GSCI101-Introduction - Jason Haraldsen`s Website

General Science 101
Physics, Chemistry, and the Human Experience
HHS 2210
Professor: Dr. Jason T. Haraldsen
Office: HHS 2104
Office Phone: 540-568-4173
Office Hours: Tuesdays/Thursdays 9:30am – 10:30pm and Tuesdays 3:30pm – 4:30pm
Wednesdays 1:00pm-2:00pm or by appointment
E-mail: [email protected]
Text: Physics and Technology for Future President, Richard Muller, ISBN 0691135045
I will also be at the Science and Math Learning Center
What are the exams Like?
Making up 70% of your overall grade, exams are critical. You
have four exams that are weighed equally.
They’re mainly multiple choice (a, b, c, d), but will also have a
few longer problems, and possibly some short answer.
The final exam will be cumulative with an emphasis on the last
series of chapters.
This isn’t the SAT’s - I don’t deduct points for wrong answers,
so make sure you put something down for everything.
Make sure you bring a pencil or pen, as well as a calculator!
Attendance is not mandatory except for exams. While attendance is otherwise not
required, it is highly recommended as there is a strong correlation between doing well on
the exams and regularly attending class.
Keep in mind that all information discussed in lecture is fair game for the exams. All
material in the textbook is fair game for the exams regardless of whether or not it is
discussed in lecture.
James Madison University has many computer labs, learn them and use them. Remember
Murphy’s Law: “Anything that can go wrong, will!” Your computer is fallible and can
easily turn on you. Therefore, know where the computer labs are located, because your
computer is not reliable and you may need them sometime. Also, backup your files on a
flash drive, CD, 3.5” Floppy, tape drive, or stone tablet (not recommended!).
Arrive on time! If you must be late, come in quietly! Don’t chat/text or disturb the class in
any ways!
Schedule of Classes and Tentative Topics
This is a general guide. Topics may shift due to time and availability.
Content and Events
Introduction, Scientific Method, Ch. 1
Ch. 1: Energy and Power and the Physics of Explosions
Ch. 2: Atoms and Heat
Ch. 3: Gravity, Force, and Space
Ch. 3: Gravity, Force, and Space
Review Chapters 1, 2, and 3 – Research Hypothesis Due
Exam #1
Ch. 4: Nuclei and Radioactivity
Assessment Day (No Class)
Ch. 5: Chain Reactions, Nuclear Reactors, and Atomic Bombs
Ch. 5: Chain Reactions, Nuclear Reactors, and Atomic Bombs
Ch. 6: Electricity and Magnetism
Ch. 6: Electricity and Magnetism
Review Chapters 4, 5, and 6
Exam #2
Planetarium (Miller Hall – Dr. Virani)
Spring Break
Spring Break
Ch. 7: Waves including UFOs, Earthquakes, and Music
Ch. 8: Light – Preliminary Research Data Due
Ch. 9: Invisible Light
Review Chapters 7, 8, 9
Exam #3
Ch. 10: Climate Change
Ch. 11: Quantum Physics
Ch. 11: Quantum Physics
Ch. 12: Relativity
Ch. 12: Relativity – Research Projects Due
Ch. 12: Relativity
Ch. 13: The Universe
Ch. 13: The Universe
Review Chapters 10, 11, 12, and 13
Final Exam - Cumulative with an emphasis on Ch. 10, 11, 12, and 13 (8:00 am)
Scientific Method
Ask a question – Observe the world and question
those observations.
Do some background research – Investigate what
could occur.
Construct a hypothesis – Determine a testable
explanation for the question you pose.
Test your hypothesis – Construct an experiment
that will test your hypothesis.
Analyze your data – Examine your results.
Report your Results – Write a report detailing the
what, why, and how your experiment worked.
Answer what you conclusions are and how they
relate to your hypothesis. It is okay to be wrong!
y  m x b
x is multiplied by the factor m.
The terms mx and b are added together.
y  c
x is multiplied by the factor 1/a or x is divided by the factor a. The terms x/a and c
are added together.
Example: You put $10,000 in a CD for one year. The APY is 3.05%. How much
interest does the bank pay you at the end of the year?
$10,0001.0305 $10,305
The bank pays you $305 in interest.
