A3 Chapter 7 Life in the New Nation - sochausva

Chapter 7 Life in the New Nation
Life in the New Nation
Ch 7, Section 1 Cultural Social, and
Religious Life
• In the early 1800s, the Culture, religion, and
social practices of Americans adapted to meet
the challenges of a new and growing nation.
Chapter 7, Section 1
Cultural Advancement
American Scholars and Artists
American Scholars and Artists
• Mercy Otis Warren- She wrote a book titled
History of the American Revolution and
urged women to get involved with politics
and educate themselves in addition to their
jobs around the home.
“It may be a mistake, that
man, in a state of nature,
is more disposed to cruelty
than courtesy.”
American Scholars and Artists
• Benjamin Rush- He was a scientist, doctor
and revolutionary, and was one of the first
people to suggest that illnesses were physical
issues. At that time, it was common belief
that illness was caused by Satan.
American Scholars and Artists
• Benjamin Banneker- He was a self-educated
writer, inventor, mathematician, and
astronomer. He mapped out the new capital,
Washington, D.C. and published the first
almanac tracking the motions of the sun,
moon, and stars.
American Scholars and Artists
• Charles Willson Peale- He was an artist who
painted more than 1,000 portraits, a soldier
who fought in the Revolution, a
representative in the Pennsylvania legislature,
an inventor, and a scientist. He founded the
first museum that made art enjoyable for
everyone, not just the wealthy.
American Scholars and Artists
• Phillis Wheatley- She was a slave, whose
owners recognized her intelligence and
taught her to read and write. She went on to
write many popular poems, especially one
dedicated to George Washington.
Ch 7, Section 1 - Cultural Advancement
• Education By: Matt S.
• Americans saw children's education as a means of
developing a rich and uniquely american culture
• In 1783 webster wrote “The American Spelling Book”
Webster also called for establishment of standards
for a national language In response to that he then
compiled the first major dictionary of american
english, The American Dictionary of the English
• Many state constitutions required free public
education for all children but few state
governments actually provided free education
in the early years
• Academies and private high schools often
filled the gap
• All of this leads to the modern day public
Ch 7-1, Republican Virtues
Brantley Gilbert
• Americans hoped to develop unique character by promoting
certain values
• Virtues that Americans needed to govern themselves were
called “Republican Values”
• Included self-reliance, hard work, frugality, harmony, and
sacrifice for the good of the community
• Wanted women (teachers, mothers, etc.) to set the standard
in order to teach the men
• Schools and Universities began teaching Republican Values to
• Provided more opportunities for women to receive formal
• Public still believed that women only played a supporting role;
however, Americans began to consider the importance of
women in the new nation.
Ch 7, Section 1 - Social Changes
• Population Growth by: Mollie Nesaw
Population Growth
• In 1780 2.7 million people lived in the original
13 states.
• In 1830 12 million people lived in 24 states.
• The population doubled every 20 years.
Population Growth Continued
• 90% of the population growth came from the
amount of children born.
• The average American woman had 5 children.
• The median age in America was 17 and the
majority of the population was 16 and under.
Ch 7, Section 1 - Social Changes
• Mobility - Caitie Bernadowski
Chapter 7, Section 1- Social Changes: Mobility
The expanding
population led to
crowding, especially
along the Atlantic coast.
Americans solved this
problem by moving away
from crowded areas. The
U.S. was (and still is) a
mobile society, one in
which people move from
place to place.
New Mobility had Two Major Effects:
1. Americans had great
opportunities to improve
their lives. Many moved
west and started new
societies. Enslaved
Americans however, did
not benefit from the
mobile society.
2. People who moved often lived among
strangers. Thus they had to learn new skills
and make up new rules for getting along with
One social skill was the ability to judge
strangers. Many people were likely to
question another social position.
