APUSH Ch. 7 Review

Report
APUSH
Ch. 7
Review
“Launching
a New
Nation”
Constitutional Govt. Takes Shape
• Defining a Presidency
– Washington won; John Adams came in
second and became the Vice-President
(this rule later over-turned by the 12th
Amendment)
– First cabinet included only Sec. of
Treasury Alexander Hamilton,
Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson,
and Secretary of War Henry Knox (and
Attorney General)
– Washington’s reputation for honesty
and his proposing of few laws and rare
use of veto calmed people’s fear of
too strong of a leader
The Federal
Judiciary
• Congress given power to
establish federal courts lower
than the Supreme Court
• Judiciary Act of 1789 set up a
federal district court in each
state
• Constitution protected against
ex post facto laws and bills of
attainder (that proclaim a
person’s guilt and punishing
them without a trial)
• It did not originally have a Bill
of Rights
• Chisholm v. Georgia – Supreme
Court ruled that non-residents
could sue a state in federal
court (over-ruled by the 11th
Amendment in 1798)
• Added to get New York
and Virginia to ratify
the Constitution
• James Madison played
a large role in the
drafting of them
1st – freedom of press, speech,
religion, assembly and petition
2nd – right to bear arms
3rd – no quartering of troops
4th – protection against illegal
searches and seizures
5th – no person required to testify
against themselves
6th – right to speedy, public trial
7th – trial by jury in civil cases
8th – no cruel and unusual punishment
9th – this list of rights does not imply
other rights are to be denied
10th – every other power not denied
by Constitution or given to the
national govt. are to be given to states
Hamilton’s
Financial Plan
(see other power-point)
1. Whiskey
Rebellion
• Cause – national debt from
Revolutionary War led to
Hamilton’s Financial Plan that
included an excise tax on whiskey,
which led western farmers to rebel
against tax collectors
• Solution – Washington sent
Hamilton and 13,000 troops to put
down the rebellion, and 150 were
arrested and the rebellion died
down quickly
• Effect – it limited public opposition
to federal policies, asserted federal
control, and proved the govt.
under the Constitution would be
significantly stronger than the one
under the Articles which didn’t
respond to Shay’s Rebellion
2. Relations with Spain (to 1794)
• Andre Fagot (fah-go) – Spanish
agent sent to bribe Americans
with land grants in what is now
the Southeast (Tennessee and
south) to secede from the Union
• Spain didn’t allow Americans to
trade in New Orleans until 1789
(and then only by paying a 15%
duty)
• Treaty of New York – separate
treaty in 1790 with Creeks in
Southeast to allow American
settlers to remain where they
were and keep Creek territory
independent (to undermine their
relations with Spain)
• Spain eventually got the Creeks
to renounce this treaty
• French Revolution in 1789 – split
US over whether we should
support the monarchy that
supported our war for
independence, or whether we
should support a new republic
with democratic ideals
• South more anti-British and proFrance due to British stance on
slavery and St. Domingue slave
uprising
• North more anti-French due to
Protestant religious upbringing
that made them appalled by the
violence of the revolution and due
to trade ties to the British
• France declared war on British and
Spanish in 1793 making the issue
more hotly debated
• Washington officially declared the
US neutral
2. Relations with
France and British
2. Relations with
France and British
(continued)
• Citizen Genet – sent by France
to US in 1793 to gain support
for French and to get
Americans conquer Spanish
territory and attack British
shipping (many American
privateer ships seized British
vessels and many American
mercenary soldiers were hired)
• British impressment (forced
enlistment of American sailors
on US ships into Britain’s Royal
Navy (partly due to privateers)
• British still maintained a fort
(Fort Miami) on American soil
(near current site of Toledo,
Ohio) and for supplying tribes
in Ohio Valley and inciting them
to resist white settlement there
3. Initiative #1 & #2
• (#1) Washington sent
General Anthony Wayne
to negotiate a treaty with
Shawnee and Ohio Valley
allies
• Instead the Battle of
Fallen Timbers took place
in 1794, which was won
by Wayne’s forces
• Treaty of Greenville –
(1795) signed after the
battle which opened Ohio
for white settlement
• (#2) Washington sent
Chief Justice John Jay to
negotiate with Great
Britain (result was Jay’s
Treaty – more on this with
Question #5 answer)
3. Initiative #3
• (#3) Washington sent
Thomas Pinckney to Spain to
negotiate a treaty
• Treaty of San Lorenzo (more
commonly called Pinckney’s
Treaty) won westerners the
right of unrestricted, dutyfree use of the Mississippi
River, and it set the southern
border of US at 31st parallel
• Also, Spain agreed to
dismantle forts north of the
line and to discourage Indian
attacks against American
settlers there
• The treaty was an
undisputed diplomatic
victory for Washington
4. Election of 1796
• Federalists attempted to
identify the DemocraticRepublicans with the
violence of the French
Revolution’s Reign of
Terror (as D-Rs were
supporters of the young
French Republic)
• D-Rs accused the Feds.
