Ch. 11

Report
Chapter 11
Groups and Social Media
CONSUMER
BEHAVIOR, 11e
Michael R. Solomon
11-1
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Chapter Objectives
When you finish this chapter, you should
understand why:
1. Others, especially those who possess
some kind of social power, often
influence us.
2. We seek out others who share our
interests in products or services.
3. We are motivated to buy or use products
in order to be consistent with what other
people do.
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11-2
Chapter Objectives (continued)
4. Certain people are especially likely to influence
others’ product choices.
5. The things that other consumers tell us about
products (good and bad) are often more
influential than the advertising we see.
6. Online technologies are accelerating the impact
of word-of-mouth communication.
7. Social media are changing the way companies
and consumers interact.
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Learning Objective 1
• Other people and groups, especially those
who possess some kind of social power,
often influence our decisions about what to
buy.
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11-4
Table 11.1: Influences of Reference
Groups
• Informational
• Utilitarian
• Value-expressive
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For Reflection
• For each type of reference group
influence, share an example of a time you
experienced that form of influence.
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11-6
Learning Objective 2
• We seek out others who share our
interests in products or services.
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11-7
When Reference Groups Are Important
• Social power: capacity to alter the actions of
others
Referent power
Information power
Legitimate power
Expert power
Reward power
Coercive power
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11-8
Brand Communities and Consumer Tribes
• A group of consumers who
share a set of social
relationships based upon usage
or interest in a product
• Consumer tribes share
emotions, moral beliefs, styles
of life, and affiliated product
• Brandfests celebrated by
community
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11-9
Membership versus
Aspirational Reference Groups
• Membership reference groups
• People the consumer actually knows
• Advertisers use “ordinary people”
• Aspirational reference groups
• People the consumer doesn’t know but
•
admire
Advertisers use celebrity spokespeople
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Factors Predicting
Reference Group Membership
Propinquity
Mere exposure
Group cohesiveness
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Positive versus
Negative Reference Groups
• Avoidance groups: motivation to distance
oneself from other people/groups
• Antibrand communities: coalesce around a
celebrity, store, or brand—but in this case
they’re united by their disdain for it
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11-12
Consumers Do It in Groups
• Deindividuation: individual identities become
submerged within a group
• Social loafing: people don’t devote as much to a
task when their contribution is part of a larger
group
• Risky shift: group members show a greater
willingness to consider riskier alternatives
following group discussion than if members
made their own decisions
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11-13
For Reflection
• High schools have all types of reference
groups, with members representing all
types of social power. Think back and try
to identify people who had each type of
social power.
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11-14
Learning Objective 3
• We are motivated to buy or use products
in order to be consistent with what other
people do.
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11-15
Factors Influencing Conformity
•
•
•
•
•
Cultural pressures
Fear of deviance
Commitment
Group characteristics
• unanimity
• size
• expertise
Susceptibility to interpersonal influence
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11-16
For Reflection
• How can marketers use the characteristics
that explain conformity to persuade
individuals to follow consumer trends?
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11-17
Learning Objective 4
• Certain people are especially likely to
influence others’ product choices.
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Characteristics of Opinion Leaders
• Experts
• Unbiased evaluation
• Socially active
• Similar to the consumer
• Among the first to buy
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11-19
The Market Maven
Market maven: actively
involved in transmitting
marketplace information of
all types
• Into shopping and aware of
what’s happening in the
marketplace
• Overall knowledge of how
and where to get products
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11-20
The Surrogate Consumer
• Surrogate consumer: a marketing intermediary
hired to provide input into purchase decisions.
• Interior decorators, stockbrokers, professional
shoppers, college consultants
• Consumer relinquishes control over decisionmaking functions
• Marketers should not overlook influence of
surrogates!
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11-21
How Do We Find Opinion Leaders?
• The self-designating method
• Simply ask individuals whether they consider
•
•
themselves to be opinion leaders
Easy to apply to large group of potential
opinion leaders
Inflation or unawareness of own
importance/influence
• Key informant method
• Key informants identify opinion leaders
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Sociometric Methods
• Sociometric methods: trace communication
patterns among group members
• Systematic map of group interactions
• Most precise method of identifying productinformation sources, but is very difficult and
expensive to implement
• Network analysis
• Referral behavior/network, tie strength
• Bridging function, strength of weak ties
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11-23
For Reflection
• Do you think the characteristics of online
opinion leaders differ from those who
serve in the role offline? Explain.
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11-24
Learning Objective 5
• The things other consumers tell us about
products (good and bad) often are more
influential than the advertising we see.
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11-25
Word-of-Mouth Communication
WOM is product information transmitted by
individuals to individuals
•
•
•
•
More reliable form of marketing
Social pressure to conform
Influences two-thirds of all sales
We rely upon WOM in later stages of product
adoption
• Powerful when we are unfamiliar with product
category
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11-26
BzzAgent
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For Reflection
• How effective do you think the work of a
Bzz Agent would be in influencing your
product decisions and opinions? Explain.
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11-28
Learning Objective 6
• Online technologies accelerate the impact
of word-of-mouth communication.
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11-29
Negative WOM and Power of Rumors
Injustice
Identity
Agency
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Figure 11.3
The Transmission of Misinformation
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For Reflection
• Which do you think is more powerful –
negative or positive WOM?
• Why?
• Does your answer change if you consider
only online WOM?
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Learning Objective 7
• Social media are changing the way
companies and consumers interact.
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Characteristics of Online Communities
•
•
•
•
Conversation
Presence
Collective interest
Democracy
•
•
•
•
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Behavioral standards
Participation
Crowd power
Network effect
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For Reflection
• How can marketers use the power of
online communities to positively influence
consumer behavior?
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Chapter Summary
• People with social power influence our
behavior as consumers.
• We are motivated to buy things that are
consistent with those in our reference
groups.
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Chapter Summary
• WOM communication about products,
especially from opinion leaders, may be
more influential than information from
marketers.
• Web 2.0 accelerates the speed of delivery
and the power of WOM communication.
Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
11-37

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