Axis Technical Design Consideraitons-1 Vigitron

Report
High Power PoE & Extended Distance
Design Considerations
History :
• Established in 1993 as a Design House in San Diego, CA
• Incorporated in 1997 in the State of California
Products origin:
•Products are designed in the USA and
manufactured in both the USA and China.
Vigitron Support:
What we offer that our competitors do not:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
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Educational white papers
Application notes
Design center support
Project requirements which provide a systematic layout and bill of
materials
Customizable products to meet specific application requirements
Lifetime warranty + 3 Years
Testing to Network and Traffic Certification Standards
Individual Camera manufacturing certification
Made in America- Manufactured to local requirements
Exceptional & responsive customer service Repetitive
Bandwidth/Packet size and Testing
Test
Test Type
3 Reference
Reference
1518
1518
Bandwidth(Mbps) Port
100
100
0
1
TxPackets
RxPackets
TxPPS
518811
518797
518855
518869
100%
100%
100%
NEMA-TS 2 Hardened
Temperature Test -40 to +75C
Distances are noted by Vigitron
and used as part of Vigitron’s
design Center service
RxPPS
8086
8086
100%
100%
TxBPS
8086
8086
100%
RxBPS
RxPayload Errors Latency (us)
12274548
12290720
0
12274548
12290720
0
100%
100%
100%
Tested for max power consumption
in highest operating modes
4.76
4.8
Vigitron Support:
What we offer that our competitors do not?
White
Papers
Application
Notes
Design
Center
Services
Why Extended Distance Target Applications
1.
2.
Existing analog installations converting to IP with coax cable runs between 750 and 1000 feet.
A.
Note the expense of:
1.
Removing coax cable.
2.
Installing UTP cable.
3.
In some cases licenses are required.
4.
Labor can run between $400 to $1000.
Removing coax cables and installing UTP still does not address the 328 feet signal and PoE
transmission limitation.
Fiber:
B. Note the expenses of:
1. Cost of fiber transmitter and receiver.
2. Cost of fiber cable.
3. Fiber does not transmit PoE!
3. UTP Cable is limited to 100m (328 feet ) distances) and many security applications require longer
distances
What is PoE?
“PoE” is defined as Power over Ethernet - the ability to transmit
power from a source to a destination over copper wire.
What are the types of PoE?
There are three types of PoE
• IEEE 802.3af (15.4 Watts
• IEEE 802.3at (30 Watts)
• PoE++ (60 Watts)
The resulting power provided to the camera is a function of:
1) Source power
2) Source Voltage
3) Cable loss
The standard distance used to
determine the power available
at the Powered Device is
100 meters /328 feet
How does PoE work?
The are three steps in PoE operation:
1. The Power Source Equipment (PSE) sends a “Detection” pulse to the
Powered Device (PD). The PD is off at this point but presents a
resistance value on its input to let the PSE know that there is a valid
PD at the end of the wire.
2. The PSE sends a “Classification” pulse to the PD. The PD is still off
but presents a resistance value on its input port based on the
required “Power Class”. This way the PSE knows how much power to
dedicate to this PD which becomes its limit.
3. The PSE turns on the power to PD. If a “no-current” or “over current”
condition happens the PSE will shut down power to protect itself and
the PD. This is normally the case…
100 m (328 ft.) UTP
PSE
PD
What is IEEE 802.3af?
The IEEE 802.3.af was the first PoE standard and included four
power classes. These classes are defined by the level of power
provided to the PD. In CCTV applications a “PD” is a camera.
In order to achieve these power levels at the camera, the PSE must
have enough power to account for the power losses over wire.
Class
Power at
PD (W)
Class
Description
0
0.44–12.94
Classification
unimplemented
1
2
3
0.44–3.84
3.84–6.49
6.49–12.95
Very Low power
Low power
Mid power
This is the
power required
at the camera
100 m (328 ft.) UTP
Wire Power Loss
PSE Source
(15.4 W)
PD Power
(12.95 W)
Individual Voltage
levels must be
maintained to wake-up
the Camera:
37 volts min. for 802.3af
42.5 volts min. for 802.3at
AT has Type 1 and Type 2.
Type 1 is the same as 802.3af.
Type 2 requires two pulses in
phase the first wakes up the
camera the second identifies
it as Class 4 (802.3at)
What is IEEE 802.3.at?
This PoE standard was created to meet the growing power
demands of telephone systems, IP security cameras and
networking equipment.
