponents, square roots? Using integers (sign numbers)? Using a set of numbers and different operations? Daily Number Talks A daily routine for whole-class instruction Number Sense (efficiency, accuracy, flexibility) Generalized Arithmetic (conceptual understanding) Reasoning---Problem Solving Mental Mathematics Preview-Review-Conceptual Understanding Mental Math Example https://www.teachingchannel.org/videos /third-grade-mental-math?fd=1 Daily Number Talks (mental math) Who did the math thinking during the number talk? What specific mathematics did the students demonstrate they understood? What did the teacher do to support the student discourse? What recording techniques did the teacher use that supported learning in the class? Other comments or observations? Listen - Share - Inquire Form partners and letter off A–B Everyone listens to question(s) and takes a moment to reflect A shares key point or connection B paraphrases and inquires: “And what makes that important to you?” B responds and then shares key point or connection A paraphrases and inquires with same question Continue process until selection is completed Groups at Work – Copyright MiraVia LLC – All rights reserved So What? What are the implications of this information for our tutors? What information should be shared? How? When? 33 BREAK TIME See you in 15 minutes…. SBAC The Next Generation of Assessments SMARTER Balanced Assessment Consortium (SBAC) Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium Governing State Advisory State Membership status as of March 6, 2012 SBAC Assessment System 37 Test and Item Design CCSS Assessment System Selected-Response Items Constructed-Response Items Performance Tasks Technology-enhanced Computer-adaptive testing Visit SMARTER Balanced Assessment Consortium at: www.smarterbalanced.org BCOE Secondary ELA SBAC Sample Task: Informational Essay on Pollution Steps: 1. Watch a video and read two articles. Then, answer three questions about these sources. [35 minutes] 2. Plan and write an essay. [70 minutes] BCOE Secondary ELA 40 STEP 1: Video and Two Articles You will now watch one video and read two articles. Take notes because you may want to refer to your notes while writing your essay. You can look back at any of the sources as often as you like while you are taking notes. You will need to use your notes and sources to write your essay. 35 minutes BCOE Secondary ELA 41 Watch Video: Tracking Space Debris by Objectivity Web http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EIsubVLN9uE 4 minutes 30 seconds Courtesy of European Space Agency Read the two articles. Answer the 3 questions about the above sources. 35 minutes 42 STEP 2: Write Informational Essay You have watched one short video and read two informational texts about pollution. Consider how the problems of pollution on Earth and in space are similar and different. Write an informational essay comparing the problem of pollution on Earth to the problem of pollution in space. In your essay, discuss the ways in which pollution on Earth and pollution in space are similar and different in terms of the problems they create and the solutions required to deal with them. Support your essay with details from the informational texts you have read and the video you have watched. BCOE Secondary ELA February 12, 2013 70 minutes Examining Other SBAC Samples Compare the sample assessment items. Compare/Contrast known (CST) to new (SBAC). How might your tutor’s current classroom assessment practices need to change in order to move students toward CCSS expectations? Handout: SBAC Sample Tasks Non-Traditional SR Item Constructed Response (CR) A teacher asked her students to use estimation to decide if the sum of the problem below is closer to 4,000 or 5,000. 496 + 1,404 + 2,605 + 489 = One student replied that she thinks the sum is closer to 4,000. She used the estimation shown below to support her reasoning. Is the student’s reasoning correct? In the space below, use numbers and words to explain why or why not. If the student’s reasoning is not correct, explain how she should have estimated. Technology-Enhanced Items Draw a line of symmetry through the figure below. Reorder the fractions below so that they are ordered from smallest to largest. 3/5 3/4 2/6 1/2 2/3 The graph on the right shows a triangle. Draw the triangle after it is reflected over the yaxis. Classify each shape below based whether it contains at least one pair of parallel sides. Design of Performance Tasks Use 1-2 Stimuli for Grade 3. Use up to 5 stimuli for high school. Emphasis on stimuli related to science, history, and social studies. Components Stimulus of a Performance Task Information Processing Research questions Readings Video clips Audio clips Graphs, charts, other visuals Comprehension questions Research topic/issue/ problem Simulated Internet search etc. etc. Product/Performance Essay, report, story, script Speech with/without graphics, other media Responses to embedded constructed response questions. Depth of Knowledge CognitiveRigor RigorMatrix--Math Cognitive Depth of Knowledge Cognitive Rigor Depth of Knowledge The level of complexity of the cognitive demand. Level 1: Recall and Reproduction Level 2: Basic Skills and Concepts Requires the engagement of some mental processing beyond a recall of information. Level 3: