Option B

Report
Option B – Muscles Movement
and Fitness
B1 - Muscles and movement
B.1.1 State the roles of bones, ligaments, muscles, tendons and nerves in human
movement.
Bones provide the structure onto which soft
Ligaments
bones
together for internal
tissue
is built, theyhold
provide
protection
organs,
as well
asmuscles
provide to
a system
of levers that
Nerves
signal
contract.
Muscles
do the work….They pull against bones
Tendons
join muscles
allow for movement
by waytoofbones.
muscular
tocontraction.
provide movement.
httphttp://www.ehrenchiropractic.com/nervous_sys.jpg://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/images/ency/fullsize/8956.jpg
http://www.aclsolutions.com/images/Seif_knee%20anatomy02.jpg
http://www.human-body-facts.com/images/human-body-muscle-diagram.jpg
http://jagpower.blogspot.com/2011/10/bones-provide-structure-onto-which-soft.html
B.1.2 Label a diagram of the human elbow joint, including cartilage, synovial fluid,
joint capsule, named bones and antagonistic muscles (biceps and triceps).
Outline the functions of the structures in the human elbow joint named.
Bending the elbow
diagram
- put-the
Straightening
the elbow
diagram
put the
numbers in the right places!
Ulna
1. Radius
Radius biceps brachii muscle
2. Relaxed
3. Contracted
Humerus biceps brachii muscle
Relaxed triceps
muscle
4. Contracted
triceps
muscle
Humerus
5. Tendon
6. Ulna
1
2
3
4
5
6
http://campaigns2.axappphealthcare.co.uk/medical-encyclopaedia/bending-the-elbow
Match the description on the right with
the part on the left :
• Holds the bones
together.
• Provides a very
smooth surface
to reduce
friction.
• Acts as a
lubricant.
• Secretes and
holds in
synovial fluid
B.1.4 Compare the movements of the hip joint and the knee joint.
1
2
3
Click the patella for the types of
movement available in the knee.
Click the circles for the 3 types of
movement available in a hip:
1. Flexion/extension/hyperextension
2. Adduction/abduction
3. Circumduction
B.1.5 Describe the structure of striated muscle fibres,
including the myofibrils with light and dark bands,
mitochondria, the sarcoplasmic reticulum, nuclei and the
sarcolemma.
B.1.6 Draw and label a diagram to show the structure of a
sarcomere, including Z lines, actin filaments, myosin
filaments with heads, and the resultant light and dark
bands.
B.1.7 Explain how skeletal muscle contracts, including the release of calcium ions from the
sarcoplasmic reticulum, the formation of cross-bridges, the sliding of actin and myosin
filaments, and the use of ATP to break cross-bridges and re-set myosin heads.
Click on the image to go
to a great animation
that guides you through
how a muscle contracts
and has great questions
to help you see how
much you’ve learned.
(alternatively click the
hyperlink below…)
http://www.brookscole.com/chemistry_d/templates/student_resources/shared_resources/
animations/muscles/muscles.html
http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072495855/student_view0/chapter10/animation__action_potentials_and_muscle_contraction.html
http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/matthews/myosin.html
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CepeYFvqmk4
Some other animations you might try….
B.1.8 Analyse electron micrographs to find the state of
contraction of muscle fibres.
If electron micrographs of a relaxed and contracted myofibril are
compared it can be seen that:
1. Each sarcomere gets shorter (Z-Z) when the muscle contracts, so
the whole muscle gets shorter.
2. But the dark band, which represents the thick filament, does not
change in length.
This shows that the filaments don’t contract themselves, but instead
they slide past each other.
http://click4biology.info/c4b/11/hum11.2.htm#8
B2 - Training and the
Pulmonary system
B.2.1 Define total lung capacity, vital capacity,
tidal volume and ventilation rate.
Total lung capacity : volume of air in the lungs after a
maximum inhalation.
Vital capacity : maximum volume of air that can
be exhaled after a maximum
inhalation.
Tidal volume : volume of air taken in or out
with each inhalation or
exhalation.
Ventilation rate : number of inhalations or
exhalations per minute (this term
is used, not breathing rate).
B.2.2 Explain the need for increases in tidal volume
and ventilation rate during exercise.
http://www.livestrong.com/article/288393increase-in-tidal-volume-during-exercise/
Read the article then complete the sentences:
When you exercise you need to breath deeper
because…..
When you exercise you need to breath more often
because…..
The ventilation and depth are controlled by
negative feedback.
What is the stimulus?
Where is the stimulus detected?
A feed back loop to describe control of
breathing.
Exercise causes CO2
production
Normal blood pH
Blood pH falls
Blood pH rise detected
in the Hypothalamus
Signal sent to lungs
and thorax to increase
depth and frequency
of breathing
B.2.3 Outline the effects of training on the pulmonary
system, including changes in ventilation rate at rest,
maximum ventilation rate and vital capacity.
http://www.normalbreathing.com/c-effects-ofexercise-on-the-respiratory-system.php Read
the article and try to make a summary table in
words rather than numbers…….:
B3 – Training and the
Cardiovascular system
B.3.1 Define heart rate, stroke volume, cardiac output
and venous return.