100 m (328 ft.) UTP
Wire Power Loss
PSE Source
(34.20W)
PD Power
(25.5W)
Unlike 802.3af, 802.3at can be found in four different standards:
•
•
•
•
Cisco: used for Cisco’s telephone systems)
Pre-standard: This is similar to Cisco, but left open for established power outputs.
Type 1: This functions similar to 802.3af but established a power output of 30 watts.
Type 2: Maintained the power output of 30 watts but used a two-pulse “wake up”.
This resulted from delays in standard committees achieving agreement on one
standard and the rush from chip manufacturers to be the first to market. Even today
it is difficult to determine what “standard” a product adheres to.
Why Extended distance High-Power solutions are
Required?
“Modern PoE cameras require more power than you might expect”
• Many PoE IP cameras require additional power for day/night,
auto back focus and auto iris lens operations.
- These additional power requirements are far greater than
the regular power required for video.
- When activated, these functions will surge requiring more
power than used under normal operation.
• To compensate for higher power many IP camera manufacturers
are reclassifying there camera power requirements to reflect:
- Class 0 for 802.3af requiring source power between 0 and
15.4 W.
- Making a general statement for 802.3at which can mean any
power requirement between 15 W to 30 W.
The Effect of PoE Power Surges
Surge power
Resting
power
New Power Level
Day/Night filter OnLED On
Day Mode
LED On
10 watts
5 watts
6 watts
The result is a port power shut down
The camera
manufacturer
specifies the camera
at 6 watts which is
Class 2, but the
surge requires Class
3 power.
Many camera manufacturers have moved their power
requirements from Class 2 at 6.49 to Class 0/Class 3 in
order to protect themselves from power surges for auxiliary
functions
Class
Power at
PD (W)
Class
Description
0
0.44–12.94
Classification
unimplemented
1
2
3
0.44–3.84
3.84–6.49
6.49–12.95
Very Low power
Low power
Mid power
This is the
power
required at
the camera
location
When a camera is specified as Class 0 the power at the
camera location must achieve 12.95 watts. If a camera is
specified at Class 4 or 802.3at you must supply 25.5
watts at the camera location.
Why 60 W PoE power is needed:
Many new camera installations require power levels higher than
802.3at, which is limited at approximately 30 watts. The 60W
solutions are basically 802.3at X 2
These cameras use higher power for:
• Faster dome speeds (Guard tours)
• Heaters
• Blowers
• IR Illuminators
How 60 watts operates
Generally Cat 5 cabling will be restricted to a amperage handling capacity
of .75 amps or 1.5 amps per-pair. This is the primary Power limitations.
As such camera manufacturers requiring 60 watts use 802.3at X 2. This
requires the use of 8 cable pairs and 2 PDs in the camera.
Both PDs must respond in the same way in order to operate.
• For a 60 watt solution the PoE operates as if it where powering two
separate 802.3at cameras.
For a 60 watt source to work with Axis cameras it must be able to
recognize two PDs
• This also limits 60 watt solutions to UTP Cat cable as coax only
yields one wire pair
What are the challenges in Providing PoE for IP
Cameras?
Challenges for Cameras :
“Even if your camera specification indicates a certain power class
more power may actually require more”
• Additional camera functions require additional power levels
over that of normal operating conditions.
• For PoE systems where PSE /PD communications is
established at a certain class level, additional power
requirements can be interpreted as dangerous and result in
PSE power shut downs.
• Camera manufacturers do not often state full power
requirements or for 802.3af use Class 0 (0-12.95 Watts)
• 802.3at power requirements can range from 12.95 to 25 Watts
• Using extended distance products can result in requiring
additional power.
What are the challenges in Providing PoE for IP
Cameras?
Challenges for PoE Network Switches :
“A network switch specification indicating 15.4 or 30 watts is only
an indication that the port is capable of handling this amount of
power and not the actual available power “
• Network PoE switches are not designed to provide the power
needed for IP cameras.
• In efforts to maintain competitive pricing, only limited power
is provided.
• In most cases power is shared among all switch ports
limiting output power to each port far below the full power.
This is called power sharing.
• Only a limited number of switches provide the required
control to allocate power on a per port bases.
The Biggest Challenge is providing the proper power source
for your IP Camera.
80% usage remain for PoE
70% usage remain for PoE
All network switches have a difference between their total power supplies and
the power provided to their PoE ports
How do I know if a PoE a Network Switch will work
for my application?
