Data Centre Metrics and Design Standards

Report
Data Centre Metrics and Design Standards
Data Centre Metrics and Design Standards
Presented by
Lee Smith (CDCE® ATD®)
Director: Data Centre Services & Training
© 2014 - Dee Smith and Associates
No duplication without written permission
Data Centre Metrics and Design Standards
About us
Dee Smith Consulting
Lee Smith (CDCE® ATD®)
• Founded in 2010
• Provides IT consulting, training and other
professional services to the African market
• First company in SA to launch data centre
design and management training courses
• Now offering
• Other services:
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Turnkey projects
Data centre assessments and
Certification management
Data centre migration
Digital security
In IT since 1989
First Certified Data Centre Expert® in Africa
Only CDCE® instructor in Africa
Uptime Institute Accredited Tier Designer®
Certified TIA-942 Design Consultant®
Independent Data Centre Consultant
Panel judge for Brill Awards for Efficient IT
Passionate about all matters data centre
• www.deesmith.co.za
© 2014 - Dee Smith and Associates
No duplication without written permission
Data Centre Metrics and Design Standards
Agenda
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Why are data centre metrics necessary?
Some metrics in use today
Exploring PUETM
Data Centre Design Principles and Standards
Approaching and managing your metrics & standards
Conclusion and Questions
© 2014 - Dee Smith and Associates
No duplication without written permission
Data Centre Metrics and Design Standards
Why are data centre metrics necessary?
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Metrics are an essential tool for operational improvement
Better understanding of sustainability & efficiency in your data centre
Provides the ability to measure change (good or bad)
Make better informed decisions for new data centre
deployments/refurbishments
Image: © Greenbly.com, LLC., Spokane, WA
• Increased efficiency can improve the triple bottom line
• Used for comparison (not in the first year)
• No measurement/metrics  No baseline  No analysis 
No understanding  No improvement  Stagnation
© 2014 - Dee Smith and Associates
No duplication without written permission
Data Centre Metrics and Design Standards
Some data centre metrics in use today
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PUETM
CUETM
WUETM
ERFTM
DCePTM
DCcETM
– Power Usage Effectiveness
Sustainability
– Carbon Usage Effectiveness
(xUE) Metrics
– Water Usage Effectiveness
– Energy Reuse Factor
– Data Centre energy Productivity Data Centre
– Data Centre compute Efficiency Productivity
© 2014 - Dee Smith and Associates
No duplication without written permission
Data Centre Metrics and Design Standards
PUETM – Power Usage Effectiveness
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Introduced by The Green Grid (TGG) in 2007
Measures infrastructure energy efficiency
Helps to improve & report energy efficiency
Globally adopted and industry-preferred
Different calculation levels: PUE1, PUE2, PUE3
TGG and AHSRAE joint publication  March 2014
Total Facility Energy
PUE =
IT Equipment Energy
(Dedicated Building)
PUE (Mixed Use Facility)
pPUETM: Partial PUE
Energy dedicated solely to the data centre
© 2014 - Dee Smith and Associates
No duplication without written permission
Data Centre Metrics and Design Standards
CUETM – Carbon Usage Effectiveness
• Introduced by The Green Grid (TGG) in 2011
• The 2nd metric from TGG in the xUE family
• Measures CO2 (Greenhouse Gas) emissions associated
with the data centre
• Why? Operational carbon usage has an impact
• How? Factors affect design, location & operation
Source: ebay
CUE =
Total CO2 emissions caused by Total Data Centre Energy
IT Equipment Energy
CO2 emitted (kgCO2eq)
CEF (kgCO2eq/kWh)
Unit
of Energy
[Carbon Emission
Factor] (kWh)
x
