Timeline of Accomplishments

1961- Bachelor’s in OT from University of Minnesota
Timeline of
1961- Glenwood Hills Hospital in Minneapolis
1961-1966 – New York state Psychiatric Unit
1965- Master’s in OT from NYU
1966-1967- Faculty member of AOTA Regional Institutes
1966-1968 – OT instructor at Columbia University
Developed and wrote Three Frames of Reference for Mental Health
1968- Doctorate in Human Relations and Community Studies from NYU
1969- Faculty of OT Department at NYU
1972-1980 – NYU Second Chair/Department Chairperson
1973- AOTA Fellow
1975- Distinguished Service Award from National Association of Activity Therapy
1977- Acting Head of the Division of Health at NYU
1984-1988 – Member of Panel of Experts of the AOTA Continuing Education Programs
in Mental Health
1985 – Presents Slagle Lecturship
1988-1991 - Member of the Scholars Group for the Directions for the Future Project of
AOTA/American Occupational Therapy Foundation
2002- Retires as a OT professor at NYU
2004- Ann Cronin Mosey Lectureship at NYU
2007- Professor Emeritus Status from NYU
Frame of Reference
• Inspired by Freud and Erikson
• Psychosexual Development & 8 Stages
• In growth-facilitating environments, children will
develop skills of interdependence, qualitative and
• Development of basic skills build upon each other
at each stage
• Skills must be developed in proper order to
create mature skills
• Age-appropriate sub-skills, when not properly
acquired, result in dysfunction and symptom
• Function-dysfunction continuums for each substage
• Participation between the individual and
environment promote sequential development of
mature skill
7 Basic Beliefs
about the Individual
1. Each individual has the right to a meaningful existence; to an existence that allows
one to be productive; to experience pleasure and joy; to love and be loved; and to live
in surroundings that are safe, supportive, and comfortable.
2. Each individual is influenced by stage-specific maturation of the species, the
social nature of the species, and the cognitive structure of the species
3. Each individual has inherent needs for work, play, and rest that must be satisfied
in a relatively equal balance.
4. Each individual has the right to seek his or her potential through personal choice
within the context of some social constraints
5. Each individual is only able to reach his or her potential through purposeful
interaction with the human and nonhuman environment
6. Each individual is only able to be understood within the context of his or her
environment of family, community, and cultural group
7. Occupational therapy is concerned with promoting functional independence through
intervention directed toward facilitating participation in major social roles
(occupational performances) and the development of the physical, cognitive,
psychological, and social skills (performance components) that are fundamental to
these roles. The extent to which intervention is focused on occupational
performances or performance components is dependent on the needs of a particular
client at any point in time.

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