The only certain method is for the switch port(s) to provide full
power output. This means 15.4W for 802.3af and 30W for 802.3af
Use simple math:
•
•
•
•
Look at the switch’s power supply.
Subtract 25% watts for switch operations (overhead).
Divide the number of ports into the resulting power figure.
If the resulting number is less than 15.4 watts the switch does
not have the ability to provide full 802.3af power per port.
• If the resulting number is less than 30 watts the switch does
not have the ability to provide full 802.3 at power per port.
Most network switches do not provide specifications for the
differences between total power and PoE power!
How do I know if a PoE Network Switch will work for
my application?
Programming makes the difference
If the switch programming is limited to all ports ON or all ports
OFF then power is shared among all ports and full power output
is not possible for all ports simultaneously.
If a switch’s programming allows different power levels to be
allocated to individual ports than the number of ports that can
provide full power will be limited to the total available
switch power.
Reading Network Switch PoE Specifications
Correctly
The following is a specification for a typical Layer 2
network switch. Upon first reading you might
believe that this switch has the ability to provide a
full 15.4 watts (802.3af) to all 24 ports. But look
carefully. Here is the complete switch specification
with regard to power.
The wording indicates that all ports are capable of handling
15.4 watts, but does not state that all ports provide 15.4
watts at the same time
The PoE budget is stated as 15.4watts, but there is
no indication of the power required for overheads
which normally is 25% less or greater.
This is the most interesting specification. Class 2 is
6.49 watts and the specification clearly states that
the maximum number of Class 2 PDs (cameras that
can be powered is 24 but according to the
specification only at Class 2)
Summary: How network Switches Provide PoE power
1. The switch only provides PoE power On/Off: Power is
shared on all ports and cannot exceed the total power
divided by the total number of ports.
2. Switch provides the ability to program power to
individual ports. Higher power than the amount equal to
providing equal power to all ports results in limiting the
number of ports that can achieve the required power.
3. Switch can provide full power to all ports; this means the
power supply must provide 15.4W or 30W to all ports.
What network switches lack and IP camera systems Need
1.
High-power temperature-stable transformers and components- this is the key limiting factor due
to product cost.
2.
No shared power. All ports must provide the maximum power individually with no sharing or
taking power from other ports.
3.
At least 30 watts per port. With the rapid movement to 802.3at and the requirement to have
802.3af , Class 0 and Class 3, you need higher starting power in order to compensate for
differences in cable resistance, the use of different types of cable (normal verse mini) and
extended distance applications.
4.
Surge current programming: It is important the system be able to recognize the start-up in
features such as day/night, auto back-focus, and PTZ motors that will result in surge current to
avoid system shut down while maintain PSE to PD protection.
5.
Individual port fusing: To protect all products and to disable.
6.
Port restart: If the problems detected are of a temporary nature the Midspan or Network PoE
switch should have the ability to restart power to the camera to avoid a service call.
7.
Under all power modes, especially forced power, communication between the PSE and PD must
be maintained to shut down power in the event of over current conditions.
What are the challenges in long distance 60 watt PoE?
• Providing up to 60W of power with data at long distances over
UTP or Coax cables.
• Providing up to 60W of power and data using only two
devices: a transmitter and receiver.
• Providing up to 60W of power and data while maintaining
standard PoE safety measures between the camera (PD) and
power source (PSE).
• Staying within the cable power-handling safety limitations of
0.750mA per each two pairs, 1.5A per each Cat5 cable.
• Maintaining PSE to PD communications to provide both PSE
and PD.
• Communicating with two PDs
How can I provide the PoE power that my system
requires?
Use a PoE Injector:
PoE Camera
Network Switch
PoE Injector
Disadvantages:
• Requires local power within 328 feet/100 meters from the camera.
• Pushing power defeats communication and safety features which can
lead to damaging shorts in the injector and/or camera.
• Using an injector does not address the issue of extended distance.
How can I provide the PoE power that my system
requires?
Use a PoE Midspan:
• Midspans can have the same limitations as PoE network switches.
Attempts to cost down the products can lead to:
1. Power sharing decreasing the actual operating power at each port.
2. Pushing power instead of establishing standard communication
and protection between PSE and PD.
3. Lack of proper fusing and adequate port power protection.
• Evaluate Midspan power using the same methods as a PoE network
switch, however many times Midspan specifications do not address
issues involving:
Port fusing, Power pushing and Power sharing.
