ACE Personal Trainer Manual, 4th edition Chapter 16: Emergency Procedures 1 Checking for Life-Threatening Conditions • Conditions that are life threatening include: Unconsciousness. Not breathing or trouble breathing. No signs of life (normal breathing, movement) and for children and infants, no pulse. Severe bleeding. Checking for Consciousness • To determine if a victim is conscious, tap him or her on the shoulders and shout “Are you okay?” • If the victim is conscious and alert, introduce yourself and get the victim’s consent. • If the victim is unconscious, call 9-1-1 or the local emergency number immediately. Call First or Care First. If you must leave the scene, place the victim in a recovery position. Checking a Conscious Victim • When possible, the victim should always be checked in the position in which he or she is found. • Begin interviewing by asking the victim some simple questions: What happened? Do you feel pain anywhere? Do you have any allergies? Do you have any medical condition or are you taking any medications? Can you describe the pain? What were you doing when this happened? Can you rate the pain on a scale of 1 to 10? • Write down the information you learn. Deciding Whether to Transport the Victim • Do not transport a victim— When the trip may aggravate the injury or illness or cause additional injury. When the victim has or may develop a life-threatening condition. If you are unsure of the nature of the injury. • With a life-threatening condition or if there is a possibility of further injury, call 9-1-1 or the local emergency number and wait for help. Rescue Breathing Rescue breathing is a way of breathing air into an adult’s lungs to supply the oxygen he or she needs to survive. Rescue breathing is given an adult who is not breathing but still has a pulse. Each breath should last about 1 second long. Breathing Barriers A resuscitation mask or face shield (also known as a CPR breathing barrier) may reduce the risk of disease transmission between the responder and the victim. Cardiac Chain of Survival • Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a combination of chest compressions and rescue breaths. • Cardiac Chain of Survival: Early recognition and early access Early CPR Early defibrillation Early advanced medical care Recognizing Signals of a Heart Attack • Heart attacks are caused by an obstruction in the coronary arteries. • This blockage leads to death of the heart muscle. • Pain is described as— Uncomfortable pressure. Squeezing. Crushing. Tightness. Aching. Constricting. Heavy sensation in the chest. Care for a Heart Attack Follow CHECK—CALL—CARE. Call 9-1-1 or the local emergency number. Have the victim stop all physical activity. Loosen any restrictive clothing and have the victim rest. Monitor the victim closely. Be prepared to perform CPR or use an AED. Talk to bystanders to find out what happened. Assist the victim to take prescribed medication. Do not try to drive the victim to the hospital yourself. Aspirin may be given under certain circumstances, after 9-1-1 has been called. Demonstrate a calm, reassuring manner. CPR Cycle An adult victim who is in cardiac arrest is unconscious and shows no signs of life. CPR can help circulate blood containing oxygen by a combination of chest compressions and rescue breaths. When you perform CPR, give cycles of 30 compressions and 2 rescue breaths for an adult. Automated External Defibrillator (AED) Automated External Defibrillation Disease or injury can disrupt the heart’s electrical system and damage the heart. An automated external defibrillator (AED) is a machine that analyzes the heart’s rhythm and, if necessary, tells you to deliver a shock to a victim of a sudden cardiac arrest. Defibrillation is an electric shock that interrupts the heart’s chaotic electrical activity during sudden cardiac arrest, which is most commonly caused by an abnormal rhythms such as ventricular fibrillation. The shock may help restore the heart’s ability to function as a pump. Safety Precautions When Using an AED When using an AED, follow these precautions: Do not touch the victim while the AED is analyzing. Do not touch the victim while defibrillating. Do not use alcohol to wipe the victim’s chest dry. Do not defibrillate someone around flammable materials. Do not use an AED in a moving vehicle. Do not use an AED on a victim in contact with water. Do not use an AED and/or electrode pads designed for adult victims a child under age 8 or weighing less than 55 pounds unless pediatric pads specific to the device are not available. Safety Precautions When Using an AED (continued) Do not use an AED on a victim wearing a nitroglycerin patch or other patch on the chest. Do not use a mobile phone or conduct radio transmission within 6 feet of the AED. Do not place the pads directly over a pacemaker or other implanted device. Causes and Signals of Conscious Choking—Adult or Child The universal signal of choking. Care for Conscious Choking—Adult If a person cannot cough, speak or breathe, assume the airway is obstructed. A combination of 5 back blows followed by 5 abdominal thrusts is an effective way to clear an airway obstruction. Class Activities Let’s walk to the Fitness Lab!