Chapter 7 Enhancing the Leisure Experience Motivations & Constraints Leisure Motivation • WHAT MOTIVATES YOU TO PARTICIPATE IN LEISURE ACTIVITIES?????? Reasons for Participation • Classifications of leisure: • Formal groups including social clubs, fraternal organizations, etc • Informal groups • Travel • Sports participation • Watching sports • Television and radio • Fishing/hunting • Gardening • Sewing and woodworking • Reading • Visiting friends and relatives Why we participate…… • • • • • • • • Just for the pleasure of it Welcome change from work New experiences Chance to be creative Chance to achieve something Contact w/friends Make time pass Service to others Objectives of Leisure • • • • • 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. relaxation diversion self-development creativity sensual transcendence Categories of leisure objectives: • Relaxation: sleeping, resting and daydreaming • Diversion: activities that provide change of pace • Self Development: learning to sing or participation in clubs and cultural activities • Creativity: playing an instrument or discussion about a specific topic • Sensual transcendence: activation of senses and sexual pleasure. Components of Leisure Activities • Psychological—sense of freedom, enjoyment, challenge • Educational—intellectual challenge • Social—relationships w/others • Relaxation—relief from stress • Physiological—fitness, health, wellness, well being • Aesthetic—response to pleasing design and environment Self-Determination • Intrinsic Motivation: • The doing of an activity for its inherent satisfaction rather than for some separable consequences. When intrinsically motivated, a person is moved to act for the fun or challenge entailed rather than because of external prods, pressures, or rewards. Flow • “The state when individuals’ skills are harmonious with the demands of the activity in which they are engaged.” • When an activity is overly demanding for an individual’s abilities, anxiety will result. • There is probably greater danger underestimating the abilities of older individuals than overestimating their abilities as a result of myths. SEEKING AND ESCAPE • “There are only 2 fundamental dimensions to leisure motivations:” • Seeking personal and interpersonal intrinsic rewards • Escaping persona and interpersonal environments Optimal Arousal • Primary Leisure Motivator. • We seek to be in a state of uncertainty and stimulation. This is often achieved through novelty in activities. • For example: an aquatics program can be made stimulating by the introduction of new exercises, equipment, or members into the class. FINDING PERSONAL MEANING IN LEISURE • • • • • • • Personal growth Success or achievement Altruism Hedonism Creativity Religion Legacy LEISURE CONSTRAINTS • Any factor interfering with the pursuit of leisure, such as poor health or lack of opportunities for active engagement, may be viewed as a constraint. Examples • Decline in visual acuity may result in the loss of the ability to drive and therefore lack of transportation may become a problem • Reduced income resulting from retirement and reliance on social security as a major source of finances may magnify the effects of not having enough money.