Learn these definitions
Stroke volume : volume of blood pumped out
with each contraction of the
heart.
Cardiac output : volume of blood pumped out by
the heart per minute.
Venous return : volume of blood returning to
the heart via the veins per
minute.
B.3.2 Explain the changes in cardiac output and venous return
during exercise.
Why does the heart rate need to speed up when you exercise?
How is this speed up controlled?
What effect will speeding up the heart have on how much blood is pumped out per
minute?
What effect will pumping more blood out of the heart per minute have on the
amount of blood returning (venous return)?
Detection of lowered blood pH causes impulses to be sent by the brain to the pacemaker,
increasing cardiac output. Contraction of muscles used during exercise squeezes blood in
adjacent veins, increasing venous return. Venous return (VR) is the flow of blood back to
the heart. Under steady-state conditions, venous return must equal cardiac output (CO)
when averaged over time because the cardiovascular system is essentially a closed loop.
Otherwise, blood would accumulate in either the systemic or pulmonary circulations.
http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_the_effect_of_exercise_on_venous_return#ixzz1niqa1
II1
B.3.3 Compare the distribution of blood flow at rest and
during exercise.
• Blood flow to the brain is unchanged during exercise.
Blood flow to the heart wall, skeletal muscles and skin
is increased, but blood flow to the kidneys, stomach,
intestines and other abdominal organs is reduced.
http://www.teachpe.com/anatomy/blood_flow.php
But why?
B.3.4 Explain the effects of training on heart rate and
stroke volume, both at rest and during exercise.
Start here ----->
http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/pe/exer
cise/2_exercise_effectsoftraining_rev1.shtml now
explain “why?”
Now test yourself by taking the quiz at the end…
http://www.bbc.co.uk/apps/ifl/schools/gcsebitesize
/pe/quizengine?quiz=2_exercise_effectsoftraining_t
est&templateStyle=pe
B.3.5 Evaluate the risks and benefits of using EPO
(erythropoietin) and blood transfusions to improve
performance in sports
It is all about oxygen supply to the muscles! The more oxygen you can supply the longer
before muscles get tired. If you have maxed out you vital capacity and maxed out you heart
efficiency the next thing you can do is increase the amount of oxygen the blood can
carry…… one way to do this is to increase the number of red blood cells – and there are 3
ways of doing this;
1. Train at high altitude - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Altitude_training
2. Inject EPO - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erythropoietin
3. Use a blood transfusion (also called blood doping)http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blood_doping
Using EPO (erythropoietin) or blood transfusions as a performance
enhancer
Risks
Benefits
↑chance of thrombosis
More red blood cells means more
oxygen carried and better
performance
↑ chance of Heart attack
↑ chance of Stroke
B4 – Exercise and
respiration
B.4.1 Define VO2 and VO2 max.
VO2 max is the maximum capacity of an individual's body to transport and use
oxygen during exercise, which reflects the physical fitness of the individual.
The name is derived from V - volume, O2 - oxygen, max - maximum.
This instrument measures the
amount of oxygen in the air
breathed in and compares it with
the amount in the air breathed
out as the test subject carries out
increasing levels of exercise.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ergospirometry_laboratory.jpg
B.4.2 Outline the roles of glycogen and
myoglobin in muscle fibres.
Glycogen is an glucose storage molecule in
muscles.
Myoglobin is an oxygen storage molecule in
muscles(Like heamoglobin but it remains in the
muscle.)
http://wikis.lib.ncsu.edu/images/1/19/Hemogl
obin.jpg
B.4.3 Outline the method of ATP production used by
muscle fibres during exercise of varying intensity and
duration.
Creatine phosphate can be used to regenerate ATP for 8–10
seconds of intense exercise.
Beyond 10 seconds, ATP is produced entirely by cell
respiration.
As the intensity of exercise decreases and the duration
increases, the percentage of anaerobic cell respiration
decreases and aerobic cell respiration increases.
• Look at the first 1min30secs of this you tube clip:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BR3dDO1Sz0E
Then look at the side effects in th esecond half of this
clip.(Less exciting clip but informative):
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OzGJnbBay90&feature=related
B.4.4 Evaluate the effectiveness of dietary
supplements containing creatine phosphate in
enhancing performance.
Artificial supplementation of the diet with creatine
phosphate increases the amount of the molecule needed
to create more ATP quickly and anaerobically.
Creatine phosphate is normally readily available in meats
and fish. So supplementation may be effective in
vegetarians.
It is only performance enhancing in sprint sports such as
weight lifting and running swimming.
Training has no impact on Creatine phosphate levels.
Too high creatine phosphate may lead to kidney
disease/damage in about 0.1% of people taking
supplements.
B.4.5 Outline the relationship between the intensity of
exercise, VO2 and the proportions of carbohydrate and fat
used in respiration.
Intensity and Energy Source
The following table, adapted from O'Neil (2001) [1], shows
the relationship between exercise intensity (% of your
Maximum Heart Rate) and the energy source (carbohydrate
and fat).
