Ch 16 - Edmond Public Schools

Non Renewable Energy
by: Sean Nobles and Lexus Reed
advantages of conventional oil: low cost, high
net energy yield, low land use, and ample supply
for 42-93 years
 Disadvantages of conventional oil: create air
pollition when burned, artifically low prices
decrease the drive to search for alternatives.
 Advantages
of heavy oils: moderate cost,
easily transported, efficient distribution, and
technology is well developed
 Disadvantages of heavy oils: severe land
disruption, oil shale is expensive, create air
pollution when burned
 Advantages
of natural gas: ample supplies,
high net energy yield, less air pollution then
other fossil fuels, and low land use.
 Disadvantages of natural gas: nonrenewable
resource, release CO2 when burned, and it
requires pipelines.
Advantages to coal: ample supplies, high net
energy yield, low cost
 Disadvantages to coal: high CO2 emissions when
burned, high land use, severe threat to human
 The costs are high to convert cal to gaseous and
liquid fuels, and burning them adds more carbon
dioxide to the troposphere than burning coal.
 Advantages
of convention nuclear fission:
large fuel supply, low environmental impact (
without accidents) and moderate land use.
 Disadvantages of conventional nuclear fission:
high environmental impact( major accidents),
catastrophic accidents can happen
 Due
to very high costs and bad safety
experiences with several nuclear breeder
reactors, this technology as been abandoned.
 With nuclear fusion, there would be no risk
of meltdown or release of large amounts of
radioactive materials from a terrorist attack,
but none of the approaches tested so far has
produced more energy than it uses.
Coal - Solid, combustible mixture of organic
compounds with 30[[endash]]98% carbon by
weight, mixed with various amounts of water
and small amounts of sulfur and nitrogen
compounds. It forms in several stages as the
remains of plants are subjected to heat and
pressure over millions of years
 Crude oil - Gooey liquid consisting mostly of
hydrocarbon compounds and small amounts of
compounds containing oxygen, sulfur, and
nitrogen. Extracted from underground
accumulations, it is sent to oil refineries, where
it is converted to heating oil, diesel fuel,
gasoline, tar, and other materials.
 Natural
gas - Underground deposits of gases
consisting of 50[[endash]]90% by weight
methane gas (CH4) and small amounts of
heavier gaseous hydrocarbon compounds
such as propane (C3H8) and butane (C4H10).
 Net energy-Total amount of useful energy
available from an energy resource or energy
system over its lifetime, minus the amount
of energy used (the first energy law),
automatically wasted (the second energy
law), and unnecessarily wasted in finding,
processing, concentrating, and transporting
it to users.
 Nuclear
energy-Energy released when
atomic nuclei undergo a nuclear reaction
such as the spontaneous emission of
radioactivity, nuclear fission, or nuclear
 Petrochemicals-Chemicals obtained by
refining (distilling) crude oil. They are used
as raw materials in manufacturing most
industrial chemicals, fertilizers, pesticides,
plastics, synthetic fibers, paints, medicines,
and many other products.
 Coal
gasification-Conversion of solid coal to
synthetic natural gas (SNG).
 Coal liquefaction-Conversion of solid coal to
a liquid hydrocarbon fuel such as synthetic
gasoline or methanol.
 Nuclear fission-Nuclear change in which the
nuclei of certain isotopes with large mass
numbers (such as uranium-235 and
plutonium-239) are split apart into lighter
nuclei when struck by a neutron. This
process releases more neutrons and a large
amount of energy.
 Nuclear
fusion-Nuclear change in which two
nuclei of isotopes of elements with a low
mass number (such as hydrogen-2 and
hydrogen-3) are forced together at
extremely high temperatures until they fuse
to form a heavier nucleus (such as helium-4).
This process releases a large amount of

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