Kansas Journey’s chapter 2 Notes Timeline Highlights • Earliest evidence of humans about 7000 BCE • Climate change between 6500-3550 BCE • 1300-1500 permanent housing • 1541 Europeans appear The Earliest People • The Kansa believed the Great Spirit created humans. • Oral Tradition- Stories passed from generation to generation. • Artifacts- evidence of people. • Migration- movement of people and animals • Adaptation- How people and animals change to suit their environments. Migration • Big Game Hunters- the earliest people to live in Kansas followed the large Ice Age animals as the glaciers pushed south. Little is known about these people. They did domesticate (tame) dogs. Adaptation and technology • The change in climate forced the people and animals to change or become extinct. • People exchange ideas that advance their lives. Some early changes probably came from the east like pottery for food storage and bows and arrows for hunting. • They also began to grow their own food. Village Farmers • About 800 years ago evidence shows that people began to live in permanent villages because of the way the houses were built. They grew corn, beans, squash, pumpkins, and sunflowers. They made tools from stone, bone, shells, Historic Tribes • Tribes that lived in Kansas because we have written evidence of their existence. The earliest documents come from Coronado. Tribes on the Plains • First were Wichita, the Kansa, Osage, Pawnee, and Plains Apache. • Later were Comanche, Kiowa, Kiowa, Apache, Arapaho and the Cheyenne. Horses and Buffalo • Horses came from the Spanish in the southwest. • Allowed better mobility for the Indians. Wichita and Pawnee • Oral tradition tells that these tribes were related. • Homes – Wichita built beehive grass lodges as permanent homes. Pawnee built round homes covered with dirt. Both used the tipi when hunting buffalo. • Corn, squash, and pumpkins were grown and dried for food. Kansa and Osage • Oral tradition tells that these tribes might have once lived together. • Homes – Both lived in log houses or wood framed houses because they were originally from the south east part of the country. • Crops, clothing, and Tradition – Grew the same crops as the other Indians. The Osage didn’t use the tipi, but used structures left along the “Black Dog Trail.” Nomadic Tribes: Cheyenne, Arapaho, Kiowa, Kiowa- Apache, and Comanche • Nomadic- tribes that didn’t settle, but moved from place to place. Horses aided in their mobility. • Lived in Tipis. Easy to move • Wore animals skins • Would trade buffalo meats for other foods • Used skins to keep records Interaction and Trade • The horse brought more trade. • As populations grew, conflicts between the people grew.