The general rule is to multiply by
n 
1 
 100
where the (+) is used if the quantity is increasing and (–) is used if the quantity is
A B
A is proportional to B. The value of A is directly
dependent on the value of B.
A is proportional to 1/B. The value of A is inversely
dependent on the value of B.
Example: The area of a circle is
A  r 2 .
The area is proportional to the radius squared.
A  r2
The proportionality constant is .
Scientific Notation & Significant Figures
This is a shorthand way of writing very large and/or very small numbers.
Example: The radius of the sun is 700,000 km.
Write as 7.0105 km.
When properly written this number will be between
1.0 and 10.0
Example: The radius of a hydrogen atom is 0.0000000000529 m. This is more easily
written as 5.2910-11 m.
Significant Figures
• My height is 6’ 5.37694365833893” (right, I know my
height to the 14th decimal place)
• The methodology of sig figs lets you report values that are
correct to the accuracy that you know
• One set of rules applies to addition and subtraction
• Another set of rules applies to multiplication and division
Significant Figures
Nonzero digits are always significant.
Final or ending zeros written to the right of the decimal point
are significant.
Zeros written to the right of the decimal point for the purpose
of spacing the decimal point are not significant.
Zero written to the left of the decimal may be significant, but
the could be insignificant space holders.
Zeros written between significant figures are significant.
Significant Figures
44.56005 s + 0.0698 s + 1130.2 s
= 1147.82985 (Not correct!)
= 1147.8 (Round to the proper decimal)
45.26 m/s x 2.41 s
= 109.0766 m (Not correct!)
= 109 m (The smallest number of sig figs!)
45.26 m/s x (2.41 s +1.1 s)
= 158.863 m (Not correct!)
= 160 m (Correct…sort of!) -> 1.6 x 102 m (correct!)
Scientific Notation
• We will have some pretty crazy-looking numbers
at certain times in this course (e.g., the Earth’s
mass is 5.98 x 1024 kg)
• Scientific notation has three advantages:
• 598000000000000000000000 can be written
much more conveniently (see above)
• 0.0000000000667 can be written much more
conveniently (as 6.67 x 10-11)
• The number of significant figures can be
determined more easily
Beware the Metric Prefixes:
yotta (Y): x 1024
centi (c): x 10-2
zetta (Z): x 1021
milli (m): x 10-3
exa (E): x 1018
micro (m): x 10-6
peta (P): x 1015
nano (n): x 10-9
tera (T): x 1012
pico (p): x 10-12
giga (G): x 109
femto (f): x 10-15
mega (M): x 106
atto (a): x 10-18
kilo (k): x 103
zepto (z): x 10-21
yocto (y): x 10-24
Importance of Units
Dimensions are basic types of quantities that can be measured or computed.
Examples are length, time, mass, electric current, and temperature.
A unit is a standard amount of a dimensional quantity. There is a need for a
system of units. SI units will be used throughout this class.
The quantities in this column are
based on an agreed upon standard.
A derived unit is composed of combinations of base units.
Example: The SI unit of energy is the joule.
1 joule = 1 kg m2/sec2
Derived unit
Base units
Units can be freely converted from one to another. Examples:
12 inches = 1 foot
1 inch = 2.54 cm
Approximations are sometimes need in everyday life.
It depends on how accurate you need to know
Bowling Ball vs Beach Ball
Problem Solving Techniques
•Read the problem thoroughly.
•Draw a picture.
•Label the picture with the given information.
•What is unknown?
•What physical principles apply?
•Are their multiple steps needed?
•Work symbolically! It is easier to catch mistakes.
•Calculate the end result. Don’t forget units!
•Check your answer for reasonableness.
Example Problems
An asteroid is moving at approximately 25 km/s. Express in m/s and mile/hr.
How many m in km?
1000 m = 1 km
Therefore, 25 km/s *(1000m/1km) =
25000 m/s or 2.5 x 104 m/s
How many miles in km?
0.621371 miles = 1 km
How many seconds in hour?
3600 s = 1 hr
25 km/s * (0.62371 miles/ 1 km) * (3600 s/1hr) = 56133 mph = 5.6 x 104 mph

similar documents