010PPStemOvrvw021914

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ᏣᎳᎩ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ 132
ᏦᎢᏁ ᎢᎦ, ᎧᎦᎵ 19, 2014
Framework for Stem Practice
We can use the verb –advn- ‘do’ to
structure stem practice for verb words
that take Tsi-/G- Set Pronouns.
Present:
Imperfective:
Immediate:
Do iyusdi advneha?
Do iyusdi advnehoi?
Do iyusdi advga?
Hadida! Rise Up!
Do advnha nogwu?
Do advnehoi?
Do advga?
Nihi nigada nogwu.
Describe action in First Person Singular.
Gadidia. I am getting up.
Nigohilv nvhgi ayeli iyuwanhilv gadidisgoi.
Always at 4:30 o'clock I get up.
Gadida nole gadanv'isdiha.
I just got up and I'm ready.
Nihi nogwu.
Pretend to get up while your partner peppers
you with questions.
Do hadvneha?
Do hadvnehoi?
Do hadvga?
Verb Stems Overview
Each complete Cherokee verb
has five stem forms:
1. Present
2. Imperfective
3. Immediate
4. Perfective
5. Infinitive
Verb Overview
We have looked most closely at
Agi-/Agw- Verbs.
Agi-/Agw- Verbs exceptionally take Agi/Agw- Set Pronouns in all forms.
Agwaduliha. I want it.
Uduliha.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Uduliha.
Agwaduliha.
Udulihv’i.
Udulisgo’i.
Tsadula!
uduhldi
She wants it.
I want it.
He wanted it.
She wants it.
Want it!
for him want it
Present
Present
Perfective Past
Imperfective Hab
Immediate
Infinitive
Udawesolvsdohdi uduliha. He wants to rest.
Note Pronoun Set does not change.
Verb Overview
Most Verbs are not Agi-/Agw- Verbs.
Tsi-/G- Verbs take Tsi-/G- Set Pronouns in
the Imperfective, the Present, and the
Immediate.
Tsi-/G- Verbs take Agi-/Agw- Set Pronouns
in the Perfective and the Infinitive.
Verb Overview
Tsi-/G- Verbs take Tsi-/G- Set Pronouns in
the Imperfective, the Present, and the
Immediate.
Gadvneha. I am doing it. g- ‘I’ pronoun
Tsi-/G- Verbs take Agi-/Agw- Set Pronouns
in the Perfective and the Infinitive.
Agwadvnelv’i. I did it. agw- ‘I’ pronoun
Most Important Stems
The Imperfective and the Perfective verb
stems are the most important.
Imperfective indicates an ongoing situation
in the present, past, or future.
Perfective indicates a complete situation in
the present, past, or future.
Tsi-/G- Verb Words
Present Verb Words, Immediate Command Verb
Words, and Imperfective Habitual Verb Words
generally take Tsi-/G- Set Pronouns to form Verb
Word Sentences.
-alsgia 'dancing Present' > Galsgia!
-alsgi 'dance Immediate Command' > Halsgi!
-alsgisg- 'dancing Imperfective' > Galsgisgoi.
Present
The Present Stem describes situations that are
happening now, at the time of speech.
Do iyusdi hadvneha nogwu?
What are you doing now?
Galsgi’a. Gatsinula galsgi’a. Uwoduhi galsgi’a.
I am dancing. I am dancing fast. I am dancing
beautifully.
Immediate Command
The Immediate Stem has two core
meanings.
1. Immediate Command: A command for
certain immediate future situation.
2. Immediate Past: A statement of just past
and currently relevant past situation.
Halsgi! Dance!
Uwoduhi halsgi!
Dance beautifully!
Imperfective Stem
The Imperfective Stem combines with a set of
Stem Final forms that indicate the Speaker's
Perspective on and the Temporal Location of the
situation described by the verb.
-alsgisg- 'dancing Imperfective'
H-alsgisg-ei-tsu? Were you dancing? Unknown.
G-alsgisg-oi. I dance. Situation at several times.
Nihi nigada nogwu.
Your partner, Ulsgisdi ulvgwdi. She likes to
dance. Ask her what she is doing, what she
does, and what she has just done.
Galsgia.
Galsgisgoi.
Galsgi.
I am dancing.
I dance. [Uwoduhi.]
I just danced.
Alsgi’a.
Alsgi’a.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Alsgi’a.
Galsgi’a.
Ulsgisv’i.
Alsgisgo’i.
Halsgi!
ulsgisdi
She is dancing.
I am dancing.
He danced.
She dances.
Dance!
for him to dance
Present
Present
Perfective Past
Imperfective Hab
Immediate
Infinitive
NB: Pronoun Set changes according to verb
structure.
That was an overview.
Focus on Singular Person Present:
Galsgi’a.
I am dancing.
Halsgi’a.
You are dancing.
Alsgi’a.
He is dancing.
A-stem structure
g- ‘I’
h- ‘you’
a- ‘she/he/it’
Advneha. Durbin Feeling 1975 Cherokee-English Dictionary
Advneha
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Advneha.
Gadvneha.
Udvnelv’i.
Advneho’i.
Hadvga!
udvnhdi
She is doing it.
I am doing it.
He did it.
She does it.
Do it!
for him to do it
Present
Present
Perfective Past
Imperfective Hab
Immediate
Infinitive
Osda hnadvga! ‘You have done well!’
Note Pronoun Set change according to verb form.
Framework for Stem Practice
We can use the verb –advn- ‘do’ to
structure stem practice.
Present:
Do iyusdi advneha?
Imperfective: Do iyusdi advneho’i?
Immediate:
Do iyusdi advga?
Perfective:
Infinitive:
Do iyusdi udvnele’i?
Do iyusdi udvnhdi uduliha?

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