Intensity
% MHR
65 to 70
70 to 75
75 to 80
80 to 85
85 to 90
90 to 95
100
%
Carbohydrate
40
50
65
80
90
95
100
%
Fat
60
50
35
20
10
5
0
Energy is primarily supplied from two sources:
•Carbohydrates - in the form of glycogen
stored in the muscles
• Fat - stored around the body
During exercise, we use a combination of
these energy sources. At a high intensity the
main source of energy is carbohydrate and at
a low intensity fat is the predominate source.
As there is a limit to the amount of
carbohydrate that can be stored in the
muscles, high intensity work can only be
sustained for short periods. We have large
stores of fat so low intensity work can be
maintained for long periods.
Referenced Material
O'NEIL, T. et al. (2001) Indoor Rowing Training Guide. Concept 2 Ltd, p. 27
•MACKENZIE, B. (2001) Exercise Intensity and Energy Source [WWW] Available from:
http://www.brianmac.co.uk/esource.htm [Accessed 13/3/2012]
B.4.6 State that lactate produced by anaerobic cell
respiration is passed to the liver and creates an oxygen debt.
Often during strenuous exercise, there is not enough
oxygen for complete aerobic respiration and anaerobic
respiration starts. This produces lactate and carbon
dioxide, which causes the further dilation of the
arterioles supplying the muscles and so the blood flow
to them.
Lactate is dangerous because it reduces the pH in cells
and decreases the efficiency of the enzymes working
inside them. It also causes fatigue and pain (stitch), so
it is taken to the liver and converted back to glucose
because it is too rich a source of energy to be excreted.
B.4.7 Outline how oxygen debt is repaid.
The oxygen debt
• Whenever lactate is produced by anaerobic respiration, an oxygen
debt is being built up. This debt is paid back at the end of the exercise
by breathing more deeply than you would normally need to at rest.
• This oxygen is used to convert the lactate to glucose, the
haemoglobin to oxyhaemoglobin, oxygenate the myoglobin and
supply the higher metabolic rate caused by many organs working
harder than usual.
• For lengthier exercise, oxygen supply must equal oxygen demand and
so an athlete will be more successful the more the muscles are
supplied with oxygen.
• To increase fitness, you need to train at about 70% of your hearts
maximum heart rate for twenty minutes, three times a week. A more
intense approach would get quicker results but four or five times a
week is the maximum recommended frequency.
B5 – Fitness and training
B.5.1 Define fitness.
• Fitness is the physical condition of the body
that allows it to perform exercise of a
particular type. - A.Allott – IB Study Guides Biology.
However ‘Fitness’ is specific to the type of activity – a
swimmer may be very fit to swim but can’t run well as
different muscle groups may have been developed and
creatine and glycogen storages used.
B.5.2 Discuss speed and stamina as
measures of fitness.
• Speed is the rate at which a movement is
performed. Speed depends mostly on fast
muscle fibres – this is a useful measure in
sports such as sprinting, javelin.
• Stamina is the ability to keep on exercising for
a long time. It would be measured by seeing
how long the athlete can continue for – this is
a useful measure in X-country, rowing
Which measure should be used will depend on
the sport.
B.5.3 Distinguish between fast and slow
muscle fibres.
There are two broad types of voluntary muscle fibers: slow twitch
and fast twitch. Slow twitch fibers contract for long periods of time
but with little force while fast twitch fibers contract quickly and
powerfully but fatigue very rapidly.
Fast Twitch
Slow twitch
Blood supply
Moderate with some capillaries
Excellent with lots of capillaries
Myoglobin
Little present
Large stores
Mitochondria
Few present
Many present
Cell respiration
Many glycolysis enzymes to
allow lots of anaerobic
respiration.
Many oxidative enzymes to allow lots
of aerobic respiration
Stamina
Low
High
Strength
High
Moderate
Presence
encouraged
by…
High intensity exercise
Moderate intensity exercise
A.Allott – IB study guide - Biology – Oxford University Press 2007
B.5.5 Discuss the ethics of using
performance-enhancing substances,
including anabolic steroids.
• http://debatepedia.idebate.org/en/index.php
/Debate:_Legalization_of_performanceenhancing_drugs_in_pro_sports
B6 - Injuries
B.6.1 Discuss the need for warm-up routines.
• Here is a PE teachers view:
http://www.brianmac.co.uk/warmup.htm
• However all evidence for the need to warm up
is purely anecdotal and has not been
scientifically demonstrated.
B.6.2 Describe injuries to muscles and joints, including
sprains, torn muscles, torn ligaments, dislocation of joints
and intervertebral disc damage.
http://www.doctortip
ster.com/wpcontent/uploads/201
1/03/herniated_disc.j
pg
http://imaging.ubmmedica.com/sh
ared/zone5/0811JMMCMMF1.jpg
http://www.healthhype.com/wp
-content/uploads/ElbowDislocation.jpg
http://www.ankleandfoot
northwest.com/images/A
nkle%20sprain.jpg
http://www.boneclini
c.com.sg/wpcontent/uploads/2011
/06/Ankle-Sprain.jpg

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