2014 Women in Agriculture CEMA Poster

Report
WOMEN IN PUERTO RICO’S AGRICULTURE PRESERVING
FARM LANDS FOR A SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
Gladys M. González1 and Alexandra Gregory2
Professor 1 and Assistant Professor2, Department of Agricultural Economics,
Agricultural Experiment Station, College of Agricultural Sciences, University of Puerto Rico-Mayagüez
Emails: [email protected] and [email protected]
ABSTRACT
There is a need for accurate data on women’s engagement in agricultural activities (Vargas, 2004). Official data does not convey a realistic picture of the gender composition of farmers and ranchers (Norton, Alwang and
Masters). Most women engaged in farming do not consider themselves as entrepreneurs, but do most of the administrative tasks of the business and are owners or co-owners. A needs assessment study (2006) showed that 87% of
respondents were interested in receiving training in topics such as agribusiness marketing, finance, management, accounting, business planning, legal aspects and risk management from a gender perspective.
An AES initiative to address the educational needs of women in agriculture started in January 2007 and continued into 2010 with the establishment of the Entrepreneurship Center for Women in Puerto Rico’s Agriculture.
González (2010) reported an increase to 33.9% in women participating in educational activities of AES by 2007-2008. Blas Rivera (2011) evaluated three groups of women who participated in the Center’s activities using a
quasi-experimental design which measured the empowerment of women after one year of being impacted. Results showed that confidence, self-esteem and motivation among women participants increased resulting in
improvements in empowerment.
Since 2011, the Center’s new vision has introduced a dynamic dimension stressing the importance of resource conservation, demonstrating the importance for sustainability of the agricultural sector for the sake of food
security, resource preservation, environmental quality and quality of life.
INTRODUCTION
The Entrepreneurship Center for Women in Puerto Rico’s Agriculture was established in the University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez in 2007, supported by
USDA/CSREES funds through a Southern Region Risk Management Education Center, TAMU grant. The mission was to empower women to contribute to Puerto Rico’s
economic development. A total of 268 women were impacted during Phases I-III. The specific objectives were first, to improve farm business profitability by enhancing
agribusiness management skills and second, contribute to the transformation of women in agriculture, from keeping a passive role, to perceiving themselves as
entrepreneurs. Topics included agribusiness management, marketing, finance, risk management, and legal aspects, as well as self-esteem enhancement activities.
Assessments show that women began to use electronic tools for financial planning and began to develop business plans. Now, over two thirds identify themselves as
entrepreneurs and their self-esteem improved.
Since 2011 a USDA-NRCS grant has made possible the continuation of the Center for an additional Phase (IV). The Center’s new vision is to empower women engaged
in agricultural activities to contribute to Puerto Rico’s sustainable economic development, which will be accomplished through the fulfillment of the specific objectives of
the previous phases, plus an additional objective: to enable the adoption of soil conservation practices among participants by demonstrating their benefits to current
operators as well as to future generations. Three groups of women operators or managers were trained in 2011 and 2012 and the Center keeps receiving requests from
women who want to participate, showing the need to educate additional groups.
OBJECTIVES:
(1) To enable the adoption of soil conservation practices among participants by demonstrating their benefits to current operator as well as to future generations;
(2) To improve farm business profitability by enhancing agribusiness management skills of participants; and
(3) To contribute to the transformation of women in agriculture from keeping a passive role to perceiving themselves as entrepreneurs.
AGRICULTURAL SUSTAINABILITY:
• Natural Resource Conservation Practices Potential Impact of Climate
Change in Farm Profitability
• Women as Managers of Natural Resources
GENDER ISSUES:
• Women in Agriculture Over Time
• Faces and Voices of Women in Agriculture
ADDITIONAL TOPICS:
• Estate and Succession of the Agribusiness
• Contracts
H
• Grant Writing and Grant Budget preparation
• Using Good Agricultural Practices and Food Safety
• Farm Safety
• The Farmers Natural Resources Managers
• State and Federal Government Programs
PARTICIPATING ENTITIES:
College of Agricultural Sciences: Agricultural Experiment Station, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Cooperative Extension Service
Government of Puerto Rico: Women’s Advocate Office, Department of Agriculture, Municipal Governments
Financial Sector: Economic Development Bank for Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Farm Credit, ACA, Banco Popular de PR
Federal Government: FSA, NASS, RD, APHIS-PPQ & VS, FWS, NRCS, SSA ,
Non Governmental Organizations: Cafiesencia Puerto Rico, Icubadora Microempresas Bieke, Reach for Success
Agribusiness Firms: Altamira Corporation, Inc., Federación de Asociaciones Pecuarias of PR Inc.
METHODS
Educational activities are conducted with a gender perspective and include conferences, hands-on workshops and field visits and take place within geographic area
where the participants’ farms are located. The group of instructors is interdisciplinary and diverse, including faculty from diverse fields: agricultural economists,
sociologists, family/consumer professionals, agronomists, soil scientists, agricultural engineers, and graduate students. Assessment is conducted formally via pre and
post-testing and nominal groups resulting in evidence of knowledge gained, changes in attitudes towards the business of agriculture and adoption of the management
and conservation practices taught.