Total Data Centre Energy
PUE Energy
IT Equipment
© 2014 - Dee Smith and Associates
No duplication without written permission
Data Centre Metrics and Design Standards
WUETM – Water Usage Effectiveness
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Introduced by The Green Grid (TGG) in 2011
The 3rd metric from TGG in the xUE family
Measures water usage in the data centre
Why? Water usage also has an impact
How? Factors affect design, location & operation
WUEsite =
WUEsource =
Annual Site Water Usage
IT Equipment Energy
Annual Site Water Usage + Annual Source Energy Water Usage
IT Equipment Energy
© 2014 - Dee Smith and Associates
No duplication without written permission
Data Centre Metrics and Design Standards
ERFTM – Energy Reuse Factor
• Introduced by The Green Grid (TGG)
• The portion of energy exported for reuse outside of the
data centre
• Examples for correct energy reuse:
– Warm air (waste heat) reuse elsewhere on campus or in the
neighbourhood
– Heat to run absorption chillier not used for the data centre
ERF =
Energy Reused
Total Energy Consumed
Measured as it leaves the data centre control volume
Energy dedicated solely for the data centre
© 2014 - Dee Smith and Associates
No duplication without written permission
Data Centre Metrics and Design Standards
DCePTM – Data Centre energy Productivity
• Introduced by The Green Grid (TGG)
• Allows each user to define its meaningful work produced
by/in a data centre based on the energy consumed
– Retail institution uses number/value of sales
– Financial institution uses number of transactions completed
– Search company uses number of searches completed
• Only applicable to improvements in a single data centre
DCeP =
Useful Work Produced
Total Energy Consumed
Defined as applicable to user’s business
Energy dedicated solely for the data centre
© 2014 - Dee Smith and Associates
No duplication without written permission
Data Centre Metrics and Design Standards
PUETM: Measuring the data points
Total Data Centre Facility Energy
[measured at facility’s utility meter(s)]
Power
Switchgear, UPS,
Battery backup, etc.
Cooling
Chillers, CRACs,
Pumps, etc.
IT Equipment Energy
[best measured at output of computer room PDUs]
IT Load
Servers, Storage, Telecoms equipment, etc.
BUILDING LOAD
Demand from the Grid
Source: The Green Grid (2014)
Total Facility Energy
PUE = IT Equipment Energy
Energy dedicated solely for the data centre
Energy dedicated only for IT Equipment to manage,
process, store, route data in the compute space
PUE cannot be less than 1
© 2014 - Dee Smith and Associates
No duplication without written permission
For illustration purposes only
Required
Measurement
L1 L2 L3
Level 1 (PUE1)
L1 Basic
Level 2 (PUE2)
L2 Intermediate
Level 3 (PUE3)
L3 Advanced
Total Facility
Energy
Utility Input
Utility Input
Utility Input
IT Equipment
Energy
UPS Outputs
(kWh)
PDU Outputs
(kWh)
IT Equipment
Input
[Rack PDU] (kWh)
Measurement
Interval
Monthly /
Weekly
Daily /
Hourly
Substation 15KV
480V / 277V
L3
BMS
Facilit
y
Power
Glycol
Pumps
L3
CRAC
Units
L3
L3
BMS
Facilit
y
Power
Maintenance Bypass 2500A, 480V
PDU
100
KVA
PDU
100
KVA
PDU
100
KVA
PDU
100
KVA
PDU
100
KVA
PDU
100
KVA
PDU
100
KVA
PDU
100
KVA
PDU
100
KVA
PDU
100
KVA
PDU
100
KVA
PDU
100
KVA
PDU
100
KVA
PDU
100
KVA
L2
L2
L2
L2
L2
L2
L2
L2
L2
L2
L2
L2
L2
L2
L3
L3
L3
L3
L3
L3
L3
L3
L3
L3
L3
L3
L3
L3
KVM / Console
Continuous
(15 mins or less)
L3
Servers
Daily /
Hourly
Panel
800A, 480V
CRAC
Units
L3
Switches
IT Equipment
Input
[Rack PDU] (kWh)
Glycol
Pumps
L1
L3
Routers
PDU Outputs
(kWh)
L3
Printers
Measurement
Monthly /
Interval
Weekly
Source: The Green Grid (2014)
PDU Outputs
UPS Inputs /
Outputs
Mechanical Inputs
Mechanical
Equipment
PCs & Workstations
UPS Outputs
(kWh)
UPS inputs/
Outputs
Mechanical Inputs
L1
L1
L1
UPS
A-side
400kW
500KVA
Mechanical
Equipment
Encryption
IT Equipment
Energy
Level 3 (PUE3)
L3 Advanced
UPS