Strategic Thinking and Reasoning Requires eliciting information such as a fact, definition, term, or a simple procedure, as well as performing a simple algorithm or applying a formula. Requires reasoning, planning, using evidence, and explanations of thinking. Level 4: Extended Thinking Requires complex reasoning, planning, developing, and thinking most likely over an extended period of time. Same Verb— Three Different DOK Levels DOK 1- Describe three characteristics of two quadrilaterals. (Requires simple recall) DOK 2- Describe the difference between convex and concave polygons. (Requires cognitive processing to determine the differences in the two polygon types) DOK 3- Describe a model that you might use to represent the relationships that exist within the set of polygons. (Requires deep understanding of polygons and a determination of how best to represent it) Depth of Knowledge http://schools.nyc.gov/Academics/Co mmonCoreLibrary/Videos/default.htm Questioning within DOK Checking for Understanding Oral Language Questioning Written Language Projects and Performance Tasks Common Assessments and Consensus Scoring Structured Interaction I think…. I agree because…. Promoting Oral Language Accountable Talk Press for clarification and explanation Could you describe what you mean? Require justification of proposals and challenges Where did you find that information? Recognize and challenge misconceptions I don’t agree because… Demand evidence for claims and arguments Can you give me an example? Interpret and use each other’s statements David suggested… Accountable Talk What is Accountable Talk? Quick Read Read - Share - Inquire Form partners and letter off A–B Everyone reads to designated stopping point A shares key point or connection B paraphrases and inquires: “And what makes that important to you?” B responds and then shares key point or connection A paraphrases and inquires with same question Continue process until selection is completed Groups at Work – Copyright MiraVia LLC – All rights reserved Using Questioning to Check for Understanding http://www.ascd.org/professionaldevelopment/webinars/nancy-frey-webinar.aspx Text Dependent Questions Answered through Close Reading Evidence comes from text, not information from outside sources Understanding beyond basic facts Not recall! Nancy Frey, 2012 ASCD ppt Close Reading Focused Reading Individually, read article Mark text as shown: √ I know this ! Significant idea ? Huh?/ I’d like to know more Groups at Work – Copyright MiraVia LLC – All rights reserved Focused Reading Partners: Share and compare your text markings: √ I know this ! Significant idea ? Huh?/ I’d like to know more Groups at Work – Copyright MiraVia LLC – All rights reserved First Reading: Students read and write independently Read What powerful words or phrases affect you? Circle What confuses you? Underline Quick with the pencil to annotate text. Write What are your impressions of ____? Doug Fisher, 2012 Solution Tree ppt Discussion: Partner Talk to Check Meaning Use Accountable Talk to describe your impressions Ask questions Provide evidence from the text Compare and contrast your impressions with one another Doug Fisher, 2012 Solution Tree ppt Second Reading: Teacher Modeling Read the entire passage aloud, without interruption. Be sure to orient students to the text and ask them to follow along. Doug Fisher, 2012 Solution Tree ppt Progression of Text Dependent Questions Opinion, arguments, inter-text connections Inferences Author’s Purpose Vocabulary and Text Structure Key Details General Understandings Nancy Frey, 2012 ASCD ppt Text Dependent Questions Do the questions require the reader to return to the text? Do the questions require the reader to use evidence to support his or her ideas or claims? Do the questions move from textexplicit to text-implicit knowledge? Are there questions that require the reader to analyze, evaluate, and create? Doug Fisher, 2012 Solution Tree ppt Creating a Close Reading Use a short passage. Read with a pencil. Note what’s confusing. Pay attention to patterns. Give students the chance to struggle a bit. Doug Fisher, 2012 Solution Tree ppt Use of Evidence 1. 2. 3. Students read like detectives. Collaborate with others like CSI teams.* Write like investigative reporters. Scaffolding Complex Text Multiple Complex text takes multiple reads to fully understand the layers of meaning provided by the author. Read readings: Aloud Especially K-2, require students to follow along. Chunking text Prompt students to unpack the difficult portions of a text. Do not ‘think aloud’ for them, instead pose textdependent questions that require text-based answers. http://www.achievethecore.org/steal-these-tools/close-readingexemplars Text-Dependent Questions: Time-In and Out of the Text 1. 2. 