Curriculum Design in Physical Therapist Assistant Education

Report
Mary Kay Solon, PT, MS
Faculty Development Workshop
University of Indianapolis
May 18, 2013
Objectives
Upon completion of this session, the participant will be able to:
 Describe how a curricular plan is grounded in





the
mission, philosophy, goals and objectives of the
program.
Describe how educational theory influences curricular
decisions.
Draw from contemporary educational theories when
making curricular decisions.
Create a curricular plan that is comprehensive and is
structured in and organized in an integrated fashion.
Discuss how to select instructional activities and
assessment methods to support program and course
objectives.
Discuss the connection between assessment of
student learning and program assessment.
Factors Influencing PTA
Education
Health Care System
 American cultural expectations
regarding health care
 Contemporary issues in higher
education
 Evolution of the physical therapy
profession
 Others??

Some Data on PTA Educational
Programs
(CAPTE Fact Sheet April, 2012)
348 new (68) and developing (280)
programs
Typical PTA Program
Public Institution (72.5% in 2012; was higher: 82% in 2007)
~ 80% in 2-year institutions (was about 70% in 2007)
WHY??
Mean class size: 28 for public and private (2011)
In 2010 it was 26/42 for public/private
What Else Do We Know About
PTA Education Programs
93.1% 1st time pass rate on NPTE (source: FSBPT 4/13)
97.3% Employment Rate at 6 Months Post
Licensure (2011)
77% have 2 year integrated curriculum
3 FTE core faculty plus 1.5 adjunct per program
(2010)
46% of programs use the traditional curricular
model
What does this mean for you?

What responsibilities were you
anticipating?

What responsibilities surprised you?

What are your personal expectations for
yourself?
Curriculum Design
Curriculum – from the Latin word
currer: the course to be run (1)
 Merriam Webster: a set of courses
constituting an area of specialization(2)


Design – a mental project or scheme in
which means to an end are laid down; a
preliminary sketch or outline showing
the main features of something to be
executed (2)
CAPTE Criteria 3 Preamble
A curriculum is a plan for learning, designed by the faculty in
consultation with practitioners and members of the
communities of interest, to achieve stated educational goals
and objectives. The curriculum sets forth the knowledge, skills,
attitudes, and values needed by the graduate to achieve these
goals. The curriculum is founded on sound educational
principles, current learning theories, and values of the
institution and the faculty.
The curriculum for the preparation of the physical therapist
assistant culminates in an associate degree and is designed
and implemented to prepare graduates to work under the
direction and supervision of the physical therapist. Depending
upon the curricular model utilized, the physical therapist
assistant degree program includes a general education
component or elements of general education in concert with
the physical therapy technical education course work.
What Resources should We Use?
Evaluative Criteria for PTA Education
Program
 A Normative Model of Physical Therapist
Assistant Education: Version 2007
 The Guide To Physical Therapist
Practice

Evaluative Criteria
PTA Programs
American Physical Therapy Association
1111 North Fairfax Street
Alexandria, Virginia 22314
[email protected] / www.capteonline.org
Last updated: 5/22/2012
Step # 1
Determine the philosophical orientation
 What is the purpose of the curriculum?

Philosophical Orientation

Why are you teaching what you are
teaching?

What is the aim of the curriculum?

Group work: take 4 – 5 minutes to
answer these questions.
Philosophical Orientation

Cognitive Processing-Reasoning
 Focuses on:
○ Teaching student to develop and refine their
intellectual processes.
○ The how rather than the what.
 Faculty identify the cognitive processes that
are needed to work as a PTA.
 Problem-Based Learning
Philosophical Orientation

Academic Rationalism
 Focuses on:
○ traditional areas of study representative of
significant ideas within the field.
○ history and the formulation of universal
principles and philosophical, scientific and
artistic concepts.
○ theory more than practical application.
Philosophical Orientation

