Rdng: Literary Elements

Report
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Literary Elements
6th Grade Reading Class ~ Mrs. Wendele
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Plot
The
action
of the
story
denouement/
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Exposition

Background information that is needed to understand the
story properly is provided. Such information includes main
characters, basic conflict, and setting.
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Conflict
 The
main problem the character faces
+ Rising Action A
set of conflicts
that leads up to
the climax
As
the conflict or
conflicts develop
and the
characters
attempt to
resolve those
conflicts,
suspense builds.
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Climax
 the
major turning point that allows the main
character / “good guy” to resolve the conflict
 the
point of greatest interest or suspense in
the story
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“Frankenstein” Climax

Elizabeth’s murder at the end of Scene 8.

Up to this moment, the tension has been building. The
creature had threatened Victor that he, the creature, would
get his revenge, and it is with the murder that he gets it.

The murder, when the person that Victor loves most is taken
from him, is the moment of the greatest drama.

It’s also the last thing that happens before the action returns
to the present where Victor is dying and asking the captain to
destroy the creature.
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Falling action
the
action
following the
climax of the
story that
moves it
towards its
denouement
or resolution

The final resolution of the main complication

The solution of the problem
+ Denouement  The final outcome of the story
Tucks have looked the
same for 87 years; “elf
music” is heard from
the wood; Winnie runs
away and finds Jesse
drinking from the
spring;
Mae Tuck’s escape from jail
and Winnie’s decision to help
her
Winnie has found
out about the
magical spring
water. Now the
Tucks are faced
with the task of
continuing to
protect the secret
of the spring.
Tuck Everlasting
Natalie Babbitt
Winnie Foster
Other Fosters,
Tucks, yellowsuit man
1800s,August
Treegap
When Mae and Angus
find out the spring ha
been destroyed by th
storm
Dialect & Conversational Voice
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Dialect
Language
that is
characteristic
of a particular
group of
people or
geographical
region

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He Lion, Bruh Bear,
and Bruh Rabbit
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Conversational Voice
When
the words
the characters
are saying are
like having a
conversation
with them
Tends
formal
to be less
Conversational voice:
“Why the Tortoise’s Shell Is Not Smooth”
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Conversational Voice
 Conveys
 Develops
attitude
empathy
 Conveys
 Develops
education
friendship
 Conveys society  Develops
informality
 Conveys
background
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"Vwood you like?" Toby's grandmother said as she offered him a
pastry. Grandma Maia was raised in Estonia and didn't come to the
United States until she was in her 40s. Toby loved to hear how she
talked, especially when she told stories from the Old Country. He
helped himself to a pastry—his favorite, an open-faced roll with
cream cheese, butter, and a little sugar melted together.
"Have anuzzer!" his grandma coaxed. "Vee have zo many, zey vill
never get eaten ozzervise."
Toby grinned sheepishly and helped himself to another pastry.
"Thanks, Vanaema," he said, calling her by the Estonian word for
Grandma, as he always did. "But that's all I should eat. Mom will get
mad if I spoil my appetite for dinner."
"Pah!" Vanaema waved away his comment as if it were a fly. "You
are a g-r-r-owing boy," she said, rolling her "r."
"Yes, but if you keep feeding me like this, I'll 'grow' fat!" Toby
joked, triggering a hearty chuckle from his grandma.

