Document

Report
Low-Power Embedded Solutions
for IoT Sensor Nodes
By Alexis Alcott
Sr. Product Marketing Manager, MCU16 Division
Microchip Technology Inc.
Internet-Enabled Applications
IoT Sensor Node
2
IoT Sensor Nodes
Application Requirements

Low Power for Longest Possible Battery Life

Integrated Analog for Sensor Interface

Flexible Wireless Connection

Secure Data Transfer & Storage
3
Low Power MCU
MCU Run Power – 3 Factors
Power Mode
Clock Speed
Program Flow
5
MCU Power Modes
RUN
DOZE
IDLE
RAM
Retention
Mode
LVSLEEP
SLEEP
DEEP
SLEEP
µA
nA
mA
Core
Core
Core
Low
off,runs
V
off,
peripherals
Regulator
RAM
at slower
off
on run
speed,
Enabled,
Reset,
Most75%
peripherals
25%-65%
peripherals
90%
saved
Savings
saved
off
off
6
MCU Clock Speeds

Frequency
32 MHz is 5 mA
 8 MHz is 1.3 mA
 1 MHz is 150 µA
 32 kHz is 26 µA

Spans
256 Hz to 32 MHz,
under software
control!
7
MCU Program Flow

Utilize peripherals that can operate
while CPU is off (Idle)

ADC
 Comparators
 UART/SPI/I2C™
 PWMs
 Timers
Peripheral
Run
Mode
Idle
Mode
%
Saved(3)
ADC
520 µA
250 µA
52%
Comparator
340 µA
70 µA
79%
SPI
520 µA
250 µA
52%
Timers
320 µA
50 µA
84%
8
Battery-Life Estimation
Without Power Modes

No Power modes

Battery life 47 days


Annoying!
Avg. Current 2.5 mA
www.microchip.com/batterylifeestimator
9
Adopt New Modes

Sleep during sensor acquisition


Use Idle mode when communicating to radio


UART active, shut down core & Flash
Sleep during radio transmission



ADC runs in sleep
No MCU activity required
Wait to ensure transmission successful
Deep Sleep rest of time

Use RTCC to wake up 1 sec. later
10
Battery-Life Estimation
With Power Modes

With Power modes

Battery life is 1 year

800% Increase!
Current Reduced 10X
 Sleeping for 1 minute
increases to 2 years

11
Integrated Analog
Integrated Analog Peripherals

Easy Interface to Sensors



Benefits of Integration




Debugged noise and communication
Designer gets consistent analog performance across applications
Faster data path, reduced noise
Intelligent connections inside the chip
Simplify board designs, reduce board space
Lower-cost designs, faster time to market
13
Without Intelligent Analog
ADC signal shielding increases board size
Multiple power planes for analog & digital
Complex routing for signals and shields
Noise coupled from USB to ADC
14
With Intelligent Analog
Saved Board Area & Cost
Saved
Board
Area &
Cost
Routing, shielding, power planes integrated & debugged in chip
ADC, DAC, OpAmp, USB all integrated to MCU, lowers cost & space
Design simplified, throughput increased
15
PIC24 “GC” Family

16-bit Sigma-Delta ADC



12-bit ADC






Analog control loops, stereo audio
Stimulus or thresholds
Operational Amplifiers


Ultra-high-speed data capture at 10 Msps
High-speed sensors, touch, communications
10-bit DACs


High dynamic range & high resolution
More information (3µV) eliminates need for amplifier
Analog control loops, Mic pre-amp, Signal conditioning
2.5 MHz Gain-Bandwidth, low power mode
Internal Analog Connection Switch Matrix
472-Segment LCD Driver with Voltage Boost
16
Easy Prototyping –
Add Your Sensor

On-Board Sensors




Analog Header






Clean Analog Signals
Plugs Into Breadboards
Rich Display
Connectivity

PIC24F Intelligent Analog
Starter Kit
Part Number: DM240015
Light
Temperature
Touch
USB OTG, Host & Device
RF Module Footprint
Integrated Debugger
17
Wireless Connection
Microchip Focus:
Wireless Connectivity of Things



