Lifetime Health Ch 18

Report
Chapter 18
Reproduction,
Pregnancy,
and
Development
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
ANSWERS
1. FALSE—sperm are made in
the testes
2. TRUE
3. FALSE—most cases of
testicular cancer occur
among men aged 15-35.
4. FALSE—testosterone is the
primary hormone in males.
5. TRUE
6. TRUE
7. FALSE—women typically
only produce & release one
mature egg each month.
8. TRUE
9. TRUE
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
Chapter 18
Reproduction,
Pregnancy,
and
Development
Contents
• Section 1 Male Reproductive System
• Section 2 Female Reproductive System
• Section 3 Pregnancy and Early Development
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
Chapter 18
Reproduction, Pregnancy, and
Development
Section 1
Male Reproductive System
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
Chapter 18
Section 1 Male Reproductive System
Objectives
1. State the role of the male reproductive
system.
2. Describe the function of each of the organs
of the male reproductive system.
3. Summarize four problems that can occur
with the male reproductive system.
4. List five things a male can do to keep his
reproductive system healthy.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
Chapter 18
Section 1 Male Reproductive System
What the Male Reproductive System Does
1. Produce sperm
2. Deliver sperm to the female reproductive system
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
Chapter 18
Section 1 Male Reproductive System
VOCABULARY:
Sperm:
• sex cells produced in the testes
• needed to fertilize an egg
Fertilization:
• the process by which a sperm and an egg and
their genetic material join to create a new human
life.
Testes (testicles):
• male reproductive organs
• produce sperm and testosterone
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
Chapter 18
Section 1 Male Reproductive System
VOCABULARY:
Testosterone:
• the major male sex hormone
• regulates body changes during puberty
• influences sperm production
Scrotum:
• a sac containing the testes
• muscles in the scrotum move the testes closer to
or further from the body to regulate temperature
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
Chapter 18
Section 1 Male Reproductive System
VOCABULARY:
Penis:
• urine exits the body through the penis via the urethra
• delivers sperm to the female reproductive system
• sperm from the testes travel through the epididymis
and the vas deferens
• in the vas deferens, sperm mixed with fluids to make
semen
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
Chapter 18
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
Chapter 18
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
Chapter 18
Section 1 Male Reproductive System
Keeping the Male Reproductive System Healthy
• Know the symptoms of testicular cancer. Look for:
• unusual lumps
• swelling
• feeling of heaviness, pain or discomfort in your
scrotum or abdomen
• If you notice any of these symptoms, tell your parents
and see a doctor right away.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
Chapter 18
Reproduction, Pregnancy, and
Development
Section 2
Female Reproductive System
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
Chapter 18
Section 2 Female Reproductive
System
Objectives
1. State the role of the female reproductive system.
2. Describe the function of each of the organs of the
female reproductive system.
3. Describe the changes in the body during the
menstrual cycle.
4. Summarize four problems that can occur with the
female reproductive system.
5. List five things a female can do to keep her
reproductive system healthy.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
Chapter 18
Section 2 Female Reproductive
System
What the Female Reproductive System Does
1. Produce eggs
2. Provide a place to support and nourish a
developing baby
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
Chapter 18
Section 2 Female Reproductive
System
VOCABULARY:
Ovaries:
• female reproductive organs that produce:
• EGGS
• the hormones ESTROGEN and PROGESTERONE
• Estrogen regulates body changes during puberty.
• Estrogen and progesterone are involved in:
• regulating monthly cycles
• the changes that take place in the body during
pregnancy
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
Chapter 18
Section 2 Female Reproductive
System
VOCABULARY:
Eggs (ova):
• Sex cells produced by the female reproductive
organs, called ovaries.
• Eggs are already formed in a female’s ovaries when
she is born.
