Chapter 10 Notes Sections 1-3

Report

Objectives
 Identify the causes of WWI
 Describe the course and character of the war
 Explain why the US entered the conflict on the
side of the Allies

Nationalism and Imperialism
 Europe-belief that nations should have one ethnic
group
▪ France-wanted to regain Alsace-Lorraine from Germany
▪ Serbia wanted area of Austria-Hungary where Serbs
lived
▪ Economic goals

Militarism
 Glorification of the military
 Arms race-Germany building HUGE army and
weapons. Britain-largest navy

Alliances
 Triple Alliance: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy
 Triple Entente: France, Russia, Great Britain

Assassination
 June 14th 1914-Archduke Francis Ferdinand
traveling with wife to Sarajevo (province of
Bosnia)
 Group of ethnic Serbs believed Bosnia belonged
to Serbia
 Shot dead with wife in car

Alliances cause chain reaction
 Germany assures Austria-Hungary of support
 Austria-Hungary sends ultimatum to Serbia
demanding investigation of assassination or war
▪ Serbia does not comply-Austria-Hungary declares war
Russia mobilizes for war
Germany declares war on Russia
France declares war on Germany
Germany declares war on neural Belgium (access
to France)
Great Britain declares war on Germany






Germany takes Belgium and moved into
France
Dug trenches and used machine guns
France and Britain counterattack
450 miles of trenches from Belgium to
Switzerland=Western Front
Extremely deadly war-poison gas
Stalemate-ineffective offensives and
effective defenses



“trench foot”, lice, constant fear
“no man’s land” between enemy trenches
Casualties- millions!




At first-American view was neutral or
isolationist
Immigrants conflicted in feeling of loyalty
German invasion of Belgium changed minds
3 groups:
 Isolationist
 Interventionist
 internationalist


Britain blockades Germany of essential goods
Germany responds by sinking ships with Uboats
 Sunk British passenger ship Lusitania
 Again-French passenger ship Sussex

1915-Wilson starts preparing for war
 National Defense Act
 Naval Construction Act


Wilson wins re-election
Jan. 1917 Zimmerman Note
 Germany sent to Mexico asking for alliance
 If U.S. declares war on Germany, Mexico declares
war on U.S.
 In return-Mexico would get Texas, New Mexico
and Arizona back

U.S. declares war April 16, 1917

Objectives:
 Analyze how the American government mobilized
the public to support the war effort
 Describe opposition to the war
 Outline significant social changes that occurred
during the war

Selective Service Act
 1917-authorized a draft for military service
 Gov. held “great national lottery”

Peace time to war time economy
 Gov. determined what crops were grown, what
products were produced, etc
 WIB-War Industry Board
▪ Bernard Baruch
▪ Regulated all industries engaged in war effort
 Conservation of food

Public opinion
 Committee on Public Information (CPI)-convince
public the war was just
▪ George Creel-director

Resistance to the Draft
 People refused to cooperate-put in jail
 Conscientious objectors-moral or religious beliefs
forbid them to fight in war

Women work for peace
 1st woman in the House voted against war
 Many feminists opposed

Espionage Act 1917
 Allowed postal authorities to ban treasonable
newspapers, magazines, or printed material, from
the mail

Sedition Act 1918
 Unlawful to use disloyal or profane language
about the government
 Upheld by Schneck v. United States

Prejudice Against German Americans
 Stopped teaching German in schools, playing
German music
 Asked German Americans to prove loyalty

Women
 Entered workforce when men left for war
 Helped them win the right to vote. Backed by
Pres. Wilson

African Americans
 Great Migration
▪ Left homes in the South and moved North

Mexican Americans
 Came to the US for work
 Lived in barrios

Objectives
 Understand how the United States military
contributed to the Allied victory in the war
 Describe the aims of the 14 Points
 Analyze the decisions made at the Paris Peace
Conference
 Explain why the United States Senate refused to
ratify the treaty ending WWI

Protect Shipping
 Convoys-groups of merchant ships sailing
together, protected by warships

Russia Struggling
 Revolution-new radical communist leader
Vladimir Lenin
 Drop out of war March 1918
 Germany launches all-out offensive on Western
Front

American troops arrive in France June 1917
 General John Pershing
 Ended German offensive

U.S. troops distinguish themselves
 Fought many battles with French-dislodged the
Germans
 1.3 million served, 50,000 dead, 230,000 wounded

War ends
 American troops give Allies the advantage
 End of 1918, Germany and Austria-Hungary had
enough….Surrendered Nov. 11, 1918 Compiegne,
France


Lenin exposed multiple land treaties Russia
had with other Allies
Wilson said war was about “peace and
freedom”
 Jan. 1918- 14 Points
▪ Promotes openness, independence, freedom
▪ Self-determination
▪ League of Nations

1919 Peace conference in Versailles, France
 Did not invite Republicans, made them angry!
 British and French Prime Ministers wanted
Germany to pay reparations and France wanted
land back
 Allies didn’t like all of the 14 points-Kept the
League of Nations


New map caused problems
Ottoman Empire broken up-ethnic groups
divided






German and Irish Americans didn’t like it
Irreconcilables
Reservationists
Wilson traveled across country promoting
Senate defeats treaty
Without full American support, League failed

similar documents