Home health and Medical
Smart Power/Energy
Industrial Control and Monitoring
Home Control and Monitoring
Embedded products: low power, low free resource host processors
Get on the network, transfer data, and get off
Communicate with other things or users via Internet
19
How to Connect?
Your Application!
20
Embedded Wireless Portfolio
Protocol
Markets
Market
Driver
Network
Stack
Freq.
Embedded
Wi-Fi®
IEEE 802.11
Widespread
Commercial
Industrial
Internet
TCP/IP
2.4 GHz
Embedded
Bluetooth®
IEEE
802.15.1
Widespread
Commercial
Industrial
Smartphone
BT v2.1,
BT Audio,
BTLE
2.4 GHz
Embedded
Wireless
Proprietary
or IEEE
802.15.4
Vertical
HA, SEP,
Sensors
Cost
Local Network
MiWi™, BT,
ZigBee®,
RF4CE,
Sub 1 GHz &
2.4 GHz
Technology
21
Microchip’s Bluetooth® Portfolio
RN41 / 41N
RN42 / RN42N
RN52
RN4020
Class 1
Bluetooth® 2.1
Class 2
Bluetooth 2.1
Class 2
Bluetooth 3.0
Bluetooth LE
Interfaces
UART / USB
Analog spk and mic,
i2S, SPDIF, PCM,
UART
UART
Profiles
SPP / HID / iAP / HCI
A2DP / ARVCP /
HSP / HFP / SPP /
iAP
GATT, Health,
Fitness, Proximity,
etc.; Custom data
Type
Power
Antenna
Size
Certification
3.3 VDC
ceramic on board
13.4 x 25.8 x 2.0
PCB
13.4 x 30 x 3.0
11.5 x 19.5 x2.0
BT SIG / FCC / CE / ICS
22
Microchip’s Wi-Fi® Modules
MRF24WB0MA
MRF24WB0MB
MRF24WG0MA
MRF24WG0MB
RN171
RN131C/G
802.11 Radio
b
b/g
b/g
b/g
Tx Power
+10 dBm
+18 dBm
+12 dBm
+18 dBm
Power
Consumption
250 µA power save
85 mA Rx
150 max Tx
4 mA power save
95 mA Rx
240 max Tx
4 µA sleep
35 mA Rx
185 max Tx
4 µA sleep
40 mA Rx
200 max Tx
Antenna
u.FL / PCB
u.FL/PCB
RF pad
Chip/u.FL
Stack
On PIC® MCU
On PIC MCU
Integrated
Integrated
MCU Support
8/16/32 bit
PIC MCUs
8/16/32 bit
PIC MCUs
Any 8/16/32 bit
Any 8/16/32 bit
Certifications
FCC/IC/EN
Wi-Fi® Alliance
FCC/IC/EN
Wi-Fi Alliance
FCC/IC/EN
KC/NCC
Wi-Fi Alliance
FCC/IC/EN
KC/NCC/Telec
Wi-Fi Alliance
23
Microchip’s ZigBee® & MiWi™
IEEE 802.15.4
MRF24XA
Low power
MRF24J40
MRF24J40MA
+0dBm
MRF24J40MD
+20dBm, PCB Ant
MRF24J40MC
+20dBm, Ext Ant
Sub-GHz
MRF49XA
433/868/915
MRF89XA
868/915/950
MRF89XAM8A
868 MHz (EU)
MRF89XAM9A
915 MHz (US,CA)
24
Flexible Wireless Connection


Use the same MCU platform, as your wireless
connectivity needs change
Easy to interface to any PIC® MCU



UART or SPI
Easy daughter board to expand your PIC
MCU dev board ecosystem
Certified wireless modules


Speed development time
Faster product introduction
25
Secure Data
PIC24F “GB2” Family



PIC24F “GB2” MCUs for Protecting Data in Embedded Applications

Hardware crypto engine (Industry standard AES, DES, 3DES)

Random Number Generator (RNG)

One-Time-Programmable (OTP) Key Storage
eXtreme Low Power Extends Battery Life

18 nA Sleep, 200 µA/MHz Run

Enabling Integrity of Data without Sacrificing Power Consumption
Connection to USB or Wireless Protocols

Integrated USB 2.0 Device, Host, OTG

Easy Connection to Certified Modules for
Wi-Fi®, ZigBee®, Sub-GHz, Bluetooth® LE
27
Integrated Crypto Engine

Hardware Crypto Engine




Random Number Generator




Supporting True-Random and Pseudo-Random Numbers
Reach a Higher Level of Data Security
Reduces Possibility for Hacking
Secure Key Storage for Additional Protection




Industry Standards for AES, DES, 3DES
Encryption & Decryption & Authentication
Secure Data Transfer & Storage
512 bits OTP Key Storage
Once Written, Keys cannot be Read or Overwritten by Software
Stores up to 4 AES Keys or 8 DES Keys
Advantage of a Hardware Crypto over Software Implementation



Less Software Overhead Frees Up CPU Bandwidth & Memory
Operate at a Lower CPU Frequency to Save Power
Another Example of Microchip’s Core Independent Peripherals
28
PIC24 “GB2” Block Diagram
29
Application Example:
Remote Electronic Door Lock

Bluetooth®
Encryption for Security

LE RN4020

Near Field
Communication
(NFC)
Magnetic
Card

UART
Hardware
encryption/
Secure Key
storage
128KB
Flash
Key pad
control (touch)

PIC24FJ128GB204
CTMU
eXtreme Low Power

MCU
Core


Digital I/O
Display Unit
Low power extends battery life
Vbat with RTCC for battery backup
Access Options


Vbat
Uses Crypto, RNG & Key Storage
User data is encrypted
Secure key storage

Enter code manually via keypad
Magnetic keycard
Wirelessly via Smartphone
Power
Interrupt
Door Latch
Motor
Control Unit
30
PIC24F “GB2” MCU Family
Low Power with Crypto Engine

Embedded Applications in the Internet-Connected World
Demand Secure Data & Long Battery Life

PIC24F “GB2” for Secure Data Transfer & Storage


Hardware Crypto Engine

Random Number Generator & Secure Key Storage
PIC24F “GB2” for eXtreme Low Power


Longer battery life for portable applications
PIC24F “GB2” for Easy Connection

Integrated USB

Easy interface to certified Wi-Fi® or Bluetooth® LE modules
31
Summary
IoT Sensor Nodes
Application Requirements

Low Power for Longest Possible Battery Life

Integrated Analog for Sensor Interface

Flexible Wireless Connection

Secure Data Transfer & Storage
Note: The Microchip name and logo, and PIC are registered trademarks of Microchip Technology Inc. in the U.S.A. and other countries. MiWi is a trademark
of Microchip Technology Inc. in the U.S.A. and other countries. All other trademarks mentioned herein are property of their respective companies.
33

similar documents