Question

Report
Formative
Assessment
and the
Common Core
CA Mini Corps Site Coordinators
February 5, 2013
FA and the CCSS

Participants will…







review the “nuts and bolts” of formative assessments
share their experiences with implementation of FA
strategies and training
learn about the shifts in instruction and assessment
practices required in both math and ELA with the
Common Core
learn about the SMARTER Balanced Assessment
Consortium (SBAC) and item types
learn about Depth of Knowledge and questioning
learn accountable talk, close reading and use of text
dependent questions to check for understanding
develop next steps for sharing information with tutors
Review
Find Someone Who….
Summative versus Formative

Summative
 When instruction is finished
 Assessing final performance at a point in time
 Analogy: Driving test at DMV
 Uses: report card grades; these include unit tests,
performance tasks, final exams, and, of course, high-stakes
state tests;

Formative
 Using evidence of student understanding to continuously
fine-tune instruction and follow up with students who are
confused.
 Analogy: Driving with your teenager as they learn to drive.
 More frequent = greater impact on learning
5
Formative versus Summative
Formative
Assessments
• Improve instruction
• Provide student
feedback
Summative
Assessments
Purpose?
• Measure of student
competency
• Ongoing
throughout unit
When administered?
• End or unit or
course
• Self-monitor
understanding
How do students use
results?
• Gauge their
progress toward
course or grade
level goals and
benchmarks
• Check for
understanding
How do teachers use
results?
• Grades, promotion
Aspects of Formative Assessment
Teacher
Peer
Learner
Where the
learner is going
Where the learner
is
Clarify and share
learning intentions
Engineering effective
discussions, tasks and
activities that elicit
evidence of learning
Understand and
share learning
intentions
Understand
learning intentions
How to get
there
Providing
feedback that
moves learners
forward
Activating students as learning
resources for one another
Activating students as owners
of their own learning
Techniques:
Eliciting Evidence of Learning






Questioning
 Diagnostic
 Discussion
 Higher Order Thinking
 Oral Questioning
Exit Tickets
Entrance Tickets
3-2-1 Summary
Structured Interaction—Sentence Frames
Three Minute Pause
Techniques to Elicit Responses


Pre-flight Checklist
Index Cards









Yes/No (Maybe)
+/Got It/No Clue
Fingers to Five
Face the Fact
Agree-Disagree-Neither
Thumb It
White Boards
ABCD Cards--Multiple Choice Questions
8
Techniques: Providing Feedback
 Circling
Errors
 Find and Correct Errors
 I Tell You, You Tell Me
 No Complete Solutions
 Traffic Lighting
 Two Stars and a Wish
Three Step Interview
Partners:
• Interview your partner about the topic,
using the interview questions provided as
a starting point.
Question: What strategies did you use to
share the FA information with your
tutors? What were some successes
and challenges for your tutors?
• At signal, reverse roles.
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reserved
Three Step Interview
Form quartets

