OPTIMISM Plan de de Formación (40h) Plan Formación (40h) - Optimising Passenger Transport Information to Materialize Insights for Sustainable Mobility Brussels, 16 September 2013 Moving towards the livable city of the future Francesc Robusté CENIT - BarcelonaTech Economic territory Sustainable, safe and efficient urban mobility (“intelligent”? If it’s cost/efficient) World map where distance = $cost Economic corridors: distortion of physical territory • • • • Common mobility principles for European cities Seamless door-to-door mobility “City” is a generic concept Mayors will likely welcome EU policy on pricing and regulation Promote and disseminate/share best cases Francesc Robusté – CENIT – UPC Brussels, 16 September 2013 2 Mutation in urban mobility European cities as a social project of integration Old concepts New concepts Functionalism Sustainability Diffuse city (urban sprawl) Compact city Specialization of land uses Multifunctional city Direct costs of operation Pendulous mobility (commuting) Required (household-based) mobility Transport policy Long distance Longitudinal use of the street • • • • • Ecological accounting Cloud-shaped mobility Daily mobility Mobility policy and right to accessibility Proximity Cross-street use Infrastructures services Objects processes Static dynamic Recurrence (commuter, HBM) singularity Event common • • • • • • • • Democratization of the street Human / convivial cities Diversity Integration Systems approach Technology (when is useful) Wifi = one more utility Still basic constraints: water, energy, emissions, health, safety and security, etc. Ildefons Cerdà “Network Urbanism” Francesc Robusté – CENIT – UPC Integration: a social project “The city of the future…” is the Mediterranean city! Brussels, 16 September 2013 3 What’s the future of urban mobility? What will probably be NOT the future…. Europe, quo vadis? Francesc Robusté – CENIT – UPC Brussels, 16 September 2013 4 Livable, convivial and efficient cities European cities for the people Collective taxicabs and microbuses Carsharing and shared vehicles WALK TRANSIT CAR Unmanned vehicles Francesc Robusté – CENIT – UPC Brussels, 16 September 2013 5 ITS, smart cities… but do we have brains? ICT is strategic for Europe, but just operational in mobility We move atoms with energy, electrons and photons Bangemann Report “Europe and the global information society” (Corfu, 1994) % system implementation Strategic ”The end of distance”. 10 million teleworks in 2000 Tactical Operational Telematics in all TERN in 2000 and in 30 metropolitan areas = Time time ? = Francesc Robusté – CENIT – UPC ? Brussels, 16 September 2013 6 Behavioral, economic and operational issues Oops! Forgot the stakeholders’ behavior! Administration, operators, users, citizens HOV N-VI Madrid Francesc Robusté – CENIT – UPC Brussels, 16 September 2013 7 Re-enginering urban mobility Re-engineering and systems approach No epic/bold changes? Re-engineering is radikal! • Innovation is doing things “right” • Intelligence ITS = R+D+i, multidisciplinary cross-fertilization • Known concepts (functional laws, Economy principles) with “new chemistry” (reactives + catalyzers) & boosted with ICT and intelligence • Towards a functional & multi-stakeholder approach to urban mobility Francesc Robusté – CENIT – UPC Brussels, 16 September 2013 8 Mode promiscuity and convergence (1) Ecomobility PV Transit The extreme converge Rail pedestrian bicycle car motorcycle shared / public taxi bus BRT LRT HOV metro “BiCiNg” carsharing commuter rail São Paulo, 2007 LGBT city Barcelona, 2008 Francesc Robusté – CENIT – UPC Brussels, 16 September 2013 9 Personalization vs “coolness” Dublin Montpellier Lyon Can mobility define us? Paris Barcelona “Cool!” danger: Francesc Robusté – CENIT – UPC Brussels, 16 September 2013 TOTO: human biogas 10 Mode promiscuity and convergence (2) Francesc Robusté – CENIT – UPC Brussels, 16 September 2013 11 Mode promiscuity and convergence (3) Francesc Robusté – CENIT – UPC Brussels, 16 September 2013 12 Economic principles (1) AC €/q(PC) €/q(PT) AC PT TC MC AC PC Demand AC q(PT) q(PC) Tr. cost Land price Metro Bus PV Tramway Demand Business Francesc Robusté – CENIT – UPC Poor Brussels, 16 September 2013 Rich D to CBD 13 Economic principles (2) Arthur C. Pigou (1912) Unit cost (€/km) Marginal (social) cost Marginal income (demand) Average cost (users) Tax Effect Social equilibrium flow Current equilibrium Flow (veh/h) William S. Vickrey (1969) Nobel Prize Economics 1996 Principles of Efficient Congestion Pricing Francesc Robusté – CENIT – UPC Brussels, 