Vigitron’s Standard and
extended distance PoE
solutions
Vigitron PoE Advantages
Vigitron products maintain two standards critical for high
performance PoE:
Midspans
• There is no power sharing for multiple port devices.
• PSE to PD communications and safety features are always maintained at
standard and extended distances.
• Auto reset fuse links-no need for service call
• Port polling- allows you to set ports for individual camera requirements
• Programming for surge- will feed extra power when required without
shutting down port while still protecting the port.
• Auto restart- of power when conditions are save
Vigitron field devices: Extenders
• Conforms to extreme high and low temperature operation tested under
NEMA-TS Traffic standards at -40C to +75C.
• Does not interfere with PSE to PD communications
No local power required saving on power supply costs and the local power
outlets
• Does not change signal formats, compatible with multicasting
• Provides flat bandwidth 100Mbps response by to largest jumbo frame size
resulting in best video reproduction for largest megapixel cameras
What is Pass Through PoE (PTP™)?
Pass-Through-PoE is a process that receives power from a
single source, powering both transceivers and the camera
without the need for local power supplies or outlets
Advantages:
• Eliminates the need for local power supplies and power outlets
for transceivers and cameras
• Results in cooler more reliable product operation.
• Maintains PSE to PD communications and protection in the event
of over current conditions.
• Conforms to extreme high and low temperature operation tested
under NEMA-TS Traffic Standards at -40C to +75C.
MaxiiCopper
Extender
PoE Switch
PoE
af/at
MaxiiCopper
Extender
PoE Camera
How Far Can I really Go: UTP @ 802.3af
Vigitron Testing Standards
Cat 5e 24 AWG
100Mbps /= .188ohms/m
There are no standards for
Coax as it relates to PoE
standards
100m (328 ft.) UTP
Wire Power Loss
PD Power
(12.95 Watts )
PSE Source
(15.4 Watts)
PoE Switch
2 meters
MaxiiCopper
Extender
909 meters
MaxiiCopper
Extender 2 meters
PoE
af
PSE Source
(15.4 Watts)
PD Power
(7.95 Watts )
How Far Can I really Go: Coax@ 802.3at
Vigitron Testing Standards
RG59U/UTP Cat 5e (standard cable resistance: 22 ohm per 1,000 feet)
100Mbps
100m (328 ft.) UTP
Wire Power Loss
PD Power
(25 Watts )
PSE Source
(30 Watts)
PoE Switch
2 meters
PoE
af
PSE Source
(37 Watts)
MaxiiCopper
Extender
152 meters
MaxiiCopper
Extender 2 meters
PD Power
(25 Watts )
How Far Can I really Go: Factors affecting Distance
UTP:
Standard: Cat 5e
Wire Gauge: 24 AWG
25.67 Ohms per 1,000 feet per
wire
802.3 standard =approx 28
ohms
Higher the number the higher the
resistance the lower the distance
Cat 6 will generally yield about a
7% increase in distance.
Vigitron’s testing standard for 2 pair is 26 Ohms per 1000 feet.
Vigitron’s testing standard for 4 pair is 13 Ohms per 1000 feet.
Vigitron doubles the resistance used for standards to compensate
for cable differences
How Far Can I really Go: Factors affecting Distance
Coax:
Vigitron Standard:
RG59U
Wire Resistance
22 Ohms per 1,000 feet
Higher the resistance the lower the distance.
There are no standards for transmitting PoE over coax.
Resistances can vary greatly over a wide range starting around 7 Ohms
per 1,000 feet. By selecting a higher value Vigitron’s specifications can
compensate for variations in cable resistance.
How Far Can I really Go: Factors affecting Distance
UTP and Coax
Amount of source power:
The higher the starting power, the higher the ending power.
Keep in mind there are current limitations of approximately .75 amps per pair
Use of external power supplies to transceivers:
For the Vi2301 and Vi2401 using external power supplies will add about 2 watts available to the
camera (1 Watt per Vigitron transceiver).
Vigitron’s testing standards for both UTP and Coax cable are designed to
match the 802.3 PoE standards of .188ohms/m for Cat 5 cable and 25k ohm PD
resistance. This results in real world performance
How do I know if my problem is the power source or the
cable?
Vigitron’s unique Vi0021 PoE Voltage and Power
meter quickly identifies IP camera installation
problems and avoids customers repeated
returning cameras as defective.
Vi0019 Sixty Watt
PoE Power Meter
OK, You solved my need for 802.3af, 802.3at
and 60 watt power for up to 100m (328 ft.).
What if I need an extended distance solution?
