Understanding Text Structures

Report
Patterns of Organization
Or The Yellow Brick Road to
Comprehension and Critical
Thinking?
Patterns of Organization, Text
Structure, Rhetorical Modes, Oh, My!
Relax, Dorothy!
These Are Synonyms
for Our Old Favorites:
•
•
•
•
•
Compare/contrast
Cause/effect
Process
Problem/solution
Narrative
•
•
•
•
Argument
Classification / division
Example
Descriptive
Why Explicitly Teach Patterns of
Organization?
• Writing and reading are two very different cognitive functions
• Essential in note-taking across the curriculum
• Reading vs. Writing process
• Formats in which claims and evidence are presented
• Establishes, the relationship between the claims and the evidence
• When the relationship is clear, evaluation of the text can occur
• We cannot expect automaticity in critical reading without
explicitly teaching patterns of organization
What Do You Mean by automaticity?
• What the reader
recognizes automatically
• Facilitates anticipation
• Anticipation facilitates
comprehension
Ahh, so this is a visual of
what reading looks like!
What happens if a gear gets
stuck?
Getting my students to the Emerald City
of Reading Comprehension by
understanding Organizational Patterns.
Expectations of Readers
As early as third grade, students are expected
to recognize expository text structures such
as the following: sequence, description,
compare-contrast, cause-effect, and problemsolution. The ability to identify and analyze
these text structures in reading helps make
expository text easier to understand. While
the understanding of text structure is
important at the lower grades for reading and
writing proficiency, it is crucial for students
to understand the complicated and varied
demands of high school and college reading.
Understanding
Text Structures
Lesson 1
What is a text structure?
• “Text structure”
refers to how a
piece of text is
organized.
• Recognizing how
the text is
organized or put
together helps us to
understand what
it’s about.
Think of it this way…
• Builders can use
different types of
structures to build
different things.
• For example, a
skyscraper is a
different kind of
structure from a
house.
In the same way, authors…
• Use different
structures to put
together different types
of texts depending on
the purpose of the
message and what
they are writing about.
Text Structures for
Non-Fiction or Expository Texts
1. Chronology – order of events
2. Compare/Contrast –describes
similarities and differences
3. Cause and Effect – tells how or
why something happened and
the result
LET’S TAKE CLOSER LOOK!
AT EACH
TEXT STRUCTURE FOR
EXPOSITORY TEXT
Chronological/Sequential
Order
• Purpose:
to inform – reader
of the order in
which events
occurred or order of
step in a process.
• Keywords:
first, next, later,
then, before, after,
finally, meanwhile
•Even historical
events or time
periods in history give
a sense of time since
they are directly
correlated with dates
in history.
Chronological Order
• Read this how to passage. How does the
text structure help you with the task?
HOW TO MAKE MACARONI AND CHEESE
First, boil some water and make some
macaroni. Then, make your cheese sauce.
After the cheese sauce is ready, mix it with
the macaroni. Bake the entire thing in the
oven. Finally, it’s time to eat!
Chronological /Sequential order
Notice how recognizing the text structure helps you to
answer the following question.
First, boil some water and make some macaroni. Then,
make your cheese sauce. After the cheese sauce is ready,
mix it with the macaroni. Bake the entire thing in the
oven. Finally, it’s time to eat and enjoy!
Which of the following steps comes after mixing the
cheese sauce with the macaroni?
A. Eat and enjoy!
B. Bake in the oven
C. Make the cheese sauce
D. Boil water and cook macaroni
B
Which paragraph is in
chronological order?
Pennsylvania has many
historic sites. You can visit
Revolutionary war sites, like
Valley Forge. You can also
visit important locations
from the Civil War, like
Gettysburg. Finally, you can
also see the site of the first
oil well in Titusville.
Pennsylvania has many neat
places to visit!
Through the ages,
Pennsylvania has seen
many interesting events.
The state was founded in
1681 by William Penn.
Later, Pennsylvania was the
site of important
Revolutionary War battles.
After that, Pennsylvania
was home to new factories
during the Industrial
Revolution. Today,
Pennsylvania continues to
make history.