AWARDS
This material is based upon work supported by USDA-CSREES under Awards Administered by UPR- Agricultural Extension Service:
Award Number: 2004- 49200-03126 (Phase I), Award Number 2007-49200-03891 (Phase II),
Extension Agreement Number 662215 and Award Number 622244 (Phase III)
This material is based upon work supported by USDA-NRCS under Award Administered by UPR- Agricultural Experiment Station (Project Z-NRCS-010):
Award Number 69-F352-10-01 (Phase IV)
COLLABORATORS
Faculty: María L. Lugo, Julia O’Hallorans, Eric Harmsen, Guillermo Fornaris and Elide Valencia (AES); Judith Conde, Carmen O. Gómez, Sandra Varela, Noel Torres,
Hipólito O’Farril, Guillermo Ortiz, Aida Maldonado and Aníbal Ruiz (CES); Jose E. Martínez, Robinson Rodríguez, Jorge A. González, Alwin Jiménez, Luis R. Mejía,
Madeline Mendoza, Alexandra Gregory, Myrna Comas and M. Julio Barragán (Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology); Nereida Delgado (RRP),
Graduate Assistants: Sol Taína Cintrón, María Teresa Florez, Sandra Blas, Orisnela Solano, Ada I. Pagán, Nicolás Cartagena, and Alexander Cano.
REFERENCES
[1] Vargas Carrasquillo, Ivelisse. La mujer en la agricultura puertorriqueña. UPR-RUM, M. S. Thesis in Agricultural Economics
[2] U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service (2004) 2002 Census of Agriculture. Puerto Rico. Vol 1 Geographic Area Series, Part 52. Washington, D.C., February.
[3] U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service (2009) 2007 Census of Agriculture. Puerto Rico. Vol. 1, Geographic Area Series, Part 52. Washington, D.C., February.
[4] Norton, George W. and Jeffrey Alwang. 1993. Introduction to Economics of Agricultural Development. USA: McGraw Hill.
[5] Estudio de necesidades de capacitación en el Área Programática de Agricultura, Mercadeo y Recursos Naturales del SEA-UPR, 2006. Design: M. Rodríguez, PhD, Prof. Eval and Assessment, data collection: L.
Mejía, AssistExt Sp in AgEcon, analysis and
Power Point presentation by M. T. Florez Grad St Ag Econ.
[6] González, Gladys M. Mujeres se encaminan a asumir la dirigencia en la agricultura de Puerto Rico. (2010) Oral Presentation, Séptimo Coloquio Nacional Sobre Mujeres en Puerto Rico, UInter-Metro, San Juan, PR,
2010.
[7] Blas Rivera, Sandra. 2011. Evaluación de la capacitación empresarial de las mujeres en la agricultura de Puerto Rico durante los años 2007-2009. M.S. Thesis in Agricultural Economics, UPR-RUM.
2007
2012
Women
1,554
(8.8 %)
1,408
(8.9 %)
1,042
(8.3 %)
Total
17,659
15,745
12,630
* Operators
Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics
Service (selected years) Census of Agriculture. Puerto Rico.
Volume 1, Geographic Area Series, Part 52. Washington, D.C.,
February.
Table 2. Participants by phase, group and type
Location
Participants
Phase I: 2007-2008
VISION: To empower women engaged in agricultural activities to contribute to Puerto Rico’s sustainable economic development.
COMPUTER SKILLS:
• Computer Literacy, Internet
• Microsoft Word, Excel, Power Point, Publisher
2002
Group
THE PROJECT
COURSES OFFERED:
AGRIBUSINESS MANAGEMENT SKILLS:
• Legal Aspects of the Farm Business
• Re-conceptualization of the Farm, Transforming Farmers to
Agribusiness Women
• Agriculture Beyond the Farm
• Risk Management in the Agricultural Business
• Business Plan
• Agricultural Marketing and Marketing Plan
• Agriculture Finance
• Effective Communication: Key Element for Success in Agribusiness
• Basic Records: Production, Sales, Input Use, Human Resources and
• Payroll, Inventory, Cash Flow, Balance Sheet
Table 1. Participation of women in agriculture* in
Puerto Rico, 2002, 2007 & 2012
D
Group 1
Central – Mountain
26
Group 2
South West
27
Group 3
Vieques
16
(14 ♀ + 2 ♂)
Group 4
North West
25
Young
Puerto Rico
31
Group 5
North East
25
Phase II: 2008-2009
F
Phase III: 2009-2010
G
Group 6
Central – West
38
Group 7
Cafetalera Zone
31
Group 8
East-Central
38
Group 9
Livestock CR
15
Group 10
Vegetales - South
28
Group 11
South West
35
Group 12
Vieques
Phase IV: 2010-2013
Phase V: 2013-2015
Figure 1. Groups of female farmers Entrepreneurship Center for Women
in Agriculture, Puerto Rico, 2007-2013, by location

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