VPSS English – Level 1 Literary Response – Reading Comprehension VPSS Training San Bernardino County Superintendent of Schools Day 2 Literary Response and Analysis Metacognitive Strategies for Making Sense of the Text: Prereading, Predicting, Questioning, Word Analysis, Concept Formation Agenda • Inside-Outside Circle • Standards Trace – Literary Analysis • Strategies for Frontloading Vocabulary • Metacognitive Strategies for Making Sense of Text • “After Twenty Years” – O.Henry • Elements of Plot • Characterization Inside – Outside Circle • Take a few minutes and write down 3 big ideas from Day 1. • Form two circles facing each other • Share one of your ideas with the person facing you • At time, the outside circle will move one person to the right. • Share another idea with your new partner What is Literary Response and Analysis? • Quickwrite: On notebook paper, write down what you believe students are expected to do when analyzing literary text. Reading Domain Domain Reading Strand 3.0 – Literary Response and Analysis Substrand Narrative Analysis of Grade Level Appropriate Text Standard 3.4 – Determine characters’ traits by what the characters say about themselves in narration, dialogue, dramatic monologue, and soliloquy. Standards Trace • Each table has been assigned a literary analysis substrand • Search the Literary Analysis standards (3.0) for grades 6-12 • Notice how the standard changes • Create a poster to illustrate the development of this topic for students • Be prepared to share Reading and Responding to Literature Research shows that good teaching begins with clear learning goals. Goals are the reason classroom activities are designed. Without clear goals, classroom activities are without direction. Researchers Joseph Krajcik, Katherine McNeill, and Brian Reiser (2007) explain that good teaching begins with clear learning goals from which teachers select appropriate instructional activities and assessments that help determine students’ progress on the learning goals. Marzano, R. (2009). Designing & teaching learning goals & objectives (p. 4). Bloomington, IN: Marzano Research Laboratory. Goal: what you want your students to be able to do Activities and Assignments: what you give your students to do to master the material to support that goal Strategies: how you make the text accessible to your students through those activities and assignments so the student can attain the goal. Goal specificity begins with making a distinction between learning goals and the classroom activities and assignments that will support those goals… As the names imply, activities and assignments are things students will be asked to do. They are a critical part of effective teaching, but they are not ends in themselves. They constitute the means by which the ends, or learning goals, are to be accomplished. Marzano, R. (2009). Designing & teaching learning goals & objectives (p. 13). Bloomington, IN: Marzano Research Laboratory. Goal • Identify narrative features of the plot of O. Henry’s “After Twenty Years” • Develop vocabulary • Read and comprehend the story FRONTLOAD FRONTLOAD FRONTLOAD “The more we frontload students’ knowledge of a text and help them become actively involved in constructing meaning prior to reading, the more engaged they are likely to be as they read the text.” (Beers, 101) Activities • Use graphic organizers – • Index Cards Template • Dialectical Journal • Cognitive Dictionary - to facilitate learning vocabulary from O. Henry’s “After Twenty Years” Strategy: Create a Cognitive Dictionary http://www.merriam-webster.com Word Predicted Meaning Actual Meaning Sketch Stalwart Vicinity Staunchest (stanchest) Plodder Egotism Submerged Your choice ©Freeology.com Vocabulary Word Map VOCABULARY WORD MAP synonyms/antonyms definition in your own words VOCABULARY WORD use it in a sentence draw a picture of it Practice and Discussion • Why are these effective strategies? • What are some ways you might adapt the strategies for your student population? Strategy -Tea Party • This strategy not only helps students to identify vocabulary words, it also acts as a prereading activity that builds fluency each time the text is revisited. • The variation here is using just a snippet, or a sentence out-ofcontext to help students acquire vocabulary, to make predictions, and to facilitate comprehension. Practice and Discussion • Why are these effective strategies? • What are some ways you might adapt the strategies for your student population? • Predictions? Narrative Features of the Plot • Theme – what message does the author want you to take away after you finish reading and thinking about the story? • Foreshadowing – what clues or hints does the author give to prepare the reader for what is to come? Freytag’s Pyramid Analyzing a story's plot: Gustav Freytag was a Nineteenth Century German novelist who saw common patterns in the plots of stories and novels and