Partners share some of your partner’s
responses

Quartets develop generalizations to
share with the full group
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reserved
Key Advances in ELA
Reading
Writing
Speaking
and
Listening
• Increased text complexity
• Increased informational texts
• Text-dependent questions
• Emphasis on argument and
informative/explanatory
writing
• Use of text-based evidence
• Inclusion of formal and informal
communication
• Integrates media sources
across the standards
CCSS in ELA Set Requirements for:
 English
Language Arts
 Reading
 Writing
 Speaking
and Listening
 Language
 Literacy
in History/Social Studies,
Science, and Technical Subjects
 K-5:
Embedded in ELA
 6-12: Separate Section (Reading and
Writing only)
14
Literacy Standards
across
Disciplines
NAEP Alignment in Reading
Grade
4
8
12
Literature
50%
45%
30%
Information
50%
55%
70%
Percentages do not imply that high school ELA teachers must teach
70% informational text; they demand instead that a great deal of
reading should occur in other disciplines.
How can our tutors support this expectation?
6th Grade
Integrated Model of Literacy
Reading for Informational Text 6
English
Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a
Language Arts text and analyze how the author distinguishes his or her
position from that of others.
History/
Identify aspects of a text that reveal an author’s point
Social Studies of view or purpose (e.g., loaded language, inclusion or
avoidance of particular facts).
Science and
Technical
Subjects
Analyze the author’s purpose in providing an
explanation, describing a procedure, or discussing an
experiment in a text.
The 3 Big Buckets of Writing
Opinion/
Argument
Informative/
Explanatory
Narrative
NAEP Alignment in Writing
Grade
Persuade
Explain
4
8
12
30%
35%
40%
35%
35%
40%
Convey
Experience
35%
30%
20%
5th Grade
Collaborative Conversations
 Engage
effectively in collaborative
discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and
teacher-led) with diverse partners, building
on others’ ideas and expressing one’s own
clearly.
 Pose
and respond to specific questions by
making comments that contribute to the
discussion and elaborate on the remarks of
others.
 Review
the key ideas expressed and draw
conclusions in light of information and
knowledge gained from discussions.
Key Advances in Math
Focus
• Fewer topics more deeply
• Emphasis on big ideas and key
concepts (areas of emphasis)
Coherence
• Connections between ideas
within grade levels
• Connections of ideas across
grade levels
Rigorous
Application
• Increased ability to
justify/explain reasoning
• Apply and generalize to real
world situations (modeling)
Standards for
Mathematical Practice
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Make sense of problems and persevere
in solving them.
Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
Construct viable arguments and critique
the reasoning of others.
Model with mathematics.
Use appropriate tools strategically.
Attend to precision.
Look for and make use of structure.
Look for and express regularity in
repeated reasoning.
23
Shift in Expectations for Students
 Demonstrate
mathematics
 Ability
a deeper understanding of
to justify their thinking
 Identify
connections between and among
mathematical ideas
 Use
of multiple representations
Representations and Reasoning
 Quick
Images
https://www.teachingchannel.org/videos/visualizing
-number-combinations?fd=1
Today’s Number
36
Possible Solutions
18
+ 18
32 • 22
9+9+9+9
25.65 + 10.35
9 ÷ 1/4
-15 + 51
3
√144
Today’s Number
With Constraints…
Today’s Number is 36.
Can you find it…







Using more than one operation?
Using two digit numbers?
Using fractions, decimals, percents?
Using sets of numbers and operations?
Using exponents, square roots?
Using integers (sign numbers)?
Using a set of numbers and different
operations?
Daily Number Talks
A
daily routine for whole-class instruction
 Number Sense (efficiency, accuracy,
flexibility)
 Generalized Arithmetic (conceptual
understanding)
 Reasoning---Problem Solving
 Mental Mathematics
 Preview-Review-Conceptual
Understanding
Mental Math Example
 https://www.teachingchannel.org/videos
/third-grade-mental-math?fd=1
Daily Number Talks
(mental math)
 Who
did the math thinking during the
number talk?
 What specific mathematics did the
students demonstrate they understood?
 What did the teacher do to support the
student discourse?
 What recording techniques did the
teacher use that supported learning in
the class?
 Other comments or observations?
Listen - Share - Inquire


Form partners and letter off A–B
Everyone listens to question(s) and takes a moment to
reflect

A shares key point or connection
B paraphrases and inquires:
“And what makes that important to you?”

B responds and then shares key point or connection
A paraphrases and inquires with same question

