Chapter 7 - Oxford University Press

Report
Understanding Intercultural
Communication Second Edition
Chapter 7
What are the Different Ways to Communicate
Nonverbally Across Cultures?
Stella Ting-Toomey & Leeva C. Chung
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS
PowerPoint Slides Designed by Alex Flecky and Noorie Baig
TODAY’S MENU
I. The Impact of Nonverbal Communication
II. Forms of Nonverbal Communication
III. Boundary Regulations: Four Broad
Themes
IV. Intercultural Reality Check: Do-Ables
I. The Impact of Nonverbal Communication
A. Nonverbal Communication:
Message exchange process involving the use
of nonlinguistic and paralinguistic cues which
are expressed through multiple
communication channels in a particular
sociocultural setting.
•
•
•
•
Nonlinguistic cues e.g., eye contact, smiles, touch etc.
Paralinguistic cues e.g., tone, pitch, volume, pace etc.
Multiple channels e.g., facial expressions, gestures etc.
Sociocultural setting e.g., cultural norms, etc.
I. The Impact of Nonverbal Communication
B. One Code, Countless Interpretations
C. Verbal and Nonverbal Comparisons
Nonverbal cues relate to verbal messages
in five different ways:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Repeat
Contradict
Substitute
Complement
Accent
I. The Impact of Nonverbal Communication
Application Exercise: Intercultural
Nonverbal Communication: Fun
Nonverbal Quiz.
How many answers did you get right?
II. Forms of Nonverbal Communication:
A. Physical Appearance: Artifacts and clothing
B. Paralanguage: Sounds and tones
C. Facial expressions: Kinesics, SADFISH, and
cultural display rules
D. Gestures: four categories of hand gestures
1.
2.
3.
4.
Emblems
Illustrators
Regulators
Adaptors
E. Haptics—touch behavior, high-, low-,
moderate-contact cultures
II. Forms of Nonverbal
Communication:
Can you identify
the emotions?
III. Boundary Regulations: Four broad
themes
A.
Regulating Interpersonal Boundaries
Proxemics: study of space.
Intimate zone: 0–18 inches. Reserved for those closest
to us.
Personal zone: 18–48 inches. Closer friends, some
acquaintances.
Social zone: 48 inches to 12 feet.
Public zone: 12 feet or more.
III. Boundary Regulations
President Bush meets Saudi Arabian royalty,
Prince Abdullah
What can you gather about their spatial
zones?
III. Boundary Regulations
A. Regulating Interpersonal Boundaries:
Marking Boundaries + Expressing Respect or Deference
• Cultural Norms & Rules
• Meanings
• Appropriateness
President Obama Bows and
Shakes Hands In Japan To
Emperor Akihito and
Empress Michiko
III. Boundary Regulations: Four broad
themes
B. Environmental Boundaries:
claimed sense of space and emotional
attachment we share with others in our
community.
C. Psychological Boundaries
1. Intrapersonal space: need for information
privacy or psychological silence between the self
and others.
2. Privacy regulation is important in individualistic
cultures, not perceived as critical in collectivistic
cultures.
III. Boundary Regulations: Four broad
themes
D. Regulating Time: attitudes we
have about time.
Chronemics: how people in different
cultures structure, interpret, and
understand the time dimension.
Two patterns of time govern different
cultures:
• Monochronic-time schedule
• Polychronic-time schedule
III. Boundary Regulations
Media Analysis: Gran Torino film clip
DISCUSSION:
•
•
•
What is your initial reaction to this clip?
Can you identify all of the nonverbal
violations experienced by both Walt and the
Hmong’s family?
Have you experienced any international
nonverbal faux pas?
IV. Intercultural Reality Check: Do-Ables
Nonverbal points to consider in communicating
across cultures:
A. Be flexible when you observe and identify
nonverbal display rules.
B. Attempt a deeper-than-surface explanation for
the behavior.
C. Monitor your own nonverbal behavior.
D. Be adaptive and sensitive to appropriate
nonverbal display rules for emotions in a
particular culture.
E. Be less judgmental and more tentative in
interpreting others’ nonverbal signals.
Parting Thoughts…
Our first impressions are
generated by our experiences
and our environment,
which means that we
can change our
first impressions . . .
by changing the experiences
that comprise
those impressions.
~ Malcolm Gladwell

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