You got it! It’s this one.
Can you find the
keywords that
show this order?
•Through the ages
•1681
•Later
•Revolutionary War
•After that
•Industrial Revolution
•Today
Through the ages,
Pennsylvania has seen
many interesting events.
The state was founded in
1681 by William Penn.
Later, Pennsylvania was the
site of important
Revolutionary War battles.
After that, Pennsylvania
was home to new factories
during the Industrial
Revolution. Today,
Pennsylvania continues to
make history.
Excellent!!!
How does the text
structure help us to
understand the
historical events of
Pennsylvania?
When was the state
of Pennsylvania
founded?
A. After the Revolutionary
War
B. During the Industrial
Revolution
C. 1681
C
Through the ages,
Pennsylvania has seen
many interesting events.
The state was founded in
1681 by William Penn.
Later, Pennsylvania was the
site of important
Revolutionary War battles.
After that, Pennsylvania
was home to new factories
during the Industrial
Revolution. Today,
Pennsylvania continues to
make history.
Compare/Contrast
• Purpose:
to inform the reader of
similarities and
differences between
these two or more
things.
Compare/Contrast Keywords
Of course we should be able
to find keywords to help us
figure it out.
KEYWORDS: same, both,
different, in common,
alike, similarly, opposite,
while, on the other hand
See if you can find some
in the following passage.
Can you identify any keywords for
compare/contrast?
The cardinal and the cedar waxwing are two
common birds. Both have crests on their heads.
Both are common at birdfeeders. But the birds
have some differences. The male cardinal is a
bright red, while the waxwing is brown. The cedar
waxwing often migrates from place to place. On the
other hand, the cardinal stays in one place year
after year.
Using keywords we can complete a
Venn diagram that helps us to the
similarities and differences better
The cardinal and the cedar waxwing are two common birds.
Both have crests on their heads. Both are common at
birdfeeders. But the birds have some differences. The male
cardinal is a bright red, while the waxwing is brown. The
cedar waxwing often migrates from place to place. On the
other hand, the cardinal stays in one place year after year.
•Male is red
•Stays in one
place
•Crested
head
•Use bird
feeders
•Male is brown
•Migrates from
place to place
Organizing information helps me understand
what I am reading.
a.
b.
c.
c.
Which of the following characteristics do these birds have in
common?
They both have crested heads
They both migrate
Both males are red
Both males are brown
•Male is red
•Stays in one
place
•Crested
head
•Use bird
feeders
•Male is brown
•Migrates from
place to place
A
Cause/Effect Text Structure
• Purpose: to inform - how one event leads to
another, why decisions are made and the
results.
• Keywords: because, effect, as a result,
consequently, and so.
Can you identify the cause and
effect? Keywords?
Baby painted turtles spend all winter in
their nests. They have special chemicals in
their blood that can keep their blood from
freezing. As a result, baby painted turtles
can survive freezing temperatures!
Can you identify the cause and
effect? Keywords?
Excellent!!!
Baby painted turtles spend all winter in
their nests. They have special chemicals in
their blood that can keep their blood from
freezing. As a result, baby painted turtles
can survive freezing temperatures!
This is the
cause
These are
effects.
Baby painted turtles spend all winter in
their nests. They have special chemicals in
their blood that can keep their blood from
freezing. As a result, baby painted turtles
can survive freezing temperatures!
Why are baby painted turtles able to survive freezing
temperatures in the winter?
A. They spend all winter in their nests
B. They cannot survive freezing temperatures
C. They have special chemicals in their blood
C
Review
• Can you explain the difference
between chronological order and
compare and contrast?
• What is the purpose of using cause
and effect to tell a story?
• How can clue words help you as a
reader?
Match the clue words!
Can you identify the text structure that these clue
words indicate?
on the other hand
similarity
Compare/Contrast
as a result
Cause/Effect
after that
Chronological Order
TEXT STRUCTURES
LESSON 2
Text Structures for
Non-Fiction or Expository Texts
1. Problem/Solution-identify a problem
and provide a solution
2. Position/Reason- to take position on an
topic and provide reasons for your
position. (fact/opinion)
3. Description/Categorization- group/sort
things that are similar
Problem/Solution Text Structure
• Purpose:
to inform reader
about a problem,
and offer one or
more solutions.