A-side
400kW
500KVA
UPS
A-side
400kW
500KVA
Mechanical
Switchgear
Storage
Total Facility
Energy
Level 2 (PUE2)
L2 Intermediate
L2
Mechanical
Switchgear
Backup Devices
Level 1 (PUE1)
L1 Basic
L2
L2
L2
L2
Standby Switchboard
2500A, 480V
UPS
B-side
320kW
400KVA
ATS
ATS
L2
Continuous
(15 mins or less)
Additional recommended
Generator Switchgear
ATS
L2
Measurement
Backup Gens
(3 x 2MW)
Utility
Telco
Data Centre Metrics and Design Standards
PUE: Critical Power-Path measurement points
Redundant feeds for
IT Equipment
Additional measurement points provide further insight into energy efficiency of the infrastructure
© 2014 - Dee Smith and Associates
No duplication without written permission
Data Centre Metrics and Design Standards
Some basic principles
1. Classify the subcomponents correctly
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Total Facility Energy
IT Equipment energy
2. If the NOC supports the data centre, include it
3. Use a consistent method to obtain data inputs
4. Most useful data are obtained when equipment is grouped by
system (especially at L3)
5. Measure the energy – kWh (not KVA or kW)
6. Use actual energy measurements (i.e. no estimations)
7. Don’t measure during maintenance or operational anomalies
8. Best practice: Real-time and automated (<= 15 mins.)
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Measure IT equipment energy as close to the IT kit as possible
© 2014 - Dee Smith and Associates
No duplication without written permission
Data Centre Metrics and Design Standards
How to get this going
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Include metrics during the planning and design phases
Obtain executive support/commitment
Select one metric to begin with (it’s usually PUE)
Determine whether you can collect the data
Define the method for consistent data capture
Put the plan into action and evaluate data collection
Refine if required
To publish the results you’ll require data for a full year
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Use the average PUE over the full year when reporting a PUE value
© 2014 - Dee Smith and Associates
No duplication without written permission
Data Centre Metrics and Design Standards
Efficiency improvements for data centres
• Pick the low-hanging fruit
– Hot-aisle; Cold-aisle (at a minimum)
– Blanking plates
– Close those holes
– Neat cabling
– Remove all unwanted cabling
• Good airflow management principles
– Isolate the cold and hot air (containment, plastic curtains, etc.)
– Apply ASHRAE’s thermal recommendations
– Economised cooling; VFD/EC fans
– New and more efficient technology requires a solid business case
• Merge Facilities with IT so they report to the same CIO/CTO
© 2014 - Dee Smith and Associates
No duplication without written permission
Data Centre Metrics and Design Standards
Efficiency improvements for IT
• Don’t just focus on the data centre facility
– Efficiency requires a holistic approach which includes IT
• Target servers running less than 5% utilisation
– Thereafter go for servers with less than 20% utilisation
• Remove comatose/zombie servers
– Barclays
Removed almost 15,000 servers (globally)
Equivalent to filling up almost 600 server racks
Freed up 20,000 network ports and 3,000 SAN ports
Eliminated an estimated 2.5MW of power usage
US$10M total savings over the 2-year program
• “The most efficient data centre is the one you never build”
© 2014 - Dee Smith and Associates
No duplication without written permission
Data Centre Metrics and Design Standards
Food for thought
• The cost of utilities is increasing
• Efficiency improvement leads to improved TCO and ROI
– No solid business case  no investment in efficiency
• Be realistic in your energy efficiency expectations
• xUE-family does not measure digital output efficiency
– For this there is DCeP (i.e. How well is the data centre actually performing?)
