Non Renewable Energy by: Sean Nobles and Lexus Reed advantages of conventional oil: low cost, high net energy yield, low land use, and ample supply for 42-93 years Disadvantages of conventional oil: create air pollition when burned, artifically low prices decrease the drive to search for alternatives. Advantages of heavy oils: moderate cost, easily transported, efficient distribution, and technology is well developed Disadvantages of heavy oils: severe land disruption, oil shale is expensive, create air pollution when burned Advantages of natural gas: ample supplies, high net energy yield, less air pollution then other fossil fuels, and low land use. Disadvantages of natural gas: nonrenewable resource, release CO2 when burned, and it requires pipelines. Advantages to coal: ample supplies, high net energy yield, low cost Disadvantages to coal: high CO2 emissions when burned, high land use, severe threat to human health. The costs are high to convert cal to gaseous and liquid fuels, and burning them adds more carbon dioxide to the troposphere than burning coal. Advantages of convention nuclear fission: large fuel supply, low environmental impact ( without accidents) and moderate land use. Disadvantages of conventional nuclear fission: high environmental impact( major accidents), catastrophic accidents can happen Due to very high costs and bad safety experiences with several nuclear breeder reactors, this technology as been abandoned. With nuclear fusion, there would be no risk of meltdown or release of large amounts of radioactive materials from a terrorist attack, but none of the approaches tested so far has produced more energy than it uses. Coal - Solid, combustible mixture of organic compounds with 30[[endash]]98% carbon by weight, mixed with various amounts of water and small amounts of sulfur and nitrogen compounds. It forms in several stages as the remains of plants are subjected to heat and pressure over millions of years Crude oil - Gooey liquid consisting mostly of hydrocarbon compounds and small amounts of compounds containing oxygen, sulfur, and nitrogen. Extracted from underground accumulations, it is sent to oil refineries, where it is converted to heating oil, diesel fuel, gasoline, tar, and other materials. Natural gas - Underground deposits of gases consisting of 50[[endash]]90% by weight methane gas (CH4) and small amounts of heavier gaseous hydrocarbon compounds such as propane (C3H8) and butane (C4H10). Net energy-Total amount of useful energy available from an energy resource or energy system over its lifetime, minus the amount of energy used (the first energy law), automatically wasted (the second energy law), and unnecessarily wasted in finding, processing, concentrating, and transporting it to users. Nuclear energy-Energy released when atomic nuclei undergo a nuclear reaction such as the spontaneous emission of radioactivity, nuclear fission, or nuclear fusion. Petrochemicals-Chemicals obtained by refining (distilling) crude oil. They are used as raw materials in manufacturing most industrial chemicals, fertilizers, pesticides, plastics, synthetic fibers, paints, medicines, and many other products. Coal gasification-Conversion of solid coal to synthetic natural gas (SNG). Coal liquefaction-Conversion of solid coal to a liquid hydrocarbon fuel such as synthetic gasoline or methanol. Nuclear fission-Nuclear change in which the nuclei of certain isotopes with large mass numbers (such as uranium-235 and plutonium-239) are split apart into lighter nuclei when struck by a neutron. This process releases more neutrons and a large amount of energy. Nuclear fusion-Nuclear change in which two nuclei of isotopes of elements with a low mass number (such as hydrogen-2 and hydrogen-3) are forced together at extremely high temperatures until they fuse to form a heavier nucleus (such as helium-4). This process releases a large amount of energy.