Technology
 Focuses on:
○ Practical or technical behaviors.
○ Information with clear right and wrong
answers.
 anatomy
 steps in a safe/proper w/c transfer
 Has behavioral objectives the student is to
master.
 PTA education is most aligned with a
technology philosophy.
Philosophical Orientation

Social adaptation
 Focuses on:
○ Knowledge and skills students need to
function in today’s world.
○ Information and skills that are needed to
immediately fill needs of practice areas.
• Social reconstruction
 Focuses on:
○ Identifying the changing composition and
projected needs of society and the skills
needed in the future.
Philosophical Orientation

Personal Relevance
 Focuses on:
○ What is personally relevant to the student.
 Teacher and student jointly plan educational
experiences that are meaningful to the
student.
Cognitive
reasoning
process
Personal
Relevance
Academic
Rationalism
Philosophical
Orientation
Social
Reconstruction
Technology
Social
Adaptation
Learning Theories

Behaviorism
 The process of learning involves rewarding
correct behavior until the behavior is
consistently demonstrated.
Learning Theories

Gestalt- Problem Solving Experience
 Believe that people experience and organize
the world in meaningful patterns or contexts.
 Students need a framework for information
so that it “makes sense.”
 Students need to be actively involved in and
have experience from which they can learn.
Learning Theories

Piaget and Cognitive Structure
 Individuals learn through different stages of
development.
 Higher-order cognitive abilities build on
lower-order cognitive abilities.
 The following is the hierarchy:
○ Facts
○ Concepts
○ Principles
○ Problem solving
Learning Theories
Behaviorism
Gestalt Problem
Solving
Experience
Piaget and
Cognitive
Structure
Domains of Learning
Cognitive
 Psychomotor
 Affective

Cognitive
Psychomotor
Affective
Student Learning Styles
Concrete
Experiences
Active
Experimentation
Learning
Styles
Abstract
Conceptualization
Reflective
Observation
CAPTE Evaluative Criteria 3.3.1.
The physical therapist assistant
curriculum includes, or its prerequisites
include, elements of general education,
including basic sciences that include
biological, physical, physiological, and
anatomical principles, and applied
physical therapy science. The course work
is designed to prepare the student to think
independently, to clarify values, to
understand fundamental theory, and to
develop critical thinking and
communication skills.
CAPTE Evaluative Criteria 3.3.2.
The technical education component of
the curriculum includes learning
experiences to prepare the entry-level
physical therapist assistant to work
under the direction and supervision of
the physical therapist. Courses within
the curriculum include content
designed to prepare program graduates
to meet the described performance
expectations.
Curriculum Design Principles
Learning experiences and strategies (including goals and
content):
 Model commitment to the needs and preferences of the
patient as the first priority.
 Include clinical experiences that are structured to
achieve outcomes and added value for the patient and
learners.
 Are evidenced based and promote the use of research
findings.
 Based on problems situated in real clinical contexts.
 Are learner-centered.
 Emphasize continuous improvement through
assessment of students and educational programs.
 Have goals and objectives that are clear to learners,
faculty and other participants.
 Promote collaborative problem-solving through
collaborative teamwork.
Curricular Philosophy

Group activity: take five minutes to
determine the philosophical orientation
that will help guide your curricular
decisions.
Curriculum Development Model

Recommended Curriculum
CAPTE Evaluative Criteria, PTA NM, FSBPT
Analysis of Practice

Planned Curriculum (Plan of Study)

Enacted Curriculum

Learned (Assessed ) Curriculum
(Written/practical exams, NPTE)
Step # 2

Determine the program’s
 Mission
 Goals
 Objectives
Curriculum Development
Starting with the end in mind….
Objectives
Goals
Mission
Program Mission





Global descriptions of the program
Developed by representatives of all stakeholders
Consistent with the institution’s mission
Should stand the test of time
Example: “ … the mission of the PTA Program
is to graduate well-educated, competent, caring,
quality-oriented PTAs…”
Program Goals
Broad Educational Objectives
 Collectively describe the curriculum.
 Reflect mission and philosophy.
 Example: “Demonstrate competence in
the cognitive, psychomotor and affective
processes necessary to provide physical
therapy services under the direction and
supervision of a physical therapist.”