• Metrics are only useful if you do something with the data
• Holistic approach
– From “chip to chiller” (Facilities and IT)
– Continuous operational improvement, leadership and executive support
• Fundamentally it’s management challenge – not technology
© 2014 - Dee Smith and Associates
No duplication without written permission
Data Centre Metrics and Design Standards
Data Centre Design Principles and Standards
The Bad News…
There is NO world-wide accredited/official
Data Centre Design Standard
© 2014 - Dee Smith and Associates
No duplication without written permission
Data Centre Metrics and Design Standards
The Good News…
• Best practices / “semi-standards”
o Uptime Institute guidelines
o ANSI/TIA-942
o ANSI/BICSI-002
o Singapore Standard SS507 (BC/DR)
o ISO-24762 (International guideline for BC/DR)
o European Code of Conduct (Best practices focused more on Green)
• Continued refinement/improvement of existing publications
• Possibility of new publications/standards in future
All logos are trademarks of their respective organisations
© 2014 - Dee Smith and Associates
No duplication without written permission
Data Centre Metrics and Design Standards
What Standards/Guidelines are there?
BICSI-002
Origin
Official Standard
Ownership
Detailed Specs
Publicly
Available
Type of
Compliance
Main coverage
European
code of
Conduct
ISO 24762
TIA-942
Uptime
Institute
USA
Europe
International
USA
USA
Yes
(ANSI)
No
Yes
(ANSI)
No
(EN 50600)
Yes
(ISO)
(Reputational)
Public
Public
Public
Public
Private
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Class
(F0 - F4)
Implement /
Endorse
Pass /
Fail
Rated/Rating
(1, 2, 3, 4)
Tier
(I, II, III, IV)
Telecoms
Electrical
Architectural
Mechanical
Fire
Safety
Architectural
Mech-Elec
Data floor
Racks
IT kit
A few more
Telecoms
Electrical
Architectural
Mechanical
Process
Telecoms
Electrical
Architectural
Mechanical
Fire
Safety
Electrical
Mechanical
Other
considerations
in “Operational
Sustainability”
(TUI)
© 2014 - Dee Smith and Associates
No duplication without written permission
Data Centre Metrics and Design Standards
Prevalent in RSA market
Uptime Institute Tier Topology
TIA-942 (2014)
• Outcomes-based design requirements
• Design levels:
Tier-I, II, III, IV
• TCDD – Tier Certification of Design
Documentation (valid for 24 months)
• TCCF – Tier Certification of Constructed
Facility (compulsory since January 2014)
• Conducted only by The Uptime Institute
• Adaptations as and when published by TUI
• Infrequent reviews
• More prescriptive in design requirements
• Design levels:
Rated-1, 2, 3, 4
• Design Validation with Corrective Action
Report (CAR)
• Final onsite certification audit (compulsory)
• Recertification Audit every third year
• Conducted by External Auditor
– EPI are the global leaders in TIA-942 audits
• Formal review every 5 years
© 2014 - Dee Smith and Associates
No duplication without written permission
Data Centre Metrics and Design Standards
Redundancy Design – high level only
TIA-942: Rated-1 (Basic)
TUI: Tier-I (Basic Capacity)
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Single path for power, cooling and network
distribution.
No redundant components
Generator must only support UPS.
Mech. load support not required
Single distribution path
Non-redundant capacity components
– Critical environment power
– Cooling Systems
TUI not able to provide example schematic for this presentation
Source: EPI
*Example only!
Does not indicate
minimum or
only option
© 2014 - Dee Smith and Associates
No duplication without written permission
Data Centre Metrics and Design Standards
Redundancy Design – high level only
TIA-942: Rated-2 (Redundant)
TUI: Tier-II (Redundant Components)
• Single path for power, cooling and network
distribution.
• Redundant components
• Generator config. install is typically N+1
• Single distribution path
• Redundant capacity components (N + R)
– Only N is required by the Standard
– Engine Generator
– UPS Modules
– IT & UPS cooling
TUI not able to provide example schematic for this presentation
Source: EPI
*Example only!