of favoring aristocracy,
and denounced the Feds.
over Jay's Treaty (too
favorable to Britain)
• (For more detail see “2
Party System” handout
and upcoming slide on
the results of the Election
of 1796)
TWO PARTY SYSTEM EMERGES
Democratic-Republicans
basic ideas come from
those of Secretary of
State Thomas Jefferson
Federalist basic ideas
come from those of
Secretary of Treasury
Alexander Hamilton
Washington’s
Farewell
Address
• It was written near the end of his
second term as President and
before his retirement
• He urges the people to place their
identity as Americans above their
identities as members of a state,
city, or region
• He warns against political parties
because of their tendency to
distract the government from their
duties, create unfounded jealousies
among groups and region
• He urges the US to avoid long-term
friendly relations or rivalries with
any nation, and argues that
alliances are likely to draw the US
into wars which have no justification
and no benefit to the country
5. Jay’s Treaty
• 1794 treaty between the US and Great
Britain that facilitated 10 years of
peaceful trade between them in the
midst of the French Revolutionary
Wars, which had begun in 1792
• It gained primary US goals:
– the withdrawal of the British Army
from forts in the NW Territory
– disputes over wartime debts and
the American-Canadian boundary
were to be sent to arbitration
• It didn’t resolve the issues related to
impressment
• Though it avoided war with the British
it did provoke the French against us
5. Election of 1796
DemocraticRepublican
Jefferson became VP
Federalist Adams
became Pres.
• 1st contested US pres. election,
so both parties campaigned
heavily for their candidate
• Adams a pro-British Federalist
won
• Only time a president and VP
were elected from opposing
parties (remedied by 12th
Amendment)
• Immigrant votes for DemocraticRepublicans in NY nearly swung
the election to Jefferson
• As more and more immigrants
were coming, this was a
disturbing trend for the
Federalists moving forward
5. XYZ Affair
• In 1798 President Adams sent a
peace commission to France,
but 3 unnamed French officials
(nicknamed X, Y, and Z)
demanded a bribe and an
apology to open discussions
• This insult helped lead to an
undeclared naval conflict in the
Caribbean Sea called the QuasiWar, which raged at sea from
1797 to 1800.
• The Federalist Party took
advantage of the national anger
to build an army and pass the
Alien and Sedition Acts to
damage the rival Democratic
Republican Party
The cartoon above depicts a fiveheaded monster, representing the
Directory that ruled France in 1797,
demanding payment of a bribe from
the three US representatives.