Program Objectives






More specific
Define what the learners will be able to do
May reflect themes like safety, duty, caring,
etc.
Should be measurable
Should form the foundation for assessing
performance outcomes
Example: “Upon completion of the program,
the graduate will be able to implement directed
interventions to achieve long and short-term
goals identified in the plan of care.”
CAPTE Evaluative Criteria 3.2
The curriculum plan is documented, is
comprehensive, incorporates the
philosophy, mission, and goals of the
program, and prepares students for their
role as physical therapist assistants to work
under the direction and supervision of
physical therapists.
CAPTE Evaluative Criteria 3.2
Narrative






Describe how the curriculum plan is grounded in the mission,
philosophy, goals, objectives, and expected student outcomes of the
program.
Provide examples of how the curriculum plan is grounded in the
mission, philosophy, goals, objectives, and expected student outcomes
of the program.
Describe how the curriculum plan is based on sound educational
theory and principles and the nature of contemporary physical therapy
practice.
Provide examples of how the curriculum plan is based on sound
educational theory and principles and the nature of contemporary
physical therapy practice.
Describe how the curriculum plan is reflective of recognized standards
of practice of the profession, including the APTA Standards of Ethical
Conduct for the Physical Therapist Assistant.
Provide examples of how the curriculum plan is reflective of recognized
standards of practice of the profession, including the APTA Standards
of Ethical Conduct for the Physical Therapist Assistant.
A Look at Your Curriculum

Group Activity
 How well do the mission and goals reflect
the program philosophy?
 How well do the program objectives flow
from the mission and goals?
 Does the program appear to be supported
by sound educational theories?
Step #3

Determine your program structure.
Organizing and Sequencing the
Curriculum

Most PTA Programs are traditional
 Basic Sciences to clinical sciences to
physical therapy sciences
 46%

Or Hybrid
 Combo of traditional, modified problem-
based , systems-based, case-based, Guidebased
 39%
Things to Think About

How can the content be divided?
 General education courses
 PTA courses
 Independent study courses
What does the entry-level PTA really need to
know/do?
 How can the curriculum be structured to help
the student learn how to “think like a PTA?”
 How can the curriculum be structured to link
classroom activities and objectives with clinical
education experiences?

Techniques for Organizing Curricular
Content




Write content Areas on
Index Cards
Matrix
Primary Content
Intro to
PTA
Group similar content
cards together
Communication
X
X
X
X
Patient Rights
X
X
X
X
Organize groups of
cards to be introduced
together
 Courses
 Units in Courses
Ultrasound
X
X
Gait Training
X
X
Sequence Groups of
Cards in plan of Study
Ther.
Ther.
Procedures
Ex.
Clinical
Ed. I
Motor Learning
X
X
Strengthening
X
X
Consider Using the Course Objectives
and Outcomes Form
Was a CAPTE required document
 Includes all areas of the curriculum as
identified in Section3 of the Evaluative
Criteria
 Helps track integration of content
 Provides opportunity to track
assessment of content as well
 Example:

 www.sf.edu/ptaaccreditation
Step # 4

Course design
 Questions??
 What’s next??
CAPTE
3.2.4. The implemented
curriculum plan utilizes
appropriate
instructional
methodology.
3.2.5. The program
faculty utilize a variety
of effective methods to
measure students’
achievement of the
objectives.
Course Design
Course
Objectives
Either
Instructional
Activities
Assessment
Methods
Course
Objectives
Or
Assessment
Methods
Instructional
Activities
Course Design by Taxonomic Domain
Instructional
Objective
Learning
Activity
Assessment
Method
What is Assessment?
“Assessment is the systematic collection,
review, and use of information about
educational programs undertaken for the
purpose of improving student learning and
development.”
Palomba and Banta, 1999
Purpose of Students Learning Outcomes
Assessment