Does not indicate
minimum or
only option
© 2014 - Dee Smith and Associates
No duplication without written permission
Data Centre Metrics and Design Standards
Redundancy Design – high level only
TIA-942: Rated-3 (Concurrently Maintainable)
TUI: Tier-III (Concurrently Maintainable)
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Multiple power, cooling and network distribution
paths – only one path is active.
Redundant components
Concurrently Maintainable (CM)
Compartmentalised
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Redundant capacity components and
independent distribution paths
Elements of a distribution path may be inactive
No runtime limits on engine-generator capacity
at design load
Assumes dual-corded IT equipment
TUI not able to provide example schematic for this presentation
Source: EPI
*Example only!
Does not indicate
minimum or
only option
© 2014 - Dee Smith and Associates
No duplication without written permission
Data Centre Metrics and Design Standards
Redundancy – high level only
TIA-942: Rated-4 (Fault Tolerant)
TUI: Tier-IV (Fault Tolerant)
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Multiple power, cooling and network distribution
paths (at least two paths active)
2N ; no SPoFs along essential load
Cooling as per ASHRAE limits
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Redundant active distribution paths and capacity
components
Compartmentalisation (components & paths)
“N” after any failure (at any point in the system)
– during single failure
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– Single event with consequential impact (i.e. loss of DB
TUIboard)
not able to provide example schematic for this presentation
Gens sized for total building load
– 2N redundancy
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Automated/Autonomous failure response
Source: EPI
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No runtime limits on gen capacity at design load
Continuous cooling critical IT and UPS systems
Autonomous response to failure
*Example only!
Does not indicate
minimum or
only option
© 2014 - Dee Smith and Associates
No duplication without written permission
Data Centre Metrics and Design Standards
Commonalities of TUI Design Topology and TIA-942
• Both are vendor neutral/agnostic
• You don’t need two separate power feed-paths onto your site
• Data centres can be designed and built against measurable
redundancy criteria
– TUI is outcomes based ; TIA is more prescriptive
• Certification of the facility itself is the recognised objective
– A design certification/validation does stand on its own
• Certifications:
Both do it commercially
– TUI for itself ; EPI - in terms of TIA-942
– Although TIA-942 is a non-profit organization, EPI is a commercial venture
• Both have a beneficial impact in the data centre industry
• Emphasis on operational sustainability is also prevalent
– TUI more so than TIA
© 2014 - Dee Smith and Associates
No duplication without written permission
Data Centre Metrics and Design Standards
Approaching and managing your certification standard
• Understand why your want to apply a data centre
standard/guideline
– Market demand (i.e. RFx from potential client)
– Independently ensure that data centre complies with requirements
– Marketing and advertising (competitive advantage or at least “equality”
with competitors)
• TUI certified data centres are much more prevalent in
South Africa
• Processes to obtain certification requires sustained
commitment
• No matter which certification you select (if any):
– Your team must have experience and understanding in this regard
– You need people who understand the processes involved
– Once you begin, you must complete it or you’ll have nothing to show
• The local AHJ always overrules any standard/guideline
© 2014 - Dee Smith and Associates
No duplication without written permission
Data Centre Metrics and Design Standards
Food for thought
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Understand the decision drivers ITO the standard/guideline selected
Your data centre must live up to your design and efficiency claims
Design philosophy is to prevent failure and SPoFs anyway
Standards/guidelines have the same objective - availability
Design/Build is one aspect
– Data Centre management is equally important
• PUE is the widest used/reported metric (but usually unaudited)
• Metrics determine opportunities to improve operational efficiency
• Obtaining metrics is the initial step
– Improving on it is the objective
• Executive sponsorship and buy-in is critical for success
© 2014 - Dee Smith and Associates
No duplication without written permission
Data Centre Metrics and Design Standards
Thank you!
Questions?
© 2014 - Dee Smith and Associates
No duplication without written permission
Lee Smith (CDCE® ATD®)
Director: Data Centre Services & Training
[email protected]
www.deesmith.co.za
@the_dc_guy

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