What is the most likely reason the author has the grandmother
roll her "r" when she says, "You are a g-r-r-owing boy"?
to convey to readers her Estonian accent
to illustrate that she has trouble speaking to children
to make her grandson laugh with Estonian humor
to show the importance of the word "growing"
answer
O The author shows how the grandmother rolls
her "r's" so that readers can "hear" how she
speaks differently from Toby. This kind of
reading selection is best read aloud, so the
reader can really hear the character's
accent.
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"Vwood you like?" Toby's grandmother said as she offered him a
pastry. Grandma Maia was raised in Estonia and didn't come to the
United States until she was in her 40s. Toby loved to hear how she
talked, especially when she told stories from the Old Country. He
helped himself to a pastry—his favorite, an open-faced roll with
cream cheese, butter, and a little sugar melted together.
"Have anuzzer!" his grandma coaxed. "Vee have zo many, zey
vill never get eaten ozzervise."
Toby grinned sheepishly and helped himself to another pastry.
"Thanks, Vanaema," he said, calling her by the Estonian word for
Grandma, as he always did. "But that's all I should eat. Mom will get
mad if I spoil my appetite for dinner."
"Pah!" Vanaema waved away his comment as if it were a fly. "You
are a g-r-r-owing boy," she said, rolling her "r."
"Yes, but if you keep feeding me like this, I'll 'grow' fat!" Toby
joked, triggering a hearty chuckle from his grandma.
In this selection, the author spells certain words differently, such as
"vwood" for "would" and "anuzzer" for "another." What is the most
likely reason the author does this?
to demonstrate that the grandmother is unable to spell some words very
well
to suggest that the conversation is taking place in a foreign country
to show how the grandmother's background affects her spoken English
to add emphasis to her request that the boy take more pastries
answer
O The passage tells you that the grandmother
was raised in Estonia. The author has her
say certain words differently to show that
someone whose first language is Estonian
would speak English in a distinct way. If you
say "vwood" out loud, you can hear how it
sounds similar to "would," but a bit different.
The Visit
by T. Herlinger
Maybelle greeted us at the door in a summery white dress. She stood a little shorter
than me, but her posture was ramrod straight, making her seem taller. A delighted smile
spread across her face at the sight of us, her northern cousins.
"Welcome to mah home!" she gushed as she ushered me and my sister, Beth, into the
hall. "Y'all come to the pahluh and make yo-sevs cumftable. Oh, ahm so glad you've
come!"
"Psst, Annie, where do we sit?" Beth whispered anxiously as we entered the parlor.
There were two long couches and three overstuffed chairs.
"Anywhere!" I whispered back. "It'll be fine." We'd been so nervous to meet our
southern cousin, we chattered about it the whole way from New York on the train.
"Well!" Maybelle said when we'd settled in on one of the couches. "Whut do you think
of Shah-lotte?" she drawled. It took me a full moment to realize she had said,
"Charlotte."
"It's very pretty, what we could see of it," I answered politely. Beth was fidgeting
beside me.
"My stahs, but isn't it?" she agreed.
My stars, I thought to myself. What a neat expression, though I doubt that many stars
are visible in the middle of a bustling city.
"I can't wait for you to meet my bruthah, Chestah. He's jess down the road a piece—
be along any minute. You gals jess set a spell and cool down from yo long juhney. I'll go fix
us some refreshment." She got up to leave but stopped at the door, turned around, and
smiled at us with such warmth. She seemed to radiate kindness. "It was so good of you to
make the trip. I jess know we're gonna be great frenz."
My muscles began to relax then, and I sank back into the couch cushions. Even my
high-strung little sister seemed to calm down, and I started thinking, We might just like it
here.
Why does the author write "bruthah" instead of "brother" and "stahs" instead of "stars"?
• to show that the story takes place in a foreign country
• to show how people speak differently in the South
• to show that Maybelle is teasing her cousins
• to show that Maybelle has trouble talking clearly
answer
O If you read this selection aloud, you can hear
how Maybelle's speech differs from that of
her "northern cousins." For example, her "r's"
are soft instead of hard—she says "stahs"
instead of "stars." This is meant to show how
people in the southern United States speak
with a particular accent. Those in other
parts of the country speak differently, too,
with their own unique expressions.
The Visit
by T. Herlinger
Maybelle greeted us at the door in a summery white dress. She stood a little shorter
than me, but her posture was ramrod straight, making her seem taller. A delighted
smile spread across her face at the sight of us, her northern cousins.
"Welcome to mah home!" she gushed as she ushered me and my sister, Beth, into
the hall. "Y'all come to the pahluh and make yo-sevs cumftable. Oh, ahm so glad
you've come!"
"Psst, Annie, where do we sit?" Beth whispered anxiously as we entered the parlor.
There were two long couches and three overstuffed chairs.
"Anywhere!" I whispered back. "It'll be fine." We'd been so nervous to meet our
southern cousin, we chattered about it the whole way from New York on the train.
"Well!" Maybelle said when we'd settled in on one of the couches. "Whut do you
think of Shah-lotte?" she drawled. It took me a full moment to realize she had said,
"Charlotte."
"It's very pretty, what we could see of it," I answered politely. Beth was fidgeting
beside me.
"My stahs, but isn't it?" she agreed.
My stars, I thought to myself. What a neat expression, though I doubt that many
stars are visible in the middle of a bustling city.
"I can't wait for you to meet my bruthah, Chestah. He's jess down the road a
piece—be along any minute. You gals jess set a spell and cool down from yo long
juhney. I'll go fix us some refreshment." She got up to leave but stopped at the door,
turned around, and smiled at us with such warmth. She seemed to radiate kindness.
"It was so good of you to make the trip. I jess know we're gonna be great frenz."
My muscles began to relax then, and I sank back into the couch cushions. Even
my high-strung little sister seemed to calm down, and I started thinking, We might just
like it here.
The girls' cousin Maybelle speaks in a dialect (a certain way of speaking or writing) of
the southern United States. Which of the following expressions is most likely an
example of the southern dialect?
o down the road a piece
o she got up to leave
o so good of you
o we might just like it
answer
O Look for an answer choice that expresses an
idea differently than you normally would. If
you are not from the South, you might say,
"He's not far away" or "He's right nearby"
rather than "He's down the road a piece."
The author uses this expression so the
reader can hear Maybelle's southern dialect.
Accents and dialects can make the writing
more colorful and interesting.
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The
story’s
/ LESSON / MESSAGE
MORAL
Consider
the plot, characters,
and setting to infer the theme.
How
is theme different from topic?
COMMON THEMES
Pride can destroy a person.
Crime doesn’t pay.
Don’t judge people until you have walked in their shoes.
People are as happy as they make up their minds to be.
It is better to tell the truth than to lie.
Going through hard times can make a person stronger.
Treat others the way you want to be treated.
Fight for what you believe it.
Hard work pays off.
the relationship of the narrator
to the story (viewpoint)
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First Person Point of View
 When
a character
in the story tells the
story (using I, me,
my, we, etc.)
 “Oh, sometimes
I
get a good feeling,
yeah I get a feeling
that I never never
never never had
before, no no”
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Third Person Point of View
 When
someone not in
the story tells the
story (like an invisible
observer)
 Example: “Jack
and Jill
went up the hill to
fetch a pail of water.
Jack fell down and
broke his crown, and
Jill came tumbling
after.”
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Setting
 time
 place
 physical
conditions/weather
 social
conditions
 Think
about the
setting of each story,
including the
 historical
background
 cultural background

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