5. Effect of These
Events
• Jay’s Treaty avoided
war with the British
and provoked France
• Federalists won the
Election of 1796
putting our govt. on
the British, not
French side
• After XYZ Affair
France was seen as
the enemy (and in
fact was in the Quasi
War)
• All of this helped the
Federalists sweep to
victories in the midterm elections of
1798
6. Alien and
Sedition Acts
• The Naturalization Act –extended
the duration of residence
required for aliens to become US
citizens from 5 years to 14 years
(to reduce immigrant support of
Four bills passed by the Federalists
Democratic-Republicans)
and signed into law by Adams in
1798 during the Quasi-War, which • The Alien Act – authorized the
president to deport any resident
Federalists viewed as war measures
alien considered "dangerous to
the peace and safety of the US”
• The Alien Enemies Act –
authorized the president to
deport resident aliens if their
home countries were at war with
the US (to target French)
• The Sedition Act – made it a
crime to publish "false,
scandalous, and malicious
writing" against the government
or its officials (to target D-Rs
criticism of Adams)
6. Republican Arguments Against
• Virginia and Kentucky
Resolutions argued for strict
interpretation of the
Constitution and for states rights
• 10 years before, the AntiFederalists had warned that the
– interposition – US states
Constitution had made the
had to protect their rights
federal govt. too strong; now
against federal violation
with Alien and Sedition Acts and
– nullification – states can
the Federalists controlling all 3
refuse to obey federal laws
deemed unconstitutional
branches of govt. it seemed like
they were right
(They were secretly written by
• Alien and Sedition Acts took
VP Thomas Jefferson and by
away first amendment rights of
James Madison)
free speech
• Virginia and Kentucky
Resolutions argued the
following 2 points in
relation to the Alien and
Sedition Acts
7. Main Issues of Election of 1800
• Adams began peace negotiations with
France during the Quasi War
– against advice of many Federalists
who thought he should declare war
against France
– this lowered argument against D-Rs
and their general support of France
• Nation near civil war with south and west
approaching secession (due to anger over
the Alien and Sedition Acts)
• National debt of federalists seen as main
issue as danger of war with France faded
• All of these hurt Federalists
President John Adams
7. Election of 1800
Adams
68 Electoral
Votes
Jefferson
Burr
73 Electoral
Votes
73 Electoral
Votes
• Voter turnout jumped from 15% in
1796 to 40%
• Election resulted in tie between
Dem-Reps. Thomas Jefferson and
Aaron Burr when the 73 D-R
electors voted for both Jefferson
and Burr, (Burr was supposed to be
left off one D-R ballot to finish 2nd
for Vice President)
• That sent the election to the House
of Reps., where Burr sought
Federalist votes against Jefferson to
steal the election
• 35 ballots over 5 days finally ended
when Hamilton (Burr’s bitter NY
state rival) declared his support for
Jefferson giving the Presidency to
his rival Jefferson
• “Revolution of 1800” – refers to the
peaceful transition of power from
one political party to another for
the first time in our nation’s history
8. Economic Changes
late 1700s
• Boys did field work on family
farms and women did the
childrearing
• Industry took place within
households, usually to provide
extra income in winter
• Women often did this work
which was the making of
things like shoes and basic
clothing
• Began sometimes due to
boycotts of British goods
• Catered to urban consumers
and slave owners
9. Women
• Legal position of white women
hadn’t changed though it was
easier for some to gain a
divorce
• New Jersey repealed the right
of women to vote in 1797
• Fewer arranged marriages took
place (young men were
heading west for land leaving a
shortage of prospective
husbands)
• Fewer children than in
previous generations (due to
smaller farms and
urbanization)
• Republican motherhood –
women had the role of
educating children in the
values of liberty and
independence
9. Native
Americans
• During Washington’s Presidency
Congress attempted maintain good
relations by prohibiting trespassing
on Native Americans’ land, and by
regulating trade (Indian NonIntercourse Act of 1790)
• Native Americans became
demoralized after losses in battle
and due to disease
• Violence and heavy drinking
became more prominent in their
communities
• More land was taken from them
• Pressure to give up traditional ways
of life or adopt aspects of white
culture led to huge conflicts within
tribes
• In 1799 Seneca prophet Handsome
Lake (left) preached against
alcoholism, and for cultural unity
9. African Americans
• First fugitive slave law passed in 1793
• In 1796 all but 3 of 16 states permitted free
blacks to vote (would drop sharply in 1800s)
• Most states had outlawed the slave trade
• Cotton gin (invented by Eli Whitney in 1793)
helped entrench slavery
• As southern economy grew more tied to sale
of cotton, the acceptance of slavery
increased and the treatment of slaves
worsened
• Slave rebellions led to an increasing fear of
slaves and also worsened their treatment
– Saint Domingue (Haiti) in 1791
– Gabriel’s Rebellion by in Virginia in 1800

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