To communicate to ourselves:
 What we intended for students to learn.
 The content and sequence of learning.
 Whether students have gained appropriate
○ skills
○ attitudes
○ and/or knowledge.
 How successful a learning activity has been.
Purpose of Students Learning Outcomes
Assessment

To communicate to students what we
intend for them to learn:
 So they can organize their efforts toward
accomplishing the desired behavior.
 So they can assess their own performance.
Purpose of Students Learning Outcomes
Assessment

To communicate to other interested
parties including the professional
community, accrediting agencies and
the public
 The purpose and degree of success of our
activities.
 Our commitment to engage in the process of
improvement.
Assessment of Learning
Outcomes
Learning outcomes provide the basis for
assessing whether or not students
completing your program have attained
the agreed upon outcomes.
 The program has to organize itself in
such a way that educational outcomes
are captured at various points in time.
 Assessment results provide information
to support program improvement.

Curricular Cycle
Needs
Assessment
Assessment
Outcome
Design
Implementation
Curricular Design (8)
Goals for students: What do you want
them to know and be able to do at the
end of the semester? How will the
course build on where students started
and help them move through the rest of
the curriculum?
 Authentic assignments: What
assignments will allow students to reach
those goals and develop skills that are
enduring?

Curricular Design
Relevant course content: Once the course
goals are more clear, content choices
become less about what needs to be
covered and more about what students
need to develop a coherent understanding
of the topic.
 Feedback and assessment: How will you
know that students have reached these
goals? How will you incorporate feedback
opportunities within the course beyond the
usual mid-term or final?

In the Classroom: Principles of Learning and
Motivation

Students are more likely to:
 be motivated to learn things that are
meaningful to them.
 learn something new if they have all the
prerequisites.
 acquire new behaviors if they are presented
with a model performance to watch and
imitate.
In the Classroom: Principles of Learning
and Motivation

Students are more likely to learn
 if the presentation is structured so that the
instructor's messages are open to the student.
 if their attention is attracted by relatively novel
presentations.
 if they take an active part in the practice geared to
reach the objective.
 if the practice is scheduled in short sessions
distributed over time.
In the Classroom: Principles of Learning
and Motivation

Students are more likely to:
 learn if the instructional prompts are
withdrawn gradually.
 continue learning if instructional conditions
are made pleasant.
References
1. Shepard,KF, Jensen GM. Handbook of Teaching for Physical Therapists, 2nd ed. Butterworth
Heinemann, 2002.
2. Merriam Webster online http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/
accessed 6-12-12.
3. American Physical Therapy Association, Evaluative Criteria for Accreditation of PTA
Programs (5-22-12)
4. A Normative Model of Physical Therapist Assistant Education: Version 2007;
APTA; Alexandria, VA; 2007.
http://www.capteonline.org/uploadedFiles/CAPTEorg/About_CAPTE/Resources/Accreditation_Handbo
ok/EvaluativeCriteria_PTA.pdf
5. Crosier J, McKnight R. Topics in Education for PTA Faculty: A Pre-Conference Worship at
APTA Annual Conference, 2007.
6. Palomba, CA, Banta, TW; 1999 Jossey-Bass Publishers San Francisco
7. Curricular Design and Development, Judy McKimm MBA, MA (Ed), BA (Hons), Cert Ed, ILTM,
Head of Curriculum Development, School of Medicine, Imperial College Centre for Educational
Development, Web-based resource, 2003.
8. Center for New Design and Learning at https://cndls.georgetown.edu/
9. Van Hoozer HL. The Teaching Process Theory and Practice n Nursing, paperback, 1994.
10. Banta TW, Jones EA and Black KE. Designing Effective Assessment: Principles and Profiles of
Good Practice, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, 2009.

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