cpr

Report
Cardio
Pulmonary
Resuscitation
Objectives:
• Promote willingness to perform CPR by
addressing key psychological concerns.
• Provide basic physiological knowledge to
enhance understanding of CPR.
• Demonstrate the simplicity of the CPR
process.
Vasoconstriction
Plaque
Blood
Clot
Arteries
Lumen
CPR will not undo
damage to the heart!
:
• Heart Attack Signs or Symptoms are:
- Severe pain or pressure in the center of
the chest.
- Pain in the arms, back, neck or jaw.
- Denial.
Heart Attack Signs or Symptoms:
- Nausea and Vomiting.
- Cold Sweat.
- Shortness of breath with or without
discomfort.
- Persistent pain around the “stomach”
area.
• Stroke Signs and Symptoms are:
- Sudden numbness or weakness of the:
• Face (Droopy or slurred speech).
• Arm on one side of body.
• Leg on one side of body.
 Loss of balance.
• Stroke Signs or Symptoms:
- Sudden confusion, difficulty speaking
or understanding.
- Trouble seeing out of one or both eyes.
- Dizziness.
- Sudden severe headache of unknown
causes.
So…Who receives CPR?
• The answer lies with understanding what CPR
actually means:
- Cardio = Heart
- Pulmonary = Breathing
- Resuscitation = To revive to a level of
consciousness by replacing what’s missing.
Answer is…
DEAD PEOPLE!!!
Time is critical
in starting CPR.
Age Guidelines for CPR
Infant:
Birth up to 1 year of age
Small Child: Ages 1 to 8 or to Puberty
• Child procedures should be performed if they
are less mature and less physically developed
and extended to age of 12 or 13
Adult:
Puberty should be used as
a guideline; however Adult
Procedures
can be used
on anyone over 8 years
The emergency medical procedure
used for reviving the heart and
lung functions
 Cardio:
Heart
 Pulmonary: The Lungs Circulating
Oxygen into the Blood
 Resuscitation: Revive from Apparent
Death or Unconsciousness
by using the combination of:
*Ventilations
*Compressions
Call the CAB:
E:Call 911-EMS or the
Emergency Medical
Services Phone Number
in your Community
C: Compressions –
Perform 30 Chest Compressions @ 100 cpm
A: Airway – Open Airway/Head Tilt – Chin Lift
*Look – Listen – Feel for Air Exchange
B: Breathing – Give 2 ventilations
D: Defibrillation – Add the AED to the rescue
if one is available
*(Automated External Defibrillator)
Simplified Adult BLS Algorithm
Travers, A. H. et al. Circulation 2010;122:S676-S684
Copyright ©2010 American Heart Association
Three C’s of Emergencies
Check: for Responsiveness
and signs of
Circulation
Call:activate the EMS
Care: provide First Aid and
CPR for the victim
Emergency Medical Services
What is The EMS?
The Emergency Medical Services is a systemized
network of community resources and services that
responds to medical emergencies. Ideally, all the links
of the chain should work together to provide the best
possible care to victims of injury or illness. Early arrival
of emergency personnel increases the victim's chances
of surviving any life-threatening emergencies.
Checking for Signs of Circulation:
*Scan the Body & Check for Pulse
Carotid Pulse on Neck for Child and Adult
Brachial Pulse on Bicep for Infants
Rule Three Initial Steps
Check Responsiveness
and Breathing
Check Pulse
Begin Chest Compressions
(Only if pulse is missing)
Rule Three Repetitive Steps
Compressions
(Only if pulse is missing)
Airway
(Clear the throat)
Breathing
Circulation
C
A
B
The 2010 CPR Standard
Not Breathing but
the pulse is present
Not Breathing and
the pulse is missing
Airway
Adult
Child
Infant
A
B
C
Adult
Airway
Child
Infant
(≥ 8 yrs) (1 yr – puberty) (Birth – 1 yr)
One
breath
every
5-6
sec
3-5
sec
3-5
sec
Circulation
Repeat for 2 minutes
30 compressions
And
Two Breaths
Repeat 5 times w/in 2 minutes
Adult CPR
• Click on link
Infant CPR
• Click on link
ONLY Circumstances to
Discontinue Rescue Efforts
 More Qualified Help Arrives on the scene and
takes over the rescue
 Victim is Revived or Regains Consciousness
 Emergency Situation Is Too Dangerous and
the Rescuer is Prohibited from Providing any
Emergency First Aid or CPR
– Example: Victim trapped in burning house
or burning car
Another type of CPR is….