16 September 2013 14 Economic principles (3) Singapur (1975) London (2003) Restrictions Bogotá (1998) Francesc Robusté – CENIT – UPC 0 Stockholm (2006) Milano (2008) Pricing Mix 1 Carlos F. Daganzo (1995) Brussels, 16 September 2013 15 Recipes for Sustainable Urban Mobility… Public transport interchanges and “city hubs” Parking regulation and pricing Road pricing Traffic restricted areas Boosting bicycles and walking More quality in public transport Flexible supply to fit demand Logistic platforms for loading and unloading Tele-working Carsharing centers Etc. … and “real” planning as opposed to “false” planning: Francesc Robusté – CENIT – UPC Brussels, 16 September 2013 16 City planning City planning and economic territory Concentration Density Self-restraint Anisotropy Functional design Flows and urban services Networks Pedestrian “islands”: they “work” when the economic flow is maintained (exchange of car flow by people flow to maintain the money flow) Integration vs seggregation The city as a “large building” converges towards “zoning”.... Ildefons Cerdà´s Eixample in Barcelona = social integration project Francesc Robusté – CENIT – UPC Brussels, 16 September 2013 17 Eco-mobility Francesc Robusté – CENIT – UPC Brussels, 16 September 2013 18 Public Transport - Transit M R T B NB b t Netbus : Reinvention and promotion of efficient bus services, competitive with tramways, cars and even metro • Strategic vs. operational decisions • Flexibility of buses vs. rigidity of railways Energy: hybrid, gas, KAIST, etc. • NB Francesc Robusté – CENIT – UPC Brussels, 16 September 2013 19 Traffic • Managed lanes • Traffic congestion regulation Speed has a price (economic, social, environmental) “Cities can regulate congestion with traffic lights of the XXI century” “Ring roads and roundabouts can reach gridlock state independently of the flow” • Congestion pricing • Emissions (CO2, PM, NOx) • Urban safety Francesc Robusté – CENIT – UPC Brussels, 16 September 2013 “A Pareto optimal policy is a mix of charging and rationing” Value pricing (Pigou, Vickrey) 20 European Parliament: Future? Francesc Robusté – CENIT – UPC Brussels, 16 September 2013 21 “In” and “Outs” for the future What will likely be In and Out in European cities (2050 scenario) • IN − − − − − − − − − − • OUT Pedestrians Bicycles, eBicycles, eBikes Buses, netbus, proximity bus eCars, eFreight distribution Carpool and shared vehicles Managed lanes, VVI, IVI, unmanned driving Pricing and fare integration Planning, land price, legislation, governance… Elderly, handicapped & MRP Urban safety Francesc Robusté – CENIT – UPC − − − − − − − − − − − Segways Kickbicycles, tricycles Motorcycles with 3 wheels Lean cars PRT, AGT, monorails Tramways (electric BRTs) Trolley buses Paratransit with buses AMW moving walkways Freight in tramways/ metros Speed Brussels, 16 September 2013 22 Conclusions (1) “Barcelona model” of mobility: Safety Sustainability Social equity Efficiency Agreement (deal) and social consensus Metropolitan perspective Francesc Robusté – CENIT – UPC Brussels, 16 September 2013 23 Conclusions (2) • “Package of soft management measures” in urban transportation (enhanced by ITS) as opposed to hard physical infrastructures of “technology driven innovations” • Service management (TSM) and shared vehicles and infrastructures • Re-engineering of current mobility services (netbus, MFD, etc.) • Focus on the people and stakeholders behavior: the livable and convivial city (social “deal” and consensus) • Promiscuity and convergence of urban mobility modes • Emissions and energy issues will improve but urban safety and congestion will remain • Major concerns and constraints remain about water, energy and climate change • Need “functional” laws and governance in mobility • European policy and guidelines regardless of subsidiarity Francesc Robusté – CENIT – UPC Brussels, 16 September 2013 24 Francesc Robusté OPTIMISM Plan de de Formación (40h) Plan Formación (40h) - Optimising Passenger Transport Information to Materialize Insights for Sustainable Mobility [email protected] +34 93 4017104 Brussels, September 2013 Moving towards the16livable city of the future Director of CENIT (Center for Innovation in Transport, Barcelona) and Professor of Transportation at BarcelonaTech. President of the Spanish Transportation Engineering Association. Expert of World Bank, UN-Habitat, OECD-JTRC, etc. Has SCI publications in Transportation Science, Transportation Research A, B, C, and E, Transportmetrica, IEEE Transactions on ITS, Journal of Tr. Eng., Tr. Res. Record, etc.