developed a diagram to analyze them. He diagrammed a story's plot using a pyramid like the one most of us are used to seeing. Elements of Plot – Simple Version Freytag’s Pyramid • Exposition: setting the scene. The writer introduces the characters and setting, providing description and background. • Inciting Incident: something happens to begin the action. A single event usually signals the beginning of the main conflict. The inciting incident is sometimes called 'the complication'. • Rising Action: the story builds and gets more exciting. Freytag’s Pyramid • Climax: the moment of greatest tension in a story. This is often the most exciting event. It is the event that the rising action builds up to and that the falling action follows. • Falling Action: events happen as a result of the climax and we know that the story will soon end. • Resolution: the character solves the main problem/conflict or someone solves it for him or her. Freytag’s Pyramid • Dénouement: (a French term, pronounced: day-noo-moh) the ending. At this point, any remaining secrets, questions or mysteries which remain after the resolution are solved by the characters or explained by the author. Sometimes the author leaves us to think about the THEME or future possibilities for the characters. • You can think of the dénouement as the opposite of the exposition: instead of getting ready to tell us the story by introducing the setting and characters, the author is getting ready to end it with a final explanation of what actually happened and how the characters think or feel about it. This can be the most difficult part of the plot to identify, as it is often very closely tied to the resolution. • Adapted from http://users.aber.ac.uk/jpm/ellsa/ellsa_openboat3.html On-line Resources for Graphic Organizers • http://www.thesolutionsite.com • http://www2.scholastic.com • http://www.readwritethink.org • …and many more…there are over 100,000 “hits” for “graphic organizer for plot” • Don’t forget to use the resources that came with your textbook… Seeing is believing… • Can you recognize elements of plot? • What kind of action should happen next? • Can you make predictions? Characterization What you figure out for yourself… • Behavior – Speech and actions of the character/Speech and actions of the other characters as they relate to the character • Motivation – causes of the action that they do - why they do what they do • Consequences – results of the actions Characterization • Responsibility – moral, legal, or mental accountability • Physical description of the character And… • What the author tells you to believe about the character Austin Powers – International Man of Mystery Type of Indirect Characterization Speech Thoughts Effect on others Actions Looks Examples Explanation Practice and Discussion • Why are these effective strategies? • What are some ways you might adapt the strategies for your student population? Cognitive Elements of the Reading Process • Chunking – how do you eat an elephant? • Talk to the text – make the inner monologue known • Annotation – why it is good to have consumables • Dialectical journal – keep your thoughts close Background Information • Read the background information provided. • You will be making a prediction Make a Final Prediciton • Based on what you might already know about the author or story • Based on what you learned by prereviewing vocabulary • Based on Tea Party Finally: Read the Story • Chunk the Text • Stopping points are marked in the text • Talk to the Text • At each stopping point, pause your reading and record your thoughts about what you read. • Instructor will model the first TWO chunks. After Your First Read • What was your first reaction? • Based on your predictions, was this story what you were expecting? • Check your initial Tea Party sequence. • What is the theme? Second Read - Chart the Plot • Look for the turning point… • What foreshadowing “clues” can you find? Practice and Discussion • Why are the strategies presented today effective? • What are some ways you might adapt the strategies for your student population? 15 Minute Grammar • Do your students turn in assignments written in “text?” • Grammar Girl • Revise this text message: Yo B-20 yrs. Lkng frwd to mtg w/u agn. C u @ bjbs @ 10. ttyl J Day 2 Outcomes • Identify narrative features in After Twenty Years • Develop vocabulary • Read and comprehend the story On Your Own Write a lesson that embeds the information you learned from today’s workshop for teaching reading of a literary selection. Standards Focus • Reading 1.0: Word Analysis, Fluency, and Systematic Vocabulary Development • Vocabulary and Concept Development • Reading 3.0: Literary Response and Analysis • Structural Features of Literature • Narrative Analysis • Literary Criticism Ticket Out the Door • Please complete the sentence starters on your ticket out the door as a reflection of today’s learning. • Thank you!