• Females are born with all of the eggs they will ever
have. They do not make more.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
Chapter 18
Section 2 Female Reproductive
System
VOCABULARY:
Vagina:
• female reproductive organ that connects the
outside of the body to the uterus
• receives sperm during reproduction
• the part of the birth canal through which a baby is
delivered
Urethra:
• carries urine out of the body from the bladder
• located above and separate from the vagina
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
Chapter 18
Section 2 Female Reproductive
System
VOCABULARY:
Uterus:
• provides a place to support a developing baby
• eggs travel from the ovaries to the uterus through
the fallopian tubes
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
Chapter 18
Section 2 Female Reproductive
System
How the Menstrual Cycle Works
• Prior to ovulation, the lining of the uterus thickens to
prepare to support a growing human during
pregnancy.
• Menstruation:
• the breakdown and discharge of the uterine lining
out of the vagina.
• occurs if a released egg is not fertilized
• lasts on average 3 to 7 days
• average menstrual cycle lasts 28 days
• Ovulation usually occurs on the 14th day
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
Keeping your reproductive system healthy
BOYS
GIRLS
Chapter 18
Section 2 Female Reproductive
System
Keeping the Female Reproductive System Healthy
• Know the signs of breast cancer.
• Be aware of any unusual lumps in your breasts.
• If you detect any lumps, tell your parents and see a
doctor right away.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
Chapter 18
Reproduction, Pregnancy, and
Development
Section 3
Pregnancy and Early Development
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
Chapter 18
Section 3 Pregnancy and Early
Development
Objectives
1. Describe how a human life begins.
2. Summarize how a baby develops during the three
trimesters of pregnancy.
3. Identify five things a couple can do to stay healthy
before and during pregnancy.
4. Summarize four problems that can occur during
pregnancy.
5. Describe the stages of childbirth.
6. List three changes that occur during early
childhood development.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
Chapter 18
Section 3 Pregnancy and Early
Development
How Life Begins
• Sexual intercourse:
• The reproductive process in which the penis is
inserted into the vagina and through which a
new human life may begin.
• Inside the vagina, sperm travel through the
cervix, into the uterus and then the fallopian
tubes, where fertilization normally occurs.
• After fertilization, the zygote travels to the
uterus and embeds in the uterine wall.
• The developing human in the first 8 weeks of
development is called an embryo.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
Chapter 18
Section 3 Pregnancy and Early
Development
How a Baby Develops
PLACENTA:
• an organ that develops inside the uterus
• provides a developing baby with nutrients and
removes waste
UMBILICAL CORD:
• connects the embryo to the placenta
• Carries blood supply and nutrients to the baby
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
Chapter 18
Section 3 Pregnancy and Early
Development
How a Baby Develops (1st trimester)
• Embryo grows rapidly.
• By the 4th week:
• heart starts beating
• arm and leg buds appear
• eyes and brain start to develop
• By the end of the first trimester, all the major body
parts and organs have formed.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
Chapter 18
Section 3 Pregnancy and Early
Development
How a Baby Develops (2nd trimester)
• Beyond the first trimester, the developing baby is
called a fetus.
• In the second trimester, the organs continue to
develop.
• By 4 months, the mother can feel the fetus move or
kick.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
Chapter 18
Section 3 Pregnancy and Early
Development
How a Baby Develops (3rd trimester)
• By the end of the second trimester:
• facial features are apparent
• you can see if the fetus is male or female.
• In the third trimester, the fetus gains most of its
weight.
• At the end of 9 months, the baby is born.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
Chapter 18
Section 3 Pregnancy and Early
Development
Keeping Healthy Before and During Pregnancy
1. Avoid alcohol, tobacco, caffeine, and other
drugs. All of these will adversely affect the
developing baby.
2. Maintain a nutritious diet.
3. Take prenatal vitamins prescribed by a doctor.
4. Get regular, moderate amounts of exercise.
5. Have medical conditions evaluated by a
doctor.
6. Schedule prenatal care visits throughout the
pregnancy.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
Chapter 18
Section 3 Pregnancy and Early
Development
Early Child Development
• The first year is the fastest period of physical growth
after birth.
• By the end of one year, most babies begin walking
and talking.
• In the second and third years, babies become more
socially independent, may have temper tantrums,
and become toilet trained.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
End of Chapter 18
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

similar documents