Mary Kay Solon, PT, MS Faculty Development Workshop University of Indianapolis May 18, 2013 Objectives Upon completion of this session, the participant will be able to: Describe how a curricular plan is grounded in the mission, philosophy, goals and objectives of the program. Describe how educational theory influences curricular decisions. Draw from contemporary educational theories when making curricular decisions. Create a curricular plan that is comprehensive and is structured in and organized in an integrated fashion. Discuss how to select instructional activities and assessment methods to support program and course objectives. Discuss the connection between assessment of student learning and program assessment. Factors Influencing PTA Education Health Care System American cultural expectations regarding health care Contemporary issues in higher education Evolution of the physical therapy profession Others?? Some Data on PTA Educational Programs (CAPTE Fact Sheet April, 2012) 348 new (68) and developing (280) programs Typical PTA Program Public Institution (72.5% in 2012; was higher: 82% in 2007) ~ 80% in 2-year institutions (was about 70% in 2007) WHY?? Mean class size: 28 for public and private (2011) In 2010 it was 26/42 for public/private What Else Do We Know About PTA Education Programs 93.1% 1st time pass rate on NPTE (source: FSBPT 4/13) 97.3% Employment Rate at 6 Months Post Licensure (2011) 77% have 2 year integrated curriculum 3 FTE core faculty plus 1.5 adjunct per program (2010) 46% of programs use the traditional curricular model What does this mean for you? What responsibilities were you anticipating? What responsibilities surprised you? What are your personal expectations for yourself? Curriculum Design Curriculum – from the Latin word currer: the course to be run (1) Merriam Webster: a set of courses constituting an area of specialization(2) Design – a mental project or scheme in which means to an end are laid down; a preliminary sketch or outline showing the main features of something to be executed (2) CAPTE Criteria 3 Preamble A curriculum is a plan for learning, designed by the faculty in consultation with practitioners and members of the communities of interest, to achieve stated educational goals and objectives. The curriculum sets forth the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and values needed by the graduate to achieve these goals. The curriculum is founded on sound educational principles, current learning theories, and values of the institution and the faculty. The curriculum for the preparation of the physical therapist assistant culminates in an associate degree and is designed and implemented to prepare graduates to work under the direction and supervision of the physical therapist. Depending upon the curricular model utilized, the physical therapist assistant degree program includes a general education component or elements of general education in concert with the physical therapy technical education course work. What Resources should We Use? Evaluative Criteria for PTA Education Program A Normative Model of Physical Therapist Assistant Education: Version 2007 The Guide To Physical Therapist Practice Evaluative Criteria PTA Programs American Physical Therapy Association 1111 North Fairfax Street Alexandria, Virginia 22314 [email protected] / www.capteonline.org Last updated: 5/22/2012 Step # 1 Determine the philosophical orientation What is the purpose of the curriculum? Philosophical Orientation Why are you teaching what you are teaching? What is the aim of the curriculum? Group work: take 4 – 5 minutes to answer these questions. Philosophical Orientation Cognitive Processing-Reasoning Focuses on: ○ Teaching student to develop and refine their intellectual processes. ○ The how rather than the what. Faculty identify the cognitive processes that are needed to work as a PTA. Problem-Based Learning Philosophical Orientation Academic Rationalism Focuses on: ○ traditional areas of study representative of significant ideas within the field. ○ history and the formulation of universal principles and philosophical, scientific and artistic concepts. ○ theory more than practical application. Philosophical Orientation Technology Focuses on: ○ Practical or technical behaviors. ○ Information with clear right and wrong answers. anatomy steps in a safe/proper w/c transfer Has behavioral objectives the student is to master. PTA education is most aligned with a technology philosophy. Philosophical Orientation Social adaptation Focuses on: ○ Knowledge and skills students need to function in today’s world. ○ Information and skills that are needed to immediately fill needs of practice areas. • Social reconstruction Focuses on: ○ Identifying the changing composition and projected needs of society and the skills needed in the future. Philosophical Orientation Personal Relevance Focuses on: ○ What is personally relevant to the student. Teacher and student jointly plan educational experiences that are meaningful to the student. Cognitive reasoning process Personal Relevance Academic Rationalism Philosophical Orientation Social Reconstruction Technology Social Adaptation Learning Theories Behaviorism The process of learning involves rewarding correct behavior until the behavior is consistently demonstrated. Learning Theories Gestalt- Problem Solving Experience Believe that people experience and organize the world in meaningful patterns or contexts. Students need a framework for information so that it “makes sense.” Students need to be actively involved in and have experience from which they can learn. Learning Theories Piaget and Cognitive Structure Individuals