Questioning a position usually led to
Ch 7, Section 1 - Social Changes
• New Rules for Courtship and Marriage
• By: Sarah Tucker
New rules for
courtship and
Women had a choice in who they would be
married to, which was one of the only freedoms
that women had during this time period
They found guidance in books when looking for
characteristics for potential mates
One of the most famous books of the times was
the 1794 novel Charlotte Temple
• The novel Charlotte Temple told a story of a
military man that seemed to be respectable,
but ended up leaving his wife penniless and
• Women became increasingly cautious when it
came to marriage, and they saw marriage as a
matter of survival since women did not have a
lot of freedoms and depended on their
Ch 7, Section 1 - Religious Renewal
• The Second Great Awakening
• By: Chase Hamilton
The Second Great Awakening
• It took place in the early 1800’s
• It was a powerful religious movement.
• It began in the backcountry of Kentucky and
• It was an evangelical movement that
affected Protestant Christians.
• It was an revival( people who are brought
back to a religious lifestyle).
• Women took a slightly important role in this
and it increased their power but it did this
• The women got to choose their church
ministers and this offered them a chance to
connect with others.
• They might work together to help spread the
Christian religion.
Ch 7, Section 1 - Religious Renewal
• New Denominations
• Nick M.
• Cody Thomas
New Religious Denominations
• A denomination is a religious subgroup generally
• Baptists are a subgroup of Christianity and got their
name from how a member of their church joins it, by
being baptized.
• Baptists believe that people should be baptized when
the fully understand the religion so people are
generally baptized when older.
• By 1850 became 2nd largest denomination.
• Methodism grew out of the
beliefs of a British minister
John Wesley.
• Largest denomination by
• Focused on relationship with
God rather than the
confusing religious doctrines
that other religions focused
• Preachers were generally
common folk.
Ch 7, Section 1 - Religious Renewal
• African American Worship
• By Jeremy Debnam
African American Worship
Like white Americans, great numbers of African Americans
turned to evangelical religion.
As African Americans joined Christian churches, black and
white traditions blended together.
For instance, both black and white Christians sang
spirituals, but African American singers, however, focused on
themes that had a double meaning.
African American Worship (contd)
 African Americans sometimes felt unwelcome in whitedominated churches.
 In 1787, white worshippers at St. George Methodist Church in
Philadelphia asked the African Americans in the congregation
to leave the main floor and sit up in the gallery. They refused.
 Under the leadership of Richard Allen, they left and started a
new church of their own.
African American Worship (contd)
 African Americans in other cities soon followed Allen’s
example and started their own churches.
 Sixteen congregations joined in 1816 to form the African
Methodist Episcopal Church (AME).
 Members elected Allen as their first bishop and by 1831, the
AME Church included 86 churches with about 8,000
Ch 7, Section 2 - Trails to the West
In the early years of the republic, many people
traveled west over the Appalachians to settle in
the Ohio and Mississippi valleys. Later, settlers
would cross the continent to the Great Salt Lake
and Pacific Coast.
Ch 7, Section 2 - Crossing the
• John Bennett
Crossing the Appalachians
• U.S. needed space to expand.
• They were traveling because they
wanted a better future and to escape
the overcrowding along the Atlantic
Crossing the Appalachians Continued
• They were going to the area west of the Appalachians
Mountains known as trans-Appalachian.
• Traveled several main roads over the Appalachians
• Traveled through east coast cities such as Cumberland road to
the Cumberland gap.
Ch 7, Section 2 - Crossing the
• Settling the Wilderness
• Ryley Shuler
Chapter 7 Section 2 – Crossing the
Appalachians Settling The
The Transylvania Company
employed Daniel Boone, who cut
the wilderness road through the
Cumberland Gap, this road
became the main route to TransAppalachia. In 1792 75,000
pioneers settled in Kentucky
which became the official 15th
• Settlers usually moved as families
• Newcomers faced many problems such
as clearing trees and underbrush,
planting corn and other crops, and
building a log cabin
• 98,000 slaves moved west with owners
• The Northwest Ordinance forbid slavery
north of Ohio
Crossing the Appalachians
Forcing Native Americans West
By Taylor Meador
• American settlers wanted to move
west in order to find open land,
independence, and prosperity, so they
crossed over the Appalachian
Mountains to find the new land.
