The American Revolution Purpose: What: Rebellion By: Understanding how the Continental Army was able to win the war for independence from Great Britain. So: We understand how it affects our life. Essential Question: How was the Continental Army able to win the war for independence from Great Britain. A. In the Beginning. 1. 2. 3. 4. Americans are excited. Americans are not ready for war. British are ready for war. Americans should lose. A. . 1. 2. 3. 4. B. . . . . . 1. 2. 3. 4. . . . . American Weaknesses A. Few Soldiers Untrained Army and Militias Limited money and resources/supplies No Navy 1. 2. 3. 4. B. American Strengths 1. 2. 3. 4. Many Americans supported the revolutionary cause. Fighting on home ground: Fighting for a cause in which they believed George Washington A. . 1. 2. 3. 4. B. . . . . . 1. 2. 3. 4. . . . . A. Great Britain’s Strengths . 1. 2. 3. 4. B. More Money and resources than the colonies. Well-trained army largest navy in the world. More soldiers Great Britain’s Weaknesses. 1. 2. 3. Included some mercenaries, or hired soldiers, not dedicated to the British cause. Britain had to ship supplies across the Atlantic. Had to deal with hostile citizens What military advantages did the British have over the colonists? Well trained army, largest navy in the world What advantages did the colonists have over the British? Many Americans strongly supported the revolution, and they were fighting on home ground for a cause in which they believed. The American Revolution Objectives: 1. How did different groups contribute to the war effort? . A. 1. 2. . . African Americans and the War. B. . . . . . 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. . C. 1. 2. . D. 1. 2. 3. . . . . . Britain’s War Strategy A. 1. 2. William Howe ordered to capture New York City Washington leaves Boston to stop British in New York. African Americans and the War. B. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What did the Declaration mean for slaves. Free, equal? African Americans already were involved. Not allowed in Continental Army. Washington and Southerners did not want slaves running away to join the army. 1775 Lord Dunmore's Proclamation promised freedom to any slave who fought for the British. Continental Army began allowing free African Americans to enlist, and eventually some 5,000 joined Defeat in New York C. 1. 2. Americans suffer great lose in Battles of New York. Howe thinks he won and allows Washington to escape. Fading Hope. D. 1. 2. 3. Washington is run out of New York, New Jersey and into PA. Life was miserable for Continental Army and all seemed lost. Solders enlistment were up and the army was going home. Important Questions Why did the Continental Army decide to allow free African Americans to enlist? - In response to Lord Dunmore’s Proclamation, which offered freedom to any African American who fought for the British. A. . B. The Crisis. 1. 2. 3. C. . . . Victory at Trenton. 1. . 2. . 3. . 4. . A. Victorious British offer pardon for surrender. B. The Crisis. 1. 2. 3. C. Washington desperate to keep his army. Has Thomas Paine’s The Crisis read to army. He also plans a daring attack on Trenton to boost morale. Victory at Trenton. 1. Washington’s army crossed the icy Delaware River on Christmas night of 1776. 2. Arrive in Trenton the next morning to surprise the drunk Hessians. 3. They capture Trenton and 800 Hessian mercenaries . 4. Victory electrifies the Continental army who re-enlist. . A. . . . 1. 2. 3. . B. 1. 2. . C. 1. 2. . D. 1. 2. 3. . E. 1. 2. 3. . F. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Early Strategy Changes. 1. First strategy was to win one big battle. 2. Washington changes strategy. Avoid big battles. 3. He would be defensive and wear the British out. B. A New British Strategy. 1. British change their strategy. Divide the colonies in half between New York and New England 2. John Burgoyne’s plan for dividing New England. a. He was attack from Canada b. Howe would attack from the south c. Another army from the west. Problems with Burgoyne’s plan. C. The map route looked easy but was not. 1. a. Thick wilderness and lot of extra supplies slowed the army. General Howe did not go to Albany. He went to Philly 2. Turning Point D. Burgoyne makes it to Saratoga but it is meets the Continental Army. Burgoyne gets no help from other armies and is forced to surrender. Battle of Saratoga is first major victory. We get: 1. 2. 3. a. b. c. France and Spain enter the war on our side. Boosts morale Ends threat to New England Winter at Valley Forge. E. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Saratoga great victory but not the end. Cold winter of suffering Howe still in Philly and Washington roamed the country. No food for Washington because Continental Money was worthless. British paid in gold. Baron Fredrich Von Steuben a Prussian officer trains the Army. Marquis de Lafayette a French noblemen helps with his service and money. The American Revolution Objectives: 1. What were Washington’s strategies at Trenton and Princeton? . A. . 2. . Saving the South 1. B. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. . . . . . A Trap at Yorktown C. 1. 2. 3. 4. . . . . Cornwallis Surrenders D. 1. 2. 3. . . . The American Revolution Objectives: 1. Why was the Battle of Saratoga a turning point in the war? 1. What effects did the America victory at Saratoga have? - Improved colonial morale - Increased foreign support for Patriots - Ended threat in New England - 1st Major victory and turning point The American Revolution Objectives: 1. Describe how the war took place in the southern colonies? . A. . 2. . Saving the South 1. B. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. . . . . . A Trap at Yorktown C. 1. 2. 3. 4. . . . . Cornwallis Surrenders D. 1. 2. 3. . . . . A. 1. 2. . B. . . 1. 2. C. . . . 1. 2. . . . A. 1. 2. . B. . . 1. 2. C. . . . 1. 2. . .