learn through different stages of development. Higher-order cognitive abilities build on lower-order cognitive abilities. The following is the hierarchy: ○ Facts ○ Concepts ○ Principles ○ Problem solving Learning Theories Behaviorism Gestalt Problem Solving Experience Piaget and Cognitive Structure Domains of Learning Cognitive Psychomotor Affective Cognitive Psychomotor Affective Student Learning Styles Concrete Experiences Active Experimentation Learning Styles Abstract Conceptualization Reflective Observation CAPTE Evaluative Criteria 3.3.1. The physical therapist assistant curriculum includes, or its prerequisites include, elements of general education, including basic sciences that include biological, physical, physiological, and anatomical principles, and applied physical therapy science. The course work is designed to prepare the student to think independently, to clarify values, to understand fundamental theory, and to develop critical thinking and communication skills. CAPTE Evaluative Criteria 3.3.2. The technical education component of the curriculum includes learning experiences to prepare the entry-level physical therapist assistant to work under the direction and supervision of the physical therapist. Courses within the curriculum include content designed to prepare program graduates to meet the described performance expectations. Curriculum Design Principles Learning experiences and strategies (including goals and content): Model commitment to the needs and preferences of the patient as the first priority. Include clinical experiences that are structured to achieve outcomes and added value for the patient and learners. Are evidenced based and promote the use of research findings. Based on problems situated in real clinical contexts. Are learner-centered. Emphasize continuous improvement through assessment of students and educational programs. Have goals and objectives that are clear to learners, faculty and other participants. Promote collaborative problem-solving through collaborative teamwork. Curricular Philosophy Group activity: take five minutes to determine the philosophical orientation that will help guide your curricular decisions. Curriculum Development Model Recommended Curriculum CAPTE Evaluative Criteria, PTA NM, FSBPT Analysis of Practice Planned Curriculum (Plan of Study) Enacted Curriculum Learned (Assessed ) Curriculum (Written/practical exams, NPTE) Step # 2 Determine the program’s Mission Goals Objectives Curriculum Development Starting with the end in mind…. Objectives Goals Mission Program Mission Global descriptions of the program Developed by representatives of all stakeholders Consistent with the institution’s mission Should stand the test of time Example: “ … the mission of the PTA Program is to graduate well-educated, competent, caring, quality-oriented PTAs…” Program Goals Broad Educational Objectives Collectively describe the curriculum. Reflect mission and philosophy. Example: “Demonstrate competence in the cognitive, psychomotor and affective processes necessary to provide physical therapy services under the direction and supervision of a physical therapist.” Program Objectives More specific Define what the learners will be able to do May reflect themes like safety, duty, caring, etc. Should be measurable Should form the foundation for assessing performance outcomes Example: “Upon completion of the program, the graduate will be able to implement directed interventions to achieve long and short-term goals identified in the plan of care.” CAPTE Evaluative Criteria 3.2 The curriculum plan is documented, is comprehensive, incorporates the philosophy, mission, and goals of the program, and prepares students for their role as physical therapist assistants to work under the direction and supervision of physical therapists. CAPTE Evaluative Criteria 3.2 Narrative Describe how the curriculum plan is grounded in the mission, philosophy, goals, objectives, and expected student outcomes of the program. Provide examples of how the curriculum plan is grounded in the mission, philosophy, goals, objectives, and expected student outcomes of the program. Describe how the curriculum plan is based on sound educational theory and principles and the nature of contemporary physical therapy practice. Provide examples of how the curriculum plan is based on sound educational theory and principles and the nature of contemporary physical therapy practice. Describe how the curriculum plan is reflective of recognized standards of practice of the profession, including the APTA Standards of Ethical Conduct for the Physical Therapist Assistant. Provide examples of how the curriculum plan is reflective of recognized standards of practice of the profession, including the APTA Standards of Ethical Conduct for the Physical Therapist Assistant. A Look at Your Curriculum Group Activity How well do the mission and goals reflect the program philosophy? How well do the program objectives flow from the mission and goals? Does the program appear to be supported by sound educational theories? Step #3 Determine your program structure. Organizing and Sequencing the Curriculum Most PTA Programs are traditional Basic Sciences to clinical sciences to physical therapy sciences 46% Or Hybrid Combo of traditional, modified problem- based , systems-based, case-based, Guidebased 39% Things to Think About How can the content be divided? General education courses PTA courses Independent study courses What does the entry-level PTA really need to know/do? How can the curriculum be structured to help the student learn how to “think like a PTA?” How can the curriculum be structured to link