Hands Only CPR
The premise…
• Due to arrest, circulation ceases.
• In theory, there is unused O2 on the arterial
side of the system.
• If adequate circulation is created via
compressions, perfusion of key organs may be
achieved faster.
Is applicable when…
• The responder is reluctant to perform
breathing without a barrier device.
• Untrained in CPR.
• We do not give bre
Automated External
Defibrillation
Sudden Cardiac Arrest
• Two Stages
1. Ventricular Fibrillation (Quivering Heart)
2. Asystole , Agonal (Flat Line)
Normal Rhythm
Heart Attack
Cardiac
Arrest
VentricularFibrillation
Tachycardia
Ventricular
Asystole /Agonal
(i.e. Flat Line)
Normal Rhythm
Ventricular Fibrillation
Asystole /Agonal
(i.e. Flat Line)
Equipment
• The AED Unit
• AED Pads
• Optional Accessories
–
–
–
–
–
Gloves
CPR Barrier Device
Scissors
Razor
Towel
• If body jewelry present:
– Try to remove but do not invest much time.
• If oxygen present:
- Close valve or remove from area.
AED Configuration
• Pad placement is important
– Place the pads as shown
on the pictures
• Do not touch the person during
analysis stage or when administering
the shock
– No shock statement means either
* There is a heart beat
* Or the heart beat is missing
– If no signs of life, start CPR
– During reassessment
or CPR, the AED
Deactivates for
two minutes
– The AED will continuously
reassess and instruct user
Pediatric Pads
• Used on children under 8 yrs.
• Never use on adults:
- Not enough electrical current.
• Placement varies with manufacturer.
Management of the Foreign Body
Airway Obstruction
(Choking)
FBAO Techniques
• Works best on solid objects
- Candy
- Toys
- Food
The choking person can be in one of
two states:
1. Conscious
2. Unconscious
The conscious choking person can be
in one of two conditions:
1. Partial Obstruction
- Good air exchange
- Poor air exchange
2. Total Obstruction
Partial Obstruction
Good Air Exchange
Signs and Symptoms
• May have a strong cough
• May exhibit odd behavior
- Universal Sign
Solution:
Encourage strong coughing!
Partial Obstruction
Poor Air Exchange
Signs and Symptoms
• Displays a weak cough or
wheezing
• May have concerned expression
• Change of skin color
• May display the Universal Sign
or other odd behavior
Solution:
Encourage coughing or if
necessary force them to cough!
Unresolved Partial
And
Total Obstructions
Signs and Symptoms
• Odd behavior
- May display Universal Sign
• Wheezing (Unresolved partial)
• Concerned expression
• Change of skin color
Unresolved Partial
And
Total Obstructions
Signs and Symptoms
• Unable to speak, cough or
breathe
Solution:
Force them to cough!
Unconscious FBAO
Solution:
• 30 Chest Compressions.
• Inspect the airway:
- If object visible, remove.
• If the patient is not breathing:
- Test the airway with breathing.
• If first attempt fails:
• Readjust the head with the head-tilt chin-lift.
• Breath again.
• If the second attempt fails:
• Resume chest compressions.
• Test the airway as appropriate.
Infant FBAO
Unconscious
• 30 Chest compressions.
• Two breaths.
Recovery
Position
What is the
Recovery Position?
First Aid procedure to use if
the person is unconscious,
breathing and they have a
pulse. It is a safe position to
put them in while you are
waiting for the EMS to arrive;
which allows them to breathe
easily and prevents them
from choking on their tongue
or any vomit.
Good Samaritan Law
 Law that protects rescuers from prosecution or
civil law suits, unless their actions constitute
willful misconduct and negligence.
The Rescuer MUST comply with proper
emergency first aid and CPR guidelines;
acting in good faith by being prudent and
responsible in their rescue efforts.

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