3. More instructional time spent outside the text means less time inside the text. Departing from the text in classroom discussions privileges those who already have experience with the topic. It is easier to talk about our experiences than to analyze the text—especially for students reluctant to engage with reading. It’s about building reading muscles. Source:www.achievethecore.org BCOE Secondary ELA Text-Dependent Questions Can only be answered with evidence from the text. Can be literal (checking for understanding) but must also involve analysis, synthesis, evaluation. Focus on word, sentence, and paragraph, as well as larger ideas, themes, or events. Focus on difficult portions of text in order to enhance reading proficiency. Can also include prompts for writing and discussion questions. www.achievethecore.org BCOE Secondary ELA Three Types of Text-Dependent Questions When you are writing or reviewing a set of questions, consider the following three categories: Questions that assess themes and central ideas Questions that assess knowledge of vocabulary Questions that assess syntax and structure www.achievethecore.org BCOE Secondary ELA Instructional Idea from The Teaching Channel The Art of Questioning: Content, Meaning and Style Karine Schaefer Lesson Objective: Structure questioning based on content, meaning and style. (4:46) “How does a move from content to meaning to style allow students to better understand text?” https://www.teachingchannel.org/videos/structuring-questioning-inclassroom?fd=1 Creating Text-Dependent Questions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Identify the core understanding and key ideas of the text. Start small to build confidence. Target vocabulary and text structure. Tackle tough sections head-on. Create coherent sequences of text-dependent questions. Identify the standards that are being addressed. Create the culminating assessment. BCOE Secondary ELA www.achievethecore.org Examples of TDQ Vocabulary To avoid someone means to keep away from them so you don’t have to see them and they don’t have to see you. How did the boys avoid meeting Bolivia at first? (pg. 23) Re-read the last two paragraphs on page 39. Rory had a ‘strong suspicion.’ What is suspicion? What details in the story made Rory suspicious of Bolivia? Syntax Who are the members of the wolf pack? How many members are in the pack? To answer this, pay close attention to the use of commas and semi-colons in the last paragraph on page 377. The semi-colons separate or list each member in the pack. www.achievethecore.org Writing from Sources: Strong writers locate and deploy evidence. Language Frame to Justify with Evidence CAUSE & EFFECT To open To discuss causes and effects • ___________ had a significant impact on _______. • The major cause of _______ can be traced to ______. • The critical factors which led to ______ were ______. • Due to __________, ______________. • _________ contributed to _______ because ______. • _________ happens when _______________. To support your ideas • One cause was ___________________. • A reason for _________________was ___________. To close • The end result was __________________________. • The findings suggest that _____________________. BCOE Secondary ELA February 12, 2013 InnovateEd PPT, Dec. 2012 Writing from Sources Language Frame to Justify with Evidence COMPARE AND CONTRAST To open • The similarities between ____ and ____ indicate ___. • By comparing ______ to _____, it becomes clear that ____. • A comparison of ______ to _____ reveals ___________. To compare • Although _______ and ______ are ____, _____, is _______. and contrast • _______ is ________, whereas _______ is _________. • The most obvious difference between ____ and ___ is ____. To support your ideas To close • One similarity/difference is ___________________. • Their common characteristics include ___________. • By comparing _______ to ______, we learn ___________. • The differences between ______ and ______ are BCOE Secondary ELA February 12, 2013 important because _____________. InnovateEd PPT, Dec. 2012 Writing from Sources Language Frame to Justify with Evidence EXPLAIN AND DESCRIBE To open • _________ is best described as _____________. • To define _______, it is necessary to understand _________. • ________ is known for _______ and is important because _____. To explain and describe • __________ is an illustration of ________________. • ___________is frequently referred to as ____________. To support your ideas • Critical attributes of _____ include ______ and ______. • A defining characteristic is ___________________. • The key components are _______ and _________. To close • An explanation of ___________ provides insight into BCOE Secondary ELA February 12, 2013 ______. • A complete definition of ________ allows us to ________. InnovateEd PPT, Dec. 2012 Writing from Sources Language Frame to Justify with Evidence PROPOSITION AND SUPPORT To open • In regards to ______, I believe _______________. • My opinion on the issue of __________ is _____________. • __________ presents the position that _____________. To state a position • ___________ proves that _______________. • My views are based on _________________. To support your ideas • Many experts claim that _____________________. • According to ________________________. • Further evidence can be found in __________________. To close • There is little doubt that ___________________. • _________________ urges us to ____________________. BCOE Secondary ELA InnovateEd PPT, Dec. 2012 83 Assessment Task Reflection THINK-WRITE-PAIR-SHARE List 3 skills that students will need in order to be successful on this type of assessment? What 2 things can our tutors begin to do to help students transition toward CCSS and SBAC? What is 1 concern you have moving toward CCSS and the SBAC assessment system? BCOE Secondary ELA Next steps?