classroom activities and objectives with clinical education experiences? Techniques for Organizing Curricular Content Write content Areas on Index Cards Matrix Primary Content Intro to PTA Group similar content cards together Communication X X X X Patient Rights X X X X Organize groups of cards to be introduced together Courses Units in Courses Ultrasound X X Gait Training X X Sequence Groups of Cards in plan of Study Ther. Ther. Procedures Ex. Clinical Ed. I Motor Learning X X Strengthening X X Consider Using the Course Objectives and Outcomes Form Was a CAPTE required document Includes all areas of the curriculum as identified in Section3 of the Evaluative Criteria Helps track integration of content Provides opportunity to track assessment of content as well Example: www.sf.edu/ptaaccreditation Step # 4 Course design Questions?? What’s next?? CAPTE 3.2.4. The implemented curriculum plan utilizes appropriate instructional methodology. 3.2.5. The program faculty utilize a variety of effective methods to measure students’ achievement of the objectives. Course Design Course Objectives Either Instructional Activities Assessment Methods Course Objectives Or Assessment Methods Instructional Activities Course Design by Taxonomic Domain Instructional Objective Learning Activity Assessment Method What is Assessment? “Assessment is the systematic collection, review, and use of information about educational programs undertaken for the purpose of improving student learning and development.” Palomba and Banta, 1999 Purpose of Students Learning Outcomes Assessment To communicate to ourselves: What we intended for students to learn. The content and sequence of learning. Whether students have gained appropriate ○ skills ○ attitudes ○ and/or knowledge. How successful a learning activity has been. Purpose of Students Learning Outcomes Assessment To communicate to students what we intend for them to learn: So they can organize their efforts toward accomplishing the desired behavior. So they can assess their own performance. Purpose of Students Learning Outcomes Assessment To communicate to other interested parties including the professional community, accrediting agencies and the public The purpose and degree of success of our activities. Our commitment to engage in the process of improvement. Assessment of Learning Outcomes Learning outcomes provide the basis for assessing whether or not students completing your program have attained the agreed upon outcomes. The program has to organize itself in such a way that educational outcomes are captured at various points in time. Assessment results provide information to support program improvement. Curricular Cycle Needs Assessment Assessment Outcome Design Implementation Curricular Design (8) Goals for students: What do you want them to know and be able to do at the end of the semester? How will the course build on where students started and help them move through the rest of the curriculum? Authentic assignments: What assignments will allow students to reach those goals and develop skills that are enduring? Curricular Design Relevant course content: Once the course goals are more clear, content choices become less about what needs to be covered and more about what students need to develop a coherent understanding of the topic. Feedback and assessment: How will you know that students have reached these goals? How will you incorporate feedback opportunities within the course beyond the usual mid-term or final? In the Classroom: Principles of Learning and Motivation Students are more likely to: be motivated to learn things that are meaningful to them. learn something new if they have all the prerequisites. acquire new behaviors if they are presented with a model performance to watch and imitate. In the Classroom: Principles of Learning and Motivation Students are more likely to learn if the presentation is structured so that the instructor's messages are open to the student. if their attention is attracted by relatively novel presentations. if they take an active part in the practice geared to reach the objective. if the practice is scheduled in short sessions distributed over time. In the Classroom: Principles of Learning and Motivation Students are more likely to: learn if the instructional prompts are withdrawn gradually. continue learning if instructional conditions are made pleasant. References 1. Shepard,KF, Jensen GM. Handbook of Teaching for Physical Therapists, 2nd ed. Butterworth Heinemann, 2002. 2. Merriam Webster online http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/ accessed 6-12-12. 3. American Physical Therapy Association, Evaluative Criteria for Accreditation of PTA Programs (5-22-12) 4. A Normative Model of Physical Therapist Assistant Education: Version 2007; APTA; Alexandria, VA; 2007. http://www.capteonline.org/uploadedFiles/CAPTEorg/About_CAPTE/Resources/Accreditation_Handbo ok/EvaluativeCriteria_PTA.pdf 5. Crosier J, McKnight R. Topics in Education for PTA Faculty: A Pre-Conference Worship at APTA Annual Conference, 2007. 6. Palomba, CA, Banta, TW; 1999 Jossey-Bass Publishers San Francisco 7. Curricular Design and Development, Judy McKimm MBA, MA (Ed), BA (Hons), Cert Ed, ILTM, Head of Curriculum Development, School of Medicine, Imperial College Centre for Educational Development, Web-based resource, 2003. 8. Center for New Design and Learning at https://cndls.georgetown.edu/ 9. Van Hoozer HL. The Teaching Process Theory and Practice n Nursing, paperback, 1994. 10. Banta TW, Jones EA and Black KE. Designing Effective Assessment: Principles and Profiles of Good Practice, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, 2009.