Kritiks on the Topic - 2011MichiganDebateInstitutes

Generic Kritiks with Links
• Deep Ecology
• Heidegger
• Bataille
• Nietschze
• Taoism
Kritiks on the Topic
Tim Alderete
The Meadows School
Topic Specific vs. Aff Specific
• The Security Kritik vs. Astropolitiks
• Astropolitiks vs. The Asteroid Kritik
• Threat Construction vs. China Threat (Pan)
• China Threat vs. The Pearl Harbor Kritik
• Capitalism vs. Disposable Planet Mentality
• Disposable Planet Mentality vs. Mars Colonialism
International Relations Realism
• Anarchy – No Authority
• States Have National Interests / Sovereignty
• Zero Sum Competition – Relative vs Absolute
• Empirical / Externally Verifiable
Realism Sources
• John Mearsheimer, Professor of International Relations at the
University of Chicago 1995 “The False Promise of International
Institutions” and “A Realist Reply” International Security,
Spring/Summer pp 82-93
• Dale Copeland, Director Dept. of Government and Foreign
Affairs @ University of Virginia, 2006 “The Constructivist
Challenge to Structural Realism: A Review Essay”,
Constructivism and International Relations, Alexander Wendt
and His Critics
Everett Dolman - Realism applied to
• Zero Sum Competition
• External Resources determine Power
• Lack of Authority
Military Cases
• Missile Defense
• Satellite Hardening / SSA
Non Military Cases
• Space Debris
• Mining
• Colonization
• Military Industrial Complex – MacDonald
• Authoritarian Space – Orr
Orr, 4 – Professor of Sociology at Syracuse University (Jackie, The Militarization
of Inner Space, Critical Sociology, Sage Journals)
• Security Competition - Grondin
Liberal Internationalism / Institutionalism
• Arms Control / The Outer Space Treaty
• Deterritorialization / Sovereignty in Space
• David Grondin, 2006 – Assistant Professor, School of Political
Studies, University of Ottawa The (Power) Politics of Space:
The U.S. Astropolitical Discourse of Global Dominance in the
War on Terror
Critical Geography
As has already been made clear, this sort of project is by no means new. Just as
astropolitics situates itself within a Mackinderian geographical tradition, so a
critical geography of outer space can draw on geography’s early modern
cosmographical origins, as well as on more recent emancipatory perspectives that
might interrogate the workings of race, class, gender and imperialism. Space is
already being produced in and through Earthly regimes of power in ways that
undoubtedly threaten social justice and democracy. A critical geography of space,
then, is not some far-fetched or indulgent distraction from the ‘real world’; Fraser
MacDonald: Anti-Astropolitik outer space and the orbit of geography 611 rather, as
critical geographers we need to think about the contest for outer space as being
constitutive of numerous familiar operations, not only in respect of international
relations and the conduct of war, but also to the basic infrastructural maintenance
of the state and to the lives of its citizenry.
Fraser Macdonald, 2007 – Professor of Human Geography at the University of
Melbourne Anti-Astropolitik: Outer Space and the Orbit of Geography, Progress in
Human Geography Online
Asteroid Kritik
Felicity Mellor 2007 PhD Theoretical Physics Newcastle
University, Colliding Worlds: Asteroid Research and the
Legitimization of War in Space, Social Studies of Science, Vol. 37,
Aug., pp. 499-531,,)
*Credit to Whit Whitmore for the cite.
Asteroid Kritik
Asteroid! Kritik!
Asteroid Kritik
• Threat construction / Anthropomorphism
• Apocalyptic Rhetoric
• Militarism / Justifying Star Wars/SDI
China Threat Kritik
• Competition is inevitable
• Capabilities determine Intentions
• Realism applied in Asia
• Self Fulfilling Prophecy
Pearl Harbor Kritik
Pearl Harbor Kritik
• 2001 Space Commission for the Management of Space –
• Historical analogies as Narratives / Stories
• Implied Messages in stories / Purposes of Narratives
• National Stereotypes / Racialized Violence
Capitalism Kritik
Capitalism Kritik
Consumer / Producer Relationship
• Consumption is virtuous
• Consumption / Production is Progressive
• Economic competition will preserve scarce resources
Types of Links
• Competition – Winners and Losers – Resource Conflicts
• Consumption – Over exploitation of Resources
• Commodification – reduction to Instrumental value /
Disposable Planet Mentality
• “Infinite Resources” – technical vs. actual
• Overconsumption mindset – Environment
• Space Junk
Space Colonialism Kritik
• History of Colonialism / spread of Neo
• Anthropocentrism
• Potential for a Word PIC
Privatization Kritiks
• Affirmatives using Market Mechanisms
• Commodifying Space “Territory” and
Frontier Myth Kritik
• American mythology – Rugged
• Lawless / Dangerous / Wasteland Imagery
• Acceptance of Devaluation of life /
“Vigilante” conflicts
Gender Kritik
• Manned Space Flight – NASA culture
• To Boldly go where no Man has gone
• Phallic Imagery
The Overview Effect
The Overview Effect
• Mindset Change / Human Spaceflight
• An Advantage
• 100th Monkey
• Technology / Technologic
• Enlightenment / Rationality
• Ontology and Ethics
• Policy Making / Educated Hope – Giroux
• Space and Hope – alternative to
• Science Fiction / Scenarios
• SETI – Advantage
• Colonization / Human Space Flight
• Deep Ecology / Social Ecology
• Blah blah blah blah
• Blah blah blah blah
• Blah blah BLAU blah

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