Continue process until selection is completed
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So What?
 What
are the implications of this
information for our tutors?
 What
information should be shared?
How? When?
33
BREAK TIME
See you in 15 minutes….
SBAC
The Next Generation of Assessments
SMARTER Balanced Assessment Consortium (SBAC)
Smarter Balanced Assessment
Consortium
Governing State
Advisory State
Membership status as of March 6, 2012
SBAC Assessment System
37
Test and Item Design
CCSS Assessment System
 Selected-Response
Items
 Constructed-Response Items
 Performance Tasks
 Technology-enhanced
 Computer-adaptive
testing
Visit SMARTER Balanced Assessment Consortium at:
www.smarterbalanced.org
BCOE
Secondary ELA
SBAC Sample Task:
Informational Essay on Pollution
Steps:
1. Watch a video and read two
articles. Then, answer three
questions about these sources.
[35 minutes]
2.
Plan and write an essay. [70
minutes]
BCOE
Secondary ELA
40
STEP 1: Video and Two Articles
You will now watch one video and read
two articles. Take notes because you
may want to refer to your notes while
writing your essay. You can look back at
any of the sources as often as you like
while you are taking notes. You will
need to use your notes and sources to
write your essay.
35 minutes
BCOE
Secondary ELA
41
Watch Video:
Tracking Space Debris
by Objectivity Web
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EIsubVLN9uE
4 minutes 30 seconds
Courtesy of European Space Agency
Read the two articles.
Answer the 3 questions about the above
sources.
35 minutes
42
STEP 2: Write Informational Essay
You have watched one short video and
read two informational texts about
pollution. Consider how the problems of
pollution on Earth and in space are
similar and different. Write an
informational essay comparing the
problem of pollution on Earth to the
problem of pollution in space. In your
essay, discuss the ways in which pollution
on Earth and pollution in space are
similar and different in terms of the
problems they create and the solutions
required to deal with them. Support your
essay with details from the informational
texts you have read and the video you
have watched.
BCOE
Secondary ELA
February 12,
2013
70 minutes
Examining Other SBAC
Samples
 Compare
the sample assessment
items.
 Compare/Contrast known (CST) to
new (SBAC).
 How might your tutor’s current
classroom assessment practices
need to change in order to move
students toward CCSS
expectations?
Handout:
SBAC
Sample
Tasks
Non-Traditional SR Item
Constructed Response (CR)
A teacher asked her students to use estimation to decide if the
sum of the problem below is closer to 4,000 or 5,000.
496 + 1,404 + 2,605 + 489 =
One student replied that she thinks the sum is closer to 4,000. She
used the estimation shown below to support her reasoning.
Is the student’s reasoning correct? In the space below, use numbers
and words to explain why or why not. If the student’s reasoning is
not correct, explain how she should have estimated.
Technology-Enhanced Items
Draw a line of symmetry
through the figure below.
Reorder the fractions
below so that they are
ordered from smallest to
largest.
3/5
3/4
2/6
1/2
2/3
The graph on the
right shows a
triangle. Draw the
triangle after it is
reflected over the yaxis.
Classify each shape below based whether it
contains at least one pair of parallel sides.
Design of Performance Tasks
Use 1-2 Stimuli for Grade 3. Use up to 5 stimuli for high school.
Emphasis on stimuli related to science, history, and social studies.
 Components
Stimulus
of a Performance Task
Information
Processing
Research
questions

Readings

Video clips

Audio clips


Graphs, charts,
other visuals
Comprehension
questions


Research
topic/issue/
problem
Simulated Internet
search

etc.


etc.
Product/Performance

Essay, report, story,
script

Speech
with/without
graphics, other
media

Responses to
embedded
constructed
response questions.
Depth of
Knowledge
CognitiveRigor
RigorMatrix--Math
Cognitive
Depth of Knowledge
Cognitive Rigor
Depth of Knowledge

The level of complexity of the cognitive demand.

Level 1: Recall and Reproduction


Level 2: Basic Skills and Concepts


Requires the engagement of some mental processing
beyond
a recall of information.
Level 3: Strategic Thinking and Reasoning


Requires eliciting information such as a fact, definition, term,
or a simple procedure, as well as performing a simple
algorithm
or applying a formula.
Requires reasoning, planning, using evidence, and
explanations
of thinking.
Level 4: Extended Thinking

Requires complex reasoning, planning, developing, and
thinking most likely over an extended period of time.
Same Verb—
Three Different DOK Levels

DOK 1- Describe three characteristics of two
quadrilaterals. (Requires simple recall)

DOK 2- Describe the difference between convex
and concave polygons. (Requires cognitive
processing to determine the differences in the two
polygon types)

