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What is a precious stone? A precious stone or gem is also used to make jewellery. Precious stones or gems are multiple and the study and classification requires passion and dedication. In addition to knowledge, instruments are needed to differentiate them. They can come from three origins: •Geological: rocks and minerals. They are the most numerous as Synthetic star sapphire, emerald, Tanzanite loose stones, Loose sapphire stones and we will talk more in depth. •Vegetable: like amber or jet •Animal: like the pearl and the coral. Once achieved, it is cut, carved and polished to turn it into a precious stone or gem. The science that studies them is called Gemology and the people who work with these stones are gemologists. Mainly, the study consists of learning the chemical, physical and optical properties in order to differentiate them. The properties of precious stones •Rarity: to be natural depend on what nature gives us. All are different, none is equal to another. It is characteristic is undoubtedly the most appreciated and when manufacturing tends to homogeneity. Today a large number of equal parts of a product to make it cheap are to make exclusivity and differentiation is scarce. Rhodolite garnet value is very high. •Hardness: when used in jewellery Best cubic zirconia must have a high hardness. There is a table called Mohs scale where they are classified according to their hardness •Size: It is the form that we give so that the optical properties look. The evolution and quality of the size is evident both in small sizes and of course in large sizes where an exhaustive study is done before proceeding to stoning. There are various sizes such as bright, baguette, princess, goatee, oval, heart ... The craft of carving or stoning is very precise and there is a more traditional methodology prioritizing speed, in which many people are used for more normal stones and a system of Modern, precise and slow carving for white topaz. White topaz price is very high. •Colour: without a doubt it is the main characteristic for us to fall in love with a gem. Normally, we associate precious stones with a colour, although in many cases, due to the diversity of colours, many will not help us identify them. We can find all kinds of colours and intensities. •Transparency, brightness: this property highlights the colour; we also called crystallization which is to say it in some way the internal force that transmits the colour. •Optical effects: these give the gem a distinction. It can be seen with the naked eye without any magnifying glass and mainly based on changes and games of colours. We can find opalescence, labradorescence, star effect or cat eye effect. Type of precious stones The term precious and semiprecious stones has been removed by the regulatory Council (CIBJO) and therefore should not be used. The reason is that there is no such difference in reality. All the gems are precious and exceptional; this difference was made more by the value than by a degree of quality. We give you an example; there are rubies of very low quality and excellent aquamarines and there are Birthstones for all months. We should name all the precious stones or gems such as Birthstone colours by month, Birthstones for each month. Natural Gems They are the precious stones that come from nature. It is the main characteristic, that it is a natural product. There is no universally valid definition of the concept. Most are carved minerals, but in jewelery they are also called natural gems to organic products. Coral, ivory, jet or pearls are some examples. Another common denominator is the brightness, colour and brightness for the production of jewellery. An important aspect to take into account is the treatments that are made to natural gems. The most usual treatments are: heating, dyeing and filling of fissures. These treatments improve the optical properties and are admitted. It is important that this is specified and mentioned since in some cases the value of a gem changes substantially when treated. Another fundamental concept is the existence of inclusions. Natural gems have cavities that house inclusions that can be other minerals, liquids or gases.