The Republic of Texas

The Republic of Texas
Treaty of Velasco
May 1836 – Treaties of Velasco
• After San Jacinto, Santa Anna was
forced to sign the Treaty of
Velasco. This treaty ended the
Texas Revolution and gave Texas
its independence.
• It had two parts, one public and
one secret:
Public and Secret
• The public part of the treaty made Santa Anna agree to
never fight against Texas again and to withdraw all
troops out of Texas.
• The secret part of the treaty made Santa Anna promise to
get Mexico to recognize Texas independence and set the
southern border of Texas as the Rio Grande.
Republic of Texas
• Republic of Texas granted citizens liberties including freedom of
The Early Republic
In 1836, 5 months after the Revolution, Texans held an election
Results of the Election of 1836
Sam Houston
Vice President:
Mirabeau B. Lamar
approved the Texas Constitution of
elected senators
and representatives
voted to seek U.S. annexation of
1836 – Sam Houston Elected President
• Houston focused on:
– Forming a Gov’t
– Focused primarily on: Debt
– Other issues dealt with: army, American Indians &
– Moved capital to Houston
Problems in the new Republic
1. Mexico wouldn’t acknowledge its independence & disputed
its territory
2. Other nations wouldn’t recognize TX as independent
3. Debt (lack of money) from Texas Revolution
4. Conflicts with Texas Indians
5. Military
Houston Solves Problems
• Got U.S. to recognize the Republic of TX
• Money: Economic Policies; added poll tax, printed more money
• Military: sent entire army home, except 600 soldiers
– Texas Rangers: replace army with Rangers
• Primary Purpose of TX Rangers – protect Texans from
American Indian Tribes
• Indians: Called on the Texas Rangers; tried to make peace by giving
them title to their land, TX Senate refused to accept this
• He believed the best thing for Texas would be annexation to the U.S.
Chief Bowles
• Leader of the Cherokees
• Signed treaty w/ Houston during the TX Revolution
Mexico not
recognizing Texas as
Reduce military (ie:
Felix Huston who
wanted to start war)
Raids by Indians
Promissory notes
Cut Spending
Texas Rangers
The Texas Question
• Most Texans wanted Texas to become part of the United
States including Pres. Sam Houston.
• But Northerners in the U.S. did not want to see the
expansion of Slavery into new U.S. territory.
The Missouri
Compromise of 1820 had
limited the amount of
future Slaves states and
Texas would disrupt the
The First Attempt to Annexation
• The addition of Texas to the United States made
sense to many.
• Texan Anson Jones went to the U.S. Congress and
tried to get them to accept Texas into the Union.
• Texas would have been considered a slave state,
and many members of the U.S. congress opposed
• This decision was delayed, and Houston ordered
Jones to withdraw the request.
– Houston didn’t want Texas to be embarrassed by having
its request delayed any longer.
Second Administration
1838 – Mirabeau Lamar elected
Vice President – David G. Burnet
Houston couldn’t run fro a second term as President
Mirabeau Lamar
• “Father of Education”
• Didn’t agree w/Houston’s policies
• Focused on:
– Pushing American Indians farther west
– Commitment to education
– A new capital (Austin)
• More than doubled the debt by Indian Wars & increased
• Was against Annexation
A New Capital
• Lamar did not like Houston
being the capital of Texas.
• Lamar wanted a more
centrally located capital.
• He choose 100 miles north of San Antonio.
• He named this site Austin, in honor of Stephen F. Austin.
Lamar’s Problems
Biggest problem was money
Gov’t was spending more than it was making
TX gov’t was lots on military
TX dollar called “redbacks” was only work about 2 cents by
Lamar’s Indian Policies
• Lamar disliked Indians & wanted them removed from
• He ordered the Cherokees to leave Texas
• Chief Bowles – ordered to lead Cherokee out, refused
• Lamar sent soldier to force them out
• Bowles was killed
• Cherokees forced to present-day Oklahoma
Lamar’s Presidency
red backs
homestead law
declared war on American
worthless within three
years, in part because of
rising national debt
protected Texans’ homes
and up to
50 acres from seizure for
removed Cherokee from
East Texas, pushed
Comanche north & west,
increased debt
Third Administration
Sam Houston’s 2nd Term 1841
• Worked to reduce debt created by Lamar’s policies
• Worked to renew peace with Indians
• Settled dispute over land titles
• Pushed for annexation
• Opposed building Navy – thought it would drain Texas’s finances
1844 - Anson Jones elected President
Followed most of Houston’s policies
Maintained peace with Native Americans
Tried to limit spending
Pushed for Annexation
• 1845 – Texas is Annexed into the U.S.
Presidents of the Republic of Texas
Sam Houston (1836 - 1838)
Sam Houston
• 1st President of the Republic of
• 3rd President of the Republic of Texas
Mirabeau B Lamar (1838 -
(1841 -1844)
Dr Anson Jones (1844 - 1846)
• 2nd President of the Republic of
• 4th and final President of the
Republic of Texas
• Known as the “Father of
Education in Texas”
• President when Texas became a
state of the United States
limited government spending
faced financial problems
promissory notes
was peaceful with Mexico and
the Indians
reduced the army
eliminated the navy
supported annexation
served as president of the
Republic of Texas
served 2 terms
increased government spending
faced financial problems
“Redbacks” issued
encouraged war with Mexico and
supported military expeditions
established public education
wanted TX to be independent
served as president of the
Republic of Texas
served 1 term
• announced the annexation of
• supported annexation
• served as president of the
Republic of Texas
• served 1 term

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