I CAN • Use Gestalt Psychology to explain optical illusions. Perceptual Ambiguity and Distortion Ambiguous figures Images that are capable of more than one interpretation Illusions The incorrect interpretation of a stimulus pattern (shared by others in the same perceptual environment) Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Perceptual Illusions Do you see or ? Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 The Gestalt Laws of Perceptual Grouping • Max Wertheimer (1923) These laws suggest how our brains prefer to group stimulus elements together to form a percept Closure Similarity Proximity Continuity Common fate Prägnanz Closure Tendency to fill in gaps in figures and see incomplete figures as complete • Similarity We tend to group similar objects • Proximity We tend to group objects together when they are near each other. • Continuity – We prefer perceptions of connected and continuous figures over disconnected and disjointed ones • Common Fate – We tend to group similar objects together that share a common motion or destination • Prägnanz • We perceive the simplest pattern possible • This is what makes things such is as reduced proofreading text Reality to aits simplest so difficult form Law of Pragnanz and the ‘face’ on Mars • People mentally process visual information that… – is symmetrical – contains the simplest shapes possible – contains the fewest number of shapes CAN I? • Use Gestalt Psychology to explain optical illusions. Necker Cube 14 • There are only white circles at the intersections Who is this a picture of? If you said Clinton you are correct. If you said Clinton and Gore, you Are wrong. Its a picture of Bill Clinton in the foreground and the same picture of him in the background, but with a different haircut. The rows of black and white squares are all parallel. The vertical zigzag patterns disrupt our horizontal perception. The center circles are both the same size. • Warped Squares? There are no curved lines in these figures. You can use a ruler to check it out. The diagonal patterns created by the tiny squares distort the perception of the pictures. Various Illusions Expanding spiral http://www.michaelbach.de/ot/mot_adapt/index.html Moving color dots http://www.michaelbach.de/ot/mot_silencing/index.html Motion Induced Blindness http://www.michaelbach.de/ot/mot_mib/index.html Kaleidoscope Motion http://www.michaelbach.de/ot/mot_kaleidoscope/index.html Can you find "the hidden tiger"? Not the obvious one that everyone sees. Look for words in stripes Can you see both the frog and the horse on this visual illusion? You probably see Albert Einstein on this picture. However, if you stand up and step 15 feet away, you will see Marilyn Monroe on the same picture. Old and Young - Crazy Optical Illusion Painting Can you find the man’s face in the coffee beans? 1000 20 30 1000 1030 1000 + 20 ______ 4100 Dogs in the yard– black & white/color http://www.illusions.org/dp/color.htm Beach scene – color/black and white http://www.grandillusions.com/opticalillusions/colour_illusion/ High Society, or a Donkey?