Diapositiva 1

Report
OPTIMISM
Plan de
de Formación
(40h)
Plan
Formación (40h)
- Optimising Passenger Transport Information to Materialize Insights for Sustainable Mobility
Brussels, 16 September 2013
Moving towards the livable city
of the future
Francesc Robusté
CENIT - BarcelonaTech
Economic territory
Sustainable, safe and efficient urban mobility
(“intelligent”? If it’s cost/efficient)
World map where distance = $cost
Economic corridors: distortion of physical territory
•
•
•
•
Common mobility
principles for European
cities
Seamless door-to-door mobility
“City” is a generic concept
Mayors will likely welcome EU policy on pricing and regulation
Promote and disseminate/share best cases
Francesc Robusté – CENIT – UPC
Brussels, 16 September 2013
2
Mutation in urban mobility
European cities as a social project of integration
Old concepts
New concepts
Functionalism
Sustainability
Diffuse city (urban sprawl)
Compact city
Specialization of land uses
Multifunctional city
Direct costs of operation
Pendulous mobility (commuting)
Required (household-based) mobility
Transport policy
Long distance
Longitudinal use of the street
•
•
•
•
•
Ecological accounting
Cloud-shaped mobility
Daily mobility
Mobility policy and right to accessibility
Proximity
Cross-street use
Infrastructures  services
Objects  processes
Static  dynamic
Recurrence (commuter, HBM)  singularity
Event  common
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Democratization of the
street
Human / convivial cities
Diversity
Integration
Systems approach
Technology (when is
useful)
Wifi = one more utility
Still basic constraints:
water, energy,
emissions, health,
safety and security, etc.
Ildefons Cerdà
“Network
Urbanism”
Francesc Robusté – CENIT – UPC
Integration:
a social project
“The city of the future…”
is the Mediterranean city!
Brussels, 16 September 2013
3
What’s the future of urban mobility?
What will probably be NOT the future….
Europe, quo vadis?
Francesc Robusté – CENIT – UPC
Brussels, 16 September 2013
4
Livable, convivial and efficient cities
European cities for the people
Collective taxicabs and
microbuses
Carsharing and shared
vehicles
WALK
TRANSIT
CAR
Unmanned vehicles
Francesc Robusté – CENIT – UPC
Brussels, 16 September 2013
5
ITS, smart cities… but do we have brains?
ICT is strategic for Europe, but just operational in mobility
We move atoms with energy, electrons and photons
Bangemann Report
“Europe and the global
information society”
(Corfu, 1994)
%
system
implementation
Strategic
”The end of distance”. 10
million teleworks in 2000
Tactical
Operational
Telematics in all TERN in 2000
and in 30 metropolitan areas
=
Time
time
?
=
Francesc Robusté – CENIT – UPC
?
Brussels, 16 September 2013
6
Behavioral, economic and operational issues
Oops! Forgot the stakeholders’ behavior!
Administration, operators, users, citizens
HOV
N-VI
Madrid
Francesc Robusté – CENIT – UPC
Brussels, 16 September 2013
7
Re-enginering urban mobility
Re-engineering and systems approach
No epic/bold changes? Re-engineering is radikal!
• Innovation is doing things “right”
• Intelligence ITS = R+D+i, multidisciplinary cross-fertilization
• Known concepts (functional laws, Economy principles) with “new
chemistry” (reactives + catalyzers) & boosted with ICT and
intelligence
• Towards a functional & multi-stakeholder approach to urban mobility
Francesc Robusté – CENIT – UPC
Brussels, 16 September 2013
8
Mode promiscuity and convergence (1)