Vigitron IP Systems
Applications
60 Watt Solutions
AXIS & Vi2301A Solutions
AXIS Q6032-E, AXIS Q6034-E, AXIS Q6035-E
Network Switch
MaxiiCopper
Extender
Axis PSE
6 feet
MaxiiCopper
Extender
600 feet
Vi2301A
6 feet
Vi2301A
Q6032-E
AXIS Q6032-E, AXIS Q6034-E, AXIS Q6035-E
Vi2208A/Vi2216A
Midspan
MaxiiCopper
Extender
MaxiiCopper
Extender
6 feet
750 feet
Vi2301A
6 feet
Vi2301A
Q6032-E
AXIS Q6032-E, AXIS Q6034-E, AXIS Q6035-E
MaxiiCopper
Extender
Vi2508A/Vi2516A
Midspan
800 feet
6 feet
Vi2301A
Q6032-E
Vi2701 Rx/Tx Complete PoE Solution
40-56VDC
Ethernet Switch
6 feet
Vi2701RX
74 watts
750 feet @ 50 watts
Vi2701TX
6 feet
No power
supply required
at camera site
Q6032-E
Vi1120
This solution works with cameras using both one and two PDs, which
can be applied to all types of cameras at all power levels.
Axis & Vi2701 Solutions
AXIS Q6032-E, AXIS Q6034-E, AXIS Q6035-E
Ethernet Switch
6 feet
800 feet
6 feet
Vi2701RX
Vi2301A
No power
supply required
at camera site
Vi1120
Q6032-E
This solution only works with cameras using two PD, which is usually
applied only to cameras requiring more than 802.3at (30 watt) power.
Ethernet Switch
6 feet
Vi2301A
Vi2304A
Vi2308A
Vi2316A
(Local Power)
3,000 feet
Vi2701TX
328 feet
Q6032-E
Vi1120
Vi2701Tx / Vi23xxA PoE Solution
Ethernet Switch
6 feet
Vi2301A
Vi2304A
Vi2308A
Vi2316A
(Local Power)
2,000 feet
100BaseT
(Data only)
Vi2301A
Vi2301A
6 feet
6 feet
Data + Power
Vi2701TX
100BaseT
2000 feet @ 12.95W
800 feet @ 25.5 W
Vi1120
Total Distance Up to 4,000 feet
Vi2701 Rx / Tx Complete PoE Solution
Vi2500
Ethernet Switch
40-56 VDC
6 feet
6 feet
Vi2701TX
3,000 feet @ 12.94 watts
1,500 feet @ 25.5 watts No power
supply required
750 feet @ 50 watts
at camera site
This solution works with cameras using both one and two PDs,
which can be applied to all types of cameras at all power levels.
Ethernet Switch
6 feet
Vi2301A
3,000 feet (data only)
Vi2701TX
324 feet
Q6032-E
Vi0012
Vi1120
Vi2701 Tx / Vi2301A PoE Solution
Ethernet Switch
6 feet
Vi2301A
2,000 feet
100BaseT
(data only)
Vi2701TX
6 feet
Data + Power
100BaseT
2000 feet @ 12.95W
800 feet @ 25.5 W
Vi0012
Vi1120
Total Distance Up to 4,000 feet
6 feet
Vi2804AP 60W PoE Solution
Network Switch
Vi2804AP
Vi2301A
328 feet
328 feet
60W (PoE)
Up to 3,000 feet
(Data only)
Vi 0015
Q6032-E
328 feet, 60W (PoE)
Vi0012
Vi1120
Q6032-E
802.3af and 802.3at Extended Distance Solutions
Network Switch
Vi2804P
Vi2401
Up to 5,000 feet
(Data only)
1500 feet
@ 12.95W
Vi0012
Vi2301A
Vi1120
Total Distance Up to 6,500 feet
Vi2301A
Axis Power Distance Chart Class 0,3,4 and 60 watts
Summary: PoE Considerations
1. Power source
2. PD or Camera real power requirements
3. Ability of extenders, transceivers and other processing
equipment to maintain required power over required
distances.
4. The ability of system to maintain PSE to PD
communications
5. Type of cable and cable resistance
6. Direct cable run or number of cable breaks and types of
connections.
7. Cable distance
8. Extended cable distance over 100 Meters (328 feet)
Thank You!
13906 Sparren Avenue, San Diego, CA 92129
Phone: (888) 574-8942 (858) 484-5209
FAX: (858) 484-1205
[email protected]

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