DOK 3- Describe a model that you might use to
represent the relationships that exist within the set
of polygons. (Requires deep understanding of
polygons and a determination of how best to
represent it)
Depth of Knowledge
http://schools.nyc.gov/Academics/Co
mmonCoreLibrary/Videos/default.htm
Questioning within DOK
Checking for Understanding
 Oral
Language
 Questioning
 Written Language
 Projects and Performance Tasks
 Common Assessments and Consensus
Scoring
Structured Interaction
I think….
I agree
because….
Promoting Oral Language
Accountable Talk
 Press
for clarification and explanation
 Could you describe what you mean?
 Require justification of proposals and challenges
 Where did you find that information?
 Recognize and challenge misconceptions
 I don’t agree because…
 Demand evidence for claims and arguments
 Can you give me an example?
 Interpret and use each other’s statements
 David suggested…
Accountable Talk
What is Accountable Talk?
Quick Read
Read - Share - Inquire
 Form
partners and letter off A–B
 Everyone
reads to designated stopping point
A
shares key point or connection
B paraphrases and inquires:
“And what makes that important to you?”
B
responds and then shares key point or connection
A paraphrases and inquires with same question
 Continue
process until selection is completed
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Using Questioning to
Check for Understanding
http://www.ascd.org/professionaldevelopment/webinars/nancy-frey-webinar.aspx
Text Dependent Questions
 Answered
through Close Reading
 Evidence comes from text, not
information from outside sources
 Understanding beyond basic facts
 Not recall!
Nancy Frey,
2012 ASCD ppt
Close Reading
Focused Reading


Individually, read article
Mark text as shown:
√ I know this
! Significant idea
? Huh?/ I’d like to know more
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Focused Reading
Partners:
Share and compare your text
markings:
√ I know this
! Significant idea
? Huh?/ I’d like to know more
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reserved
First Reading:
Students read and write independently
 Read


What powerful words or phrases affect you?
Circle
What confuses you? Underline
 Quick

with the pencil to annotate text.
Write
What are your impressions of ____?
Doug Fisher,
2012 Solution Tree ppt
Discussion:
Partner Talk to Check Meaning
 Use
Accountable Talk to describe
your impressions
 Ask questions
 Provide evidence from the text
 Compare and contrast your
impressions with one another
Doug Fisher,
2012 Solution Tree ppt
Second Reading:
Teacher Modeling
 Read
the entire passage aloud,
without interruption. Be sure to
orient students to the text and ask
them to follow along.
Doug Fisher,
2012 Solution Tree ppt
Progression of
Text Dependent Questions
Opinion, arguments,
inter-text connections
Inferences
Author’s Purpose
Vocabulary and Text
Structure
Key Details
General
Understandings
Nancy Frey,
2012 ASCD ppt
Text Dependent Questions
 Do
the questions require the reader
to return to the text?
 Do the questions require the reader
to use evidence to support his or her
ideas or claims?
 Do the questions move from textexplicit to text-implicit knowledge?
 Are there questions that require the
reader to analyze, evaluate, and
create?
Doug Fisher,
2012 Solution Tree ppt
Creating a Close Reading
 Use
a short passage.
 Read with a pencil.
 Note what’s confusing.
 Pay attention to patterns.
 Give students the chance to struggle a
bit.
Doug Fisher,
2012 Solution Tree ppt
Use of Evidence
1.
2.
3.
Students read like detectives.
Collaborate with others like CSI
teams.*
Write like investigative reporters.
Scaffolding Complex Text
 Multiple

Complex text takes multiple reads to fully understand
the layers of meaning provided by the author.
 Read

readings:
Aloud
Especially K-2, require students to follow along.
 Chunking

text
Prompt students to unpack the difficult portions of a
text. Do not ‘think aloud’ for them, instead pose textdependent questions that require text-based answers.
http://www.achievethecore.org/steal-these-tools/close-readingexemplars
Text-Dependent Questions:
Time-In and Out of the Text
1.
2.
3.
More instructional time spent outside the text
means less time inside the text.
Departing from the text in classroom discussions
privileges those who already have experience
with the topic.
It is easier to talk about our experiences than to
analyze the text—especially for students reluctant
to engage with reading.
It’s about building reading
muscles.
Source:www.achievethecore.org
BCOE
Secondary ELA
Text-Dependent Questions
 Can
only be answered with evidence from the
text.
 Can be literal (checking for understanding) but
must also involve analysis, synthesis, evaluation.
 Focus on word, sentence, and paragraph, as well
as larger ideas, themes, or events.
 Focus on difficult portions of text in order to
enhance reading proficiency.
 Can also include prompts for writing and
discussion questions.
www.achievethecore.org
BCOE
Secondary ELA
Three Types of
Text-Dependent Questions
When you are writing or reviewing a set of
questions, consider the following three
categories:
 Questions that assess themes and central ideas
 Questions that assess knowledge of vocabulary
 Questions that assess syntax and structure
www.achievethecore.org
BCOE
Secondary ELA
Instructional Idea from
The Teaching Channel
The Art of Questioning:
Content, Meaning and Style
Karine Schaefer
Lesson Objective:
Structure questioning based on
content, meaning and style.
(4:46)
“How does a move from content to
meaning to style allow students to
better understand text?”
https://www.teachingchannel.org/videos/structuring-questioning-inclassroom?fd=1
Creating
Text-Dependent Questions
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Identify the core understanding and key ideas of
the text.
Start small to build confidence.
Target vocabulary and text structure.
Tackle tough sections head-on.
Create coherent sequences of text-dependent
questions.
Identify the standards that are being addressed.
Create the culminating assessment.
BCOE
Secondary ELA
www.achievethecore.org
Examples of TDQ
Vocabulary