Ecomobility
PV

Transit
The extreme converge
Rail
pedestrian
bicycle
car
motorcycle
shared /
public
taxi
bus
BRT
LRT
HOV
metro
“BiCiNg” carsharing
commuter
rail
São Paulo, 2007
LGBT city
Barcelona, 2008
Francesc Robusté – CENIT – UPC
Brussels, 16 September 2013
9
Personalization vs “coolness”
Dublin
Montpellier
Lyon
Can mobility define us?
Paris
Barcelona
“Cool!” danger:
Francesc Robusté – CENIT – UPC
Brussels, 16 September 2013
TOTO: human biogas 10
Mode promiscuity and convergence (2)
Francesc Robusté – CENIT – UPC
Brussels, 16 September 2013
11
Mode promiscuity and convergence (3)
Francesc Robusté – CENIT – UPC
Brussels, 16 September 2013
12
Economic principles (1)
AC
€/q(PC)
€/q(PT)
AC PT
TC
MC
AC PC
Demand
AC
q(PT)
q(PC)
Tr. cost
Land price
Metro
Bus
PV
Tramway
Demand
Business
Francesc Robusté – CENIT – UPC
Poor
Brussels, 16 September 2013
Rich
D to CBD
13
Economic principles (2)
Arthur C. Pigou (1912)
Unit
cost
(€/km)
Marginal
(social)
cost
Marginal
income
(demand)
Average
cost
(users)
Tax
Effect
Social
equilibrium
flow
Current
equilibrium
Flow
(veh/h)
William S. Vickrey (1969)
Nobel Prize Economics 1996
Principles of Efficient Congestion Pricing
Francesc Robusté – CENIT – UPC
Brussels, 16 September 2013
14
Economic principles (3)
Singapur (1975)
London (2003)
Restrictions
Bogotá (1998)
Francesc Robusté – CENIT – UPC
0
Stockholm (2006)
Milano (2008)
Pricing
Mix
1
Carlos F.
Daganzo
(1995)
Brussels, 16 September 2013
15
Recipes for Sustainable Urban Mobility…
Public transport interchanges and “city hubs”
Parking regulation and pricing
Road pricing
Traffic restricted areas
Boosting bicycles and walking
More quality in public transport
Flexible supply to fit demand
Logistic platforms for loading and unloading
Tele-working
Carsharing centers
Etc.
… and “real” planning as opposed to “false” planning:
Francesc Robusté – CENIT – UPC
Brussels, 16 September 2013
16
City planning
City planning and economic territory
Concentration
Density
Self-restraint
Anisotropy
Functional design
Flows and urban services
Networks
Pedestrian “islands”: they “work” when the economic
flow is maintained (exchange of car flow by people flow to
maintain the money flow)
Integration vs seggregation
The city as a “large building” converges
towards “zoning”....
Ildefons Cerdà´s Eixample in Barcelona
= social integration project
Francesc Robusté – CENIT – UPC
Brussels, 16 September 2013
17
Eco-mobility
Francesc Robusté – CENIT – UPC
Brussels, 16 September 2013
18
Public Transport - Transit
M
R
T
B
NB
b
t
Netbus : Reinvention and promotion of efficient bus services, competitive
with tramways, cars and even metro
•
Strategic vs. operational
decisions
•
Flexibility of buses vs. rigidity of
railways
Energy: hybrid, gas, KAIST, etc.
•
NB
Francesc Robusté – CENIT – UPC
Brussels, 16 September 2013
19
Traffic
• Managed lanes
• Traffic congestion regulation
Speed has a price
(economic, social,
environmental)
“Cities can regulate
congestion with traffic lights
of the XXI century”
“Ring roads and roundabouts
can reach gridlock state
independently of the flow”
• Congestion pricing
• Emissions (CO2, PM, NOx)
• Urban safety
Francesc Robusté – CENIT – UPC
Brussels, 16 September 2013
“A Pareto optimal policy is a mix of
charging and rationing”
Value pricing (Pigou, Vickrey)
20
European Parliament: Future?
Francesc Robusté – CENIT – UPC
Brussels, 16 September 2013
21
“In” and “Outs” for the future
What will likely be In and Out in European cities
(2050 scenario)
• IN
−
−
−
−
−
−
−
−
−
−
• OUT
Pedestrians
Bicycles, eBicycles, eBikes
Buses, netbus, proximity bus
eCars, eFreight distribution
Carpool and shared vehicles
Managed lanes, VVI, IVI,
unmanned driving
Pricing and fare integration
Planning, land price,
legislation, governance…
Elderly, handicapped & MRP
Urban safety
Francesc Robusté – CENIT – UPC
−
−
−
−
−
−
−
−
−
−
−
Segways
Kickbicycles, tricycles
Motorcycles with 3 wheels
Lean cars
PRT, AGT, monorails
Tramways (electric BRTs)
Trolley buses
Paratransit with buses
AMW moving walkways
Freight in tramways/ metros
Speed
Brussels, 16 September 2013
22
Conclusions
(1)
“Barcelona model” of mobility:
 Safety
 Sustainability
 Social equity
 Efficiency
 Agreement (deal) and social consensus
 Metropolitan perspective
Francesc Robusté – CENIT – UPC
Brussels, 16 September 2013
23
Conclusions
(2)
• “Package of soft management measures” in urban
transportation (enhanced by ITS) as opposed to hard physical
infrastructures of “technology driven innovations”
• Service management (TSM) and shared vehicles and
infrastructures
• Re-engineering of current mobility services (netbus, MFD, etc.)
• Focus on the people and stakeholders behavior: the livable
and convivial city (social “deal” and consensus)
• Promiscuity and convergence of urban mobility modes
• Emissions and energy issues will improve but urban safety and
congestion will remain
• Major concerns and constraints remain about water, energy and
climate change
• Need “functional” laws and governance in mobility
• European policy and guidelines regardless of subsidiarity
Francesc Robusté – CENIT – UPC
Brussels, 16 September 2013
24
Francesc Robusté
OPTIMISM
Plan de
de Formación
(40h)
Plan
Formación (40h)
- Optimising Passenger Transport
Information to Materialize Insights for Sustainable Mobility
[email protected]
+34 93 4017104
Brussels,
September 2013
Moving towards
the16livable
city of the future
Director of CENIT (Center for Innovation in Transport, Barcelona) and
Professor of Transportation at BarcelonaTech. President of the Spanish
Transportation Engineering Association. Expert of World Bank, UN-Habitat,
OECD-JTRC, etc. Has SCI publications in Transportation Science,
Transportation Research A, B, C, and E, Transportmetrica, IEEE
Transactions on ITS, Journal of Tr. Eng., Tr. Res. Record, etc.

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