Problem/Solution
Keywords
Synonyms for problem:
difficulty, struggle, uncertainty,
worry, threat, and trouble
Synonyms for solution:
possibility, hope, bright spot, answer,
and future
A simple example of problem/solution
text structure
Park School had a
terrible problem. Every
day at recess, students
would argue over the
slides. Teachers had to
spend time every day
taking care of the
arguments. Finally, one
teacher came up with a
great solution. They
bought another set of
slides that everyone could
enjoy.
Can you find the
problem and the
solution in this
paragraph?
An example of problem and solution
Park School had a terrible
problem. Every day at
recess, students would
argue over the slides.
Teachers had to spend
time every day taking care
of the arguments. Finally,
one teacher came up with
a great solution. They
bought another set of
slides that everyone could
enjoy.
Here is the
problem
Here is the
solution
Let’s read this passage for a more challenging example.
Think about how you could organize the information.
We could organize the information in a process chart like this one so we can the
each part more clearly and be able to answer a question.
Which of the following is a problem Nightingale helped
to solve?
A. Many lives were saved
B. She wrote letters asking for supplies
C. The hospital was dirty.
D. Hospitals improved
Position/Reason
• Author’s Purpose:
to persuade and/or
to inform
• The reader must
pay close attention
to details that are
fact and those that
are opinion.
Fact or Opinion
Fact
• A fact is statement
that can be proven.
• For example:
Hurricane Katrina
hit the US in 2005.
Opinion
• A statement that
cannot be proven.
• Contains words that
show emotions or
feelings
• EX: “Chocolate ice
cream is best!”
Where are the facts? Are there
any opinions?
Once again you can see how using a simple chart will help you
sort the information so you can decide for yourself.
Which of the following statements is NOT a fact about money?
A. Aztecs used cacao beans.
B. Native Americans used wampum.
C. People of Yap used heavy stones.
D. Money is strange.
Position/Reason
#1
I think students should be allowed to wear
to pajama pants to school. They are
comfortable and don’t cause any
distraction to class. I think students will
actually do better if they are more
comfortable.
#2
Students should not be allowed to pajama pants to school because it
is just not courteous to others to come to school in pajamas. Teachers
dress professionally and so should students. In a recent study,
statistics showed that people who dressed more professionally,
behaved more professionally as well. If students dress like they are
ready for sleep, then they may be less attentive and disruptive.
DECISIONS FOR OR AGAINST A CERTAIN
ACTION SHOULD BE BASED ON FACTS NOT
OPINION.
ARE THERE ANY FACTS PRESENTED IN
POSITION/REASON STATEMENT #1?
ARE THERE ANY FACTS PRESENTED IN
POSITION/REASON STATEMENT #2?
BASED ON THE FACTS, WHAT DECISION
WOULD YOU BE FOR OR AGAINST ALLOWING
PAJAMAS IN THE SCHOOL DRESS CODE?
Last One…
Description/Categorization
• Texts organized using this structure will list,
group or categorize various types of things
according to a specific relationship.
• These things may have common quality.
• Let’s do a quick example, we will need 5
volunteers.
• 10 seconds to choose your
helpers.
For Example…
• Topic: Sports
• Many different sports are there?
• What are some different categories we can use to describe
them?
• Let’s read the next passage to see an example of
categorization and how we can organize it to help us
understand the text.
These text often use charts, graphs, or tables to help
with organizing the information.
Using a chart like this one helps you reader make sense of a
lot of information at once. See how easily you can answer this
question.
Which of the following sports is NOT categorized as a court
sport?
A. Tennis
B. Soccer
C. Handball D. Squash
THINK
>
PAIR
> SHARE
• What is the most important thing to pay
attention to when reading a position/reason
text?
• Why is it important to identify the problem
in a passage?
• How can sorting information into categories
help you?

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