Vicky Kaspi McGill University Lorne Trottier Chair in Astrophysics and Cosmology X-RAY ASTRONOMY: UPCOMING MISSIONS Overview Introduction to X-ray astronomy NuSTAR Astro-H NICER Other missions Astronomy with X-rays The most energetic, violent Optical sky: calm, unchanging objects in the Universe produce X-rays Black holes, neutron stars Active galaxies, galaxy clusters The X-ray sky highly volatile: objects explode, appear/disappear daily Extremes of: Gravity Density Temperature Magnetic field Magnetic Explosions on a Neutron Star: Less calm, highly variable X-ray Astronomy: Space-based X-ray Telescopes: Space-Based Must be in space as X-rays cannot penetrate atmosphere X-rays hard to focus! Need special telescope geometries, materials Chandra X-ray Telescope Focusing X-rays Currently Flying X-ray Telescopes XMM-Newton Chandra MAXI NuSTAR Suzaku Swift X-ray Sources Stellar mass black holes and neutron star accreting from companion stars Isolated neutron stars like pulsars & magnetars Supernova remnants Active galactic nuclei Galaxy clusters Next: High Energy Groove NASA Outreach movie: made & performed by astronomers, factually accurate, artist & real data combined, clearly illustrates changing X-ray sky, note McGill’s contribution! High Energy Groove Currently Flying X-ray Telescopes XMM-Newton Chandra MAXI NuSTAR Suzaku Swift Launched June 2012 NASA’s NuSTAR: The Future is Now! Launched June 14, 2012 First focusing “hard” X- ray telescope “hard” = high-energy 5-80 keV ~100X more sensitive Yesterday than previous hard X-ray telescopes 10-m focal length: long! How to launch?? Today NuSTAR: Newest X-ray Telescope NuSTAR in Space NuSTAR Pegasus Launch For more on NuSTAR & its science goals see poster by Dr. Hongjun An NuSTAR First Light: Cyg X-1 Astro-H: Launch 2015 Next major X-ray mission Joint JAXA/NASA with international involvement including Canadian Space Agency Complex mission with 4 different instruments Astro-H: Broad energy response Multiple instruments: Soft X-ray Spectrometer 0.3-12 keV, 1.7’ angular resolution, 7 eV@ 6 keV Hard X-ray Imagers 5-80 keV, 1.7’ angular resolution, 1.5 keV @ 60 keV Soft X-ray Imager 0.4-12 keV, 1.7’ angular resolution Soft Gamma-Ray Detector 40-600 keV, non-imaging All instruments co-aligned: observers get data from all detectors. Astro-H Takahashi et al. 2010 Astro-H Canadian Involvement Top recommendation of CSA-sponsored report Ottawa-based NEPTEC building laser metrology system CSA cost $6M Canadians leading multiple SWGs Canadians have access to PV data and propose for Japanese time Astro-H Science Goals Large Scale Structure in the Universe, Dark Matter & Dark Energy Galaxy Cluster dynamics, evolution Supermassive black hole evolution Extreme Conditions in the Universe Motion of matter near black holes Shock acceleration, jets Neutron star spectra, binaries NEW! NASA’s NICER Neutron Star Internal Composition Explorer Approved for construction Apr 5! To be installed on International Space Station Expected launch December 2016 Deputy PI Z. Arzoumanian, McGill Physics Alum! International Space Station FRAM = Flight Releasable Attachment Mechanism ELC = ExPRESS Logistics Carrier (power, telemetry) Gendreau et al. 2012 NICER Science Goals Low energy (0.2-12 keV) X-ray mission tailored for understanding neutron star structure, composition Factor of ~2 more sensitive than current most sensitive XMM-Newton Gendreau et al. 2012 NICER: Combined Capability Unique capability combination: Sensitivity Time resolution Energy resolution Will allow detailed observations of emission from neutron stars’ surfaces constraints on unknown properties of ultradense matter Gendreau et al. 2012 Upcoming & Envisioned X-ray Missions Upcoming: ASTROSAT ASTROSAT – Indian mission with significant CSA eRosita involvement; 5 instruments; launch 2014? e-ROSITA – German instrument to launch on Russian Spectrum Roentgen Gamma mission in 2014; will do all sky survey in soft X-ray band HMXT – 1st Chinese astronomy satellite, non-imaging 20-200 keV; launch 2014-2016 ATHENA Envisioned: ATHENA – ESA Advanced Telescope for High-Energy Astrophysics; formerly Constellation-X, Xeus, IXO high throughput (3 m2) X-ray spectroscopy + WFI LOFT – ESA Large Observatory for X-ray Timing LAD 12 m2 for timing; WFM large FOV LOFT Summary Near-term X-ray astronomy healthy Multiple major missions flying, several interesting upcoming missions planned Long-term situation unclear: 2 major ESA concepts being promoted Good news: CSA already cooperates with ESA Bad news: CSA presently in state of flux No major NASA X-ray mission under development US budgetary constraints problematic NASA “Physics of the Cosmos” Program charged with identifying next X-ray advance… Stay tuned!