To avoid someone means to
keep away from them so
you don’t have to see them
and they don’t have to see
you. How did the boys avoid
meeting Bolivia at first? (pg.
23)
Re-read the last two
paragraphs on page 39.
Rory had a ‘strong
suspicion.’ What is
suspicion? What details in
the story made Rory
suspicious of Bolivia?
Syntax

Who are the members
of the wolf pack? How
many members are in
the pack? To answer
this, pay close attention
to the use of commas
and semi-colons in the
last paragraph on page
377. The semi-colons
separate or list each
member in the pack.
www.achievethecore.org
Writing from Sources:
Strong writers locate and deploy evidence.
Language Frame to Justify with Evidence
CAUSE & EFFECT
To open
To discuss
causes and
effects
• ___________ had a significant impact on _______.
• The major cause of _______ can be traced to
______.
• The critical factors which led to ______ were ______.
• Due to __________, ______________.
• _________ contributed to _______ because ______.
• _________ happens when _______________.
To support your
ideas
• One cause was ___________________.
• A reason for _________________was ___________.
To close
• The end result was __________________________.
• The findings suggest that _____________________.
BCOE Secondary ELA February 12, 2013
InnovateEd PPT, Dec. 2012
Writing from Sources
Language Frame to Justify with Evidence
COMPARE AND CONTRAST
To open
• The similarities between ____ and ____ indicate ___.
• By comparing ______ to _____, it becomes clear that
____.
• A comparison of ______ to _____ reveals ___________.
To compare • Although _______ and ______ are ____, _____, is _______.
and contrast • _______ is ________, whereas _______ is _________.
• The most obvious difference between ____ and ___ is
____.
To support
your ideas
To close
• One similarity/difference is ___________________.
• Their common characteristics include ___________.
• By comparing _______ to ______, we learn ___________.
• The differences between ______ and ______ are
BCOE Secondary ELA February 12, 2013
important because _____________.
InnovateEd PPT, Dec. 2012
Writing from Sources
Language Frame to Justify with Evidence
EXPLAIN AND DESCRIBE
To open
• _________ is best described as _____________.
• To define _______, it is necessary to understand
_________.
• ________ is known for _______ and is important because
_____.
To explain
and
describe
• __________ is an illustration of ________________.
• ___________is frequently referred to as ____________.
To support
your ideas
• Critical attributes of _____ include ______ and ______.
• A defining characteristic is ___________________.
• The key components are _______ and _________.
To close
• An explanation of ___________ provides insight into
BCOE Secondary ELA February 12, 2013
______.
• A complete definition of ________ allows us to ________.
InnovateEd PPT, Dec. 2012
Writing from Sources
Language Frame to Justify with Evidence
PROPOSITION AND SUPPORT
To open
• In regards to ______, I believe _______________.
• My opinion on the issue of __________ is _____________.
• __________ presents the position that _____________.
To state a
position
• ___________ proves that _______________.
• My views are based on _________________.
To support
your ideas
• Many experts claim that _____________________.
• According to ________________________.
• Further evidence can be found in __________________.
To close
• There is little doubt that ___________________.
• _________________ urges us to ____________________.
BCOE Secondary ELA
InnovateEd PPT, Dec. 2012
83
Assessment Task Reflection
THINK-WRITE-PAIR-SHARE
 List
3 skills that students will need in order to
be successful on this type of assessment?
 What
2 things can our tutors begin to do to
help students transition toward CCSS and
SBAC?
 What
is 1 concern you have moving toward
CCSS and the SBAC assessment system?
BCOE
Secondary ELA
Next steps?

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