Texas History Chapter 16: Reconstruction The South rebuilds after the Civil War RECONSTRUCTION The time period of reestablishing governments in the South after the Civil War. Radical Republicans Members of Congress who set strict standards for admitting Southern states back into the Union Emancipation Proclamation In 1862, President Lincoln freed all slaves held in the Confederacy. The Emancipation Proclamation led to the 13th and 14th amendments to the Constitution. New Amendments • 13th Amendment: abolished slavery • 14th Amendment: Granted citizenship to former slaves • 15th Amendment: Guaranteed African American men the right to vote General Orders, No. 3 “The people of Texas are informed that, in accordance with a proclamation from the Executive of the United States, all slaves are free.“ -Gen. Granger, June 19, 1865 Problems during Reconstruction To be readmitted to the U.S., southern states: • Had to prohibit slavery • Cancel ordinance of secession • Citizens needed to take oath of allegiance • Former Confederate leaders had to get special pardon from the President Problems during Reconstruction Freedman’s Bureau helped former slaves: • Find jobs • Find shelter, food, clothing • Get education. Formed public schools so African American children could get skills needed for economic independence Problems During Reconstruction Black Codes limited the rights of African Americans. African Americans were not allowed to vote, could not serve on juries, and could only hold jobs in agriculture. Reconstruction Leaders in Texas Philip Sheridan, military commander of TX and LA Elisha Pease, 1867 gov. of TX Reconstruction Governors in Texas • (1874) Governor Richard Coke, from Waco, had a political platform that appealed to all but NOT to freedmen. • (1870) Governor Davis did NOT establish the Freedmen’s Bureau Reconstruction Leaders U.S. President Andrew Johnson was impeached during Reconstruction. Carpetbaggers Northerners who came to the South during Reconstruction Scalawags Southern whites who supported Reconstruction were called “scalawags”. Ironclad Oath Before a Southerners could vote, they had to take the Ironclad Oath. Texas Constitution of 1866 Many of the delegates who wrote the new Texas Constitution were actually supporters of the Confederacy.