They didn’t want
competition in
this new land, so
the government
made deals with
the Indian chiefs
to get them to
Ch 7, Section 2 - Crossing the
• Forcing Native Americans West
Ch 7, Section 2 - Expanding Into Florida
• Spanish Occupation
• Shane Condon
Spanish Occupation
The Pinckney Treaty
Named after Thomas Pinckney, an American diplomat.
The treaty had three points
1. The southern boundary of the United States was set at 31o N
latitude, leaving Florida firmly in Spanish hands.
2. United States citizens would be allowed free use of the Mississippi
river through Spanish territory
3. Spain and the United States agreed to control the Native
Americans living within their borders and to prevent them from
attacking each other’s territory
• War hero of 1812
• He wrote to President
Monroe, “that the
possession of
Floridas would be
desirable to the
United States, and in
sixty days it will be
• He conquered
eastern Florida for
Ch 7, Section 2 - Expanding Into Florida
• The Seminole Wars
• Nicole-Anne Keyton
Chapter 7, Section 2: Expanding Into Florida –
The Seminole Wars
• Late 1818 – John Adams accused the
Spanish of break the Pinckney
Treaty – which states that Spain and
the US agree to control Native
• March 1818 – General Andrew
Americans living within their
Jackson led 2,000 men across the
borders – by failing to control
Florida border in order to stop the
Spanish attacks made on Americans. Seminoles.
• American troops burned Seminole • The Spanish then decided to get
villages, captured Spanish towns, and something for the land they lost.
claimed possession of the entire
• 1819 – Adam-Onìs Treaty: Spain
western part of the Floridas.
agreed to give up Florida to US; also
• Because of this, Congress threatened fixes boundary between Louisiana
Purchase and western Spanish
to condemn Jackson for his actions.
Ch 7, Section 2 - Bound for the Pacific
• The Oregon Country
• Victoria Gambriel
The Oregon Country
-Stretched from
northern California to
the border of Alaska.
-There were
mountains, endless
forests, and fertile
The Oregon Country
• Native American groups had lived in the
Oregon Country, and Yankee merchants
traded with them.
• In the early 1800s four nations- United
States, Great Britain, Russia, and Spainclaimed right to Oregon Country.
The Oregon Country
• The treaty called The
Convention of 1818 was
between the U.S. and Great
Britain for joint occupation.
• In the Adams-Onís treaty,
Spain and Russia gave up
• Churches sent missionaries
to convert Indians to
Ch 7, Section 2 - Bound for the Pacific
• Overland Travelers
• Katie Baldacci
Overland Travelers
• Organized wagon trains carried masses of migrants to
the west.
• Wagon trains traveled along the Oregon Trail.
• Typical family paid between $500-1000
Reasons for travel
• To obtain land which could be settled and
farmed. Or bought and sold at a profit.
• To trade goods.
• By 1845 more than 5,000 Americans had
migrated to the Oregon Country.
Ch 7, Section 2 - Bound for the Pacific
• Mormon Migrations
• Ben Chick
• Mormons went many different places
• New York-Ohio-Missouri-Illinois-Great Salt
• They fled each place because of religious
Smith was original leader but got killed
The new leader was Brigham Young
Young moved Mormons to Great Salt Lake
By 1860 there was over 30,000 in Salt Lake
and other towns in Utah territory
What They Did
• Prospered as farmers and traders
• Sold supplies to pioneers heading towards
Oregon and California
Ch 7, Section 2 - Bound for the Pacific
• Gold Rush
• Dalton Ruch
Ch 7, Section 3 –The Great Plains and
Chapter 7 Section 3
Plains Indians
Allison McLaughlin
Impact of the Horse
• The Spanish brought horses to their colonies
in Northern Mexico in the 1500’s
• Native Americans acquired horses through
trade and raids on Spanish settlement.
• By the mid 1700’s they spread to North to
Missouri Valley, the Dakotas, and Oregon
• Horses carried possessions and followed
buffalo for hunting.
• Buffalo also became important.
Ch 7, Section 3 – Plains Indians
• New Nations and New Settlers
• The Decline of Villages
• 25893
7-3 New Nations and New
The Crow already lived on the plains
The Cheyenne, Sioux, Comanche, and Blackfeet migrated to the plains after horses
made it easier to live on the move
Native American groups moved to the plains for buffalo and to avoid the westward
expanding white settlers
7-3 The Decline of Villages
 Warrior cultures grew and Indians joined war parties and rode
into battle to move up in their tribes
 Warfare, like the buffalo hunt, became a way of life
 Nomadic Indians had destructive raids on settled groups
 The Comanche drove the Apache and Navajos to New Mexico
and by the early 1800s they controlled the southern plains
 Sioux, in alliance with Arapaho and Cheyenne, controlled
northern plains
 Agricultural native groups suffered greatly
 The Mandan tribe was hit hard by European diseases
(smallpox) and their population decreases from 10,000 to
2,000 and then down to hundreds
Ch 7, Section 3 – Hispanic North
• Spanish Colonies
• Tim Jackson
Hispanic North America
Spain On Decline
the Pueblo Revolt, Spain
lost commitment to settling North
-Hostile Indians made Spain
presence difficult to maintain
-Only small towns located around
Texas and along the Rio Grande
Hispanic North America
Settlement Recovery
• Spain decided to build missions
• Started by Father Junipero Serra
• Started north of San Diego and went to San
• They created an uneasy alliance with Comanche
and Navajo Indians
• Used Indians for labor, paid them back in food
• Settlements began in New Mexico and settled in
large settlements for protection against Native
Ch 7, Section 3 – Hispanic North
• Effects of Mexican Independence\
• Amy Smith
Chapter 7, Section 3 – Hispanic
North America
Effects of Mexican Independence
 Started demands for self-government and a few
local uprisings
 Political reforms brought greater democracy
 Independent citizens were now free to elect
representatives to the new government in
Mexico City.
California, New Mexico, and Texas benefitted
from being part of an independent Mexico.
However, new economic policies widened the
gap between the rich and the poor in these
northern territories.
New Mexico’s closeness to the U.S. caused more
trade between the two, which meant that they
already had a good relationship before the
territory became part of the U.S.
Because of this increased trade, American goods
nearly replaced New Mexico’s trade with
Ch 7, Section 3 – Texas Fights for
• The start of the Colony
• Samantha Thompson
Chapter 7, section 3- Texas
fights for Independence
The start of the Colony
•Stephen Austin led American
settlers to Texas
•The settlers received
permission from the Mexican
government to create a colony
of several hundred families in
•The Mexican policy
encouraged immigration so
they were okay with it
• The colony grew majorly so
Mexico passed a law
prohibiting further
American settlement and
outlawed importation of
• By 1835, more than thirty
thousand Americans lived
in Texas
•Americans demanded more political control,
specifically self government so that the could import
slaves again
•In October of 1835 independence-minded settlers
clashed with Mexican troops, beginning Texas war for
Texas Fights for
Problems Arise
Rickey Shelton A3
Problems Arise.
• The Mexican policy encouraged immigration,
by 1830 about 7,000 Americans lived in Texas.
• By 1835 around 30,000 Americans lived in
• Mexico Passes law that prohibits American
Problems Arise (cont’d)
• Americans demanded political control.
• Americans wanted slavery under Mexican law
they argued that cotton couldn’t be grown
• Americans wanted the same rights from, gov’t
that was possessed in the U.S.
• Caused spark in Texas war for independence.
Ch 7, Section 3 – Texas Fights for
• Texas War of Independence
– Battle of the Alamo
Dakota Townsend
Battle of the Alamo
• 1833 General Antonio
Lopez de Santa Anna
took power of Mexico
and made himself
• Amer. and Mex.
wanted self-gov’t. but
Santa Anna said NO.
• October 1835 Texans
began war for
• Dictator led
thousands of men to
the Alamo to stop the
• Texans at Alamo had
less than 200 men.
• Texan leaders were
William Travis and
James Bowie
• Battle lasted 13 days.
• Texans caused 4000
Mexican casualties.
Ch 7, Section 3 – Texas Fights for
• Texas War of Independence
– Outcomes

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