7 Step process

Report
Tumolo’s Toolbox
7 Step Improvement Process
1
Elements of process improvement and control
Every process has three (3) elements
1. The area of discovery
Understanding the customer requirements and
developing the process to meet these requirements
2. The method of process control
Assessing performance and variation
3. The element of improvement
Problem solving and quality improvement
2
Process Improvement Opportunity
or Problem Identification
7 Step Improvement Process
Process Control
3
the in
innovation
insight
invention
inspiration
intuition
instinct
prayer
clairvoyance
Copy
Imitation
consultation
Benchmark
Other world
Inner self
Improvement
or Problem
gut feel
others
real world
systematic
PDCA
7 Steps
random
trial-and-error
guess
accident
chance
luck
delegation
negotiation
just waiting
passing-the-buck
confusing
finger pointing
transferring
4
PDCA
7 STEP
1. Select a Theme
PLAN
2. Collect Data
3. Analyze causes/opportunities
DO
4. Plan and implement
7 QC Tools
Check sheet, graph,
Histogram, scatter diagram,
Pareto diagram,
cause-and-effect diagram,
flowcharts
Flowcharts
solution / improvement
CHECK
5. Evaluate effects
ACT
Check sheet, graph,
Histogram, scatter diagram,
Pareto diagram,
cause-and-effect diagram,
run chart/control chart
Flowchart
6. Standardize
7. Reflect on process
(provides repetition)
(provides process)
(provides tools)
5
7 Step improvement process
1. Select Theme
2. Collect Data
3. Analyze Causes
4. Plan Solution and Implement
5. Evaluate
6. Standardize
•
Focus on weakness
•
Thoroughly explore the
problem/opportunity
•
Carefully select the theme
•
Clearly state the theme
•
Have weakness orientation
•
State as a problem/gaps, not a
solution
•
State in terms of results
7. Reflect on Process
6
Selecting the theme
• Weakness is difference between current situation and the target.
• Weakness orientation focuses on eliminating weakness as basis
of improvement (Closing the Gap).
Current
}
Weakness
Target
Customer
Need
}
Weakness
Actual
Performance
Focus on facts, processes, and root causes
7
7 Step improvement process
1. Select Theme
2. Collect Data
3. Analyze Causes
4. Plan Solution and Implement
5. Evaluate
6. Standardize
7. Reflect on Process
• Define your data collection process
• Appropriate to process
• Multi-variable data
• Analyze the data
• Stratification
• Graphics
• Focus on deviation
• Draw a logical conclusion
• Based on facts
• Focus on vital few
“Primary tool used is Pareto Diagram
8
Frequently used data collection tools
CHECKSHEET
PARETO DIAGRAM
CONTROL CHART
GRAPH (RUN CHART)
HISTOGRAM
Used to systematically collect data or tabulate data.
(e.g. frequency of occurrence of defect types)
Excellent method to identify vital few. (2 levels minimum)
(e.g. Percent of failures due to various defect types
arranged in descending order of occurrence)
Method to identify non-standard process variation
(e.g. Solder paste height versus time)
Method to identify trends in data
(e.g. In circuit test yield versus time)
Method to identify distribution of the data
(e.g. Number or solder paste observations falling into
various height ranges)
9
7 Step improvement process
1. Select Theme
• Create cause-and-effect
diagram from Pareto
2. Collect Data
• Investigate cause thoroughly
3. Analyze Causes
• Draw logical conclusions
(i.e. supported by data)
4. Plan Solution and Implement
5. Evaluate
6. Standardize
7. Reflect on Process
Ask Why?5 times
10
100%
4th why
Methods
2nd why
Material
5th why
Pareto
Diagram
3rd why
1st why
A
Man
Machine
Cause effect
Diagram
A
B
C
D
E F
• ASK 5 WHYS to get to the proper level of analysis and causes.
• Segment by 4 Ms
• Man
• Machine
• Methods
• Material
11
Verifying Root Causes
Collect data on root causes
Use run charts, Pareto, Graphs, scattergrams, etc. to
determine strength of correlation between root cause and
problem
If verification fails to validate choices, return to diagram
and choose new root causes to verify.
12
7 Step improvement process
1. Select Theme
• Focus on the primary root causes
2. Collect Data
• Focus on solution which you can
implement
3. Analyze Causes
• Dont try to fix everything at once
4. Plan Solution and Implement
• Involve those who will be affected
5. Evaluate
• Run a controlled experiment (Pilot)
6. Standardize
7. Reflect on Process
13
Total Score
Feasibility
A tool to help determine which
solution is best.
Effectiveness
Solectron Criteria
Solution 1
Solution 2
Solution 3
Solution 4
------Scoring values
Possible score
values
= HIGH
3 or
6
= MEDIUM
2 or
3
= LOW
1
14
A tool to help determine ease or
difficulty in solving specific
problems.
Area of Problem
Data Collection/
Potential solution
implementation
You
You and
Others
Others
Equipment
Methods
Human
Behavior
Easy
Easy
Difficult
Moderately
Difficult
Difficult
Moderately
Difficult
Very
Difficult
Difficult
Very
Difficult
15
Solution Implementation
What
When
Where
Who
How
How will they get it done
Who is responsible for doing it
Where will it be done
When will it be done
What will be done
16
7 Step improvement process
1. Select Theme
• Confirm improvement
(Before and after comparison)
2. Collect Data
• Evaluate all subsequent effects
3. Analyze Causes
• Measure improvement gains over
time
4. Plan Solution and Implement
5. Evaluate
6. Standardize
7. Reflect on Process
17
Original Pareto
“BEFORE
100%
New Pareto
“AFTER
Pareto
Diagram
Pareto
Diagram
A B C D E F
A
B
C
D
100%
}
}
Improvement
Effect on
Root Cause
“Fewer defects
E F
18
7 Step improvement process
1. Select Theme
2. Collect Data
3. Analyze Causes
• Move from PDCA to SDCA cycle
• Revise the standard
• Create a process to detect future
problems
4. Plan Solution and Implement
5. Evaluate
6. Standardize
7. Reflect on Process
19
Standardization
PDCA
SDCA
New
Std
Plan
Do
Act
Check
Std
Act
Do
Check
Control
Improvement
20
7 Step improvement process
• Analyze strengths and weaknesses
1. Select Theme
2. Collect Data
• Determine the next problem
• Document the Quality improvement
story
3. Analyze Causes
4. Plan Solution and Implement
• Identify the critical difficulties during
the process - using tools, etc.
5. Evaluate
• Identify the critical strengths
6. Standardize
• Identify the key things the team
would do differently
7. Reflect on Process
• Identify what key things the team
needs to learn to improve the 7 step
process.
21

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