Basic Life Support

Report
Sunshine Care Training
Sarah Yorwerth & Tara Hollinshead
Information supplied by an
experienced paramedic to guide
you through first aid and a
reference for the future.
The Aims of First Aid.
The Aims
Priorities- Primary Survey
Resuscitation Flow Chart.
DANGER?
NO
REMOVE DANGER
RESPONSE
SHOUT FOR HELP
NO
AIRWAY
NO
NORMAL BREATHING
NO
999/112
Look, listen & feel 10
seconds!
The chain of survival- CPR
Not breathing ‘normally’?
Combine compressions/breaths
Secondary Survey
Head to toe- Secondary Survey
Recovery Position
Hypoxia
Causes
Possible Signs & Symptoms
!
?
The main causes of unconsciousness
Head Injury
?
?
?
Treatment
!
Stroke
Stroke
?
!
Choking
?
!
First, encourage the casualty to cough. Mild obstructions will clear.
If the obstruction is not cleared, it is a severe airway obstruction.
The following steps should be carried out:
!
If casualty falls unconscious, start CPR immediately.
The casualty must seek medical attention once obstruction has
cleared.
Anaphylaxis
?
Asthma
?
•Difficulty breathing
•Wheezy breath sounds
•Difficulty speaking
•Pale, clammy skin
•Cyanosis
•Exhaustion
•Unconsciousness
•Help to sit upright or lean on a table in
front
•Help the casualty use their inhaler (can
be repeated every few minutes)
•Light conversation
•Reassurance.
•If no improvement, 999/112
Angina
!
Shock
Fainting
?
•Pale, clammy skin
•Slow pulse
•Falling to the floor
•Blurred vision/
dizziness prior.
•Cyanosis (shock)
•Air Hunger (deep
sighing)
!
•Lay casualty down and raise their legs
•Check Airway & Breathing
•Remove causes of stress.
•Reassurance
•If they feel fain again, repeat.
•Look for the cause
•Loosen tight clothing.
•Keep casualty insulated.
Wounds & Bleeding
Wounds & bleeding
S
E
E
P
Sit or lay the casualty down
Examine the wound for objects and how it is bleeding.
Elevate the wound. Above the heart- gravity!
Direct/indirect pressure to stem bleeding. 10 minutes to stop bleeding.
Poisons
Ingested
Swallowed
Inhaled
Brreathed in
Absorbed
Through skin
Injected
Directly into tissues/blood vessel
Corrosives
Acids, bleach, ammonia, petrol, turpentine, dishwasher
powder etc
Non- corrosives
Tablets, drugs, alcohol, plants or perfume
?
Look for clues- containers, drugs, syringes, smells.
Vomiting or retching
Abdominal pain
Burns, breathing, headache.
Burns & Scalds.
Causes
!
Broken Bones
Fractures
Closed Fracture- a clean break or crack.
Complicated fracture- Trapped blood vessels or
nerves.
Open fracture- The skin has become broken by the
bone which may be protruding from wound. High
risk of infection.
Green stick fracture- common in children, bone is
split. May be mistaken for sprains/strains.
?
Sprains & Strains
!
Spinal Injury
?
•Sustained a blow to the head, neck or back
•Fallen from a height
•Dived into shall water
•Speed
•Crushing accident
•Multiple injuries
•Pain or tenderness
•Or if you are in doubt.
?
•Pain or tenderness in neck or back
•Signs of a fracture
•Loss of control
•Loss of feeling
•Sensations such as pins & needles
•Breathing difficults
•Incontinence.
Conscious casualty
Reassurance. Do not move
Keep in save position- only move if in serious danger.
Hold their head still
999/112
Unconscious and breathing normally
Do not move unless severe danger
Breathing normally? Airway is clear
999/112
Hold head still
If casualty starts to vomit, place casualty in the recovery position.
Keep the head, neck and back inline when rolling. Will take more
than one person.
Not breathing? Open airway and start CPR.
The Log roll
Diabetes
!
Unlike other cells, the brain can only use glucose (sugar) as its
source of energy. If the sugar in the blood becomes low, the
brain will starve.
Epilepsy
•Guide the casualty away from any danger,
•Sit in a quiet place, and lots of reassurance
•Stay until fully alert
•If it is unusual- advise them to see their GP,
Generalised Seizures.
Involves electrical activity in the whole brain so usually the whole body is
affected. It can be a frightening experience.
Aura- Very rarely, the casualty may have a sensation before the seizure such
as a strange feeling, taste of smell. Although a majority have no warning.
Tonic Phase- ever muscle in the body becomes rigid suddenly. May let out a
cry and will all to the floor. The back may arch and lips go blue. Usually
lasts for 30 seconds
Clonic Phase- The limbs will make a sudden violent jerk-like movements, the
eyes may roll, teeth may clench and may drool.
This phase can last from 15 seconds to hours- although seizures should stop
after a couple of minutes. Anything over 15 minutes as a medical
emergency.
Recovery phaseThe body relaxes- though the casualty is still unresponsive. The casualty may
not be fully alert for 20 minutes or so. They may want to sleep and be
unaware of what just happened.
!
Never place anything in casualties mouth, Never